Andrew Jackson Donelson
|Andrew Jackson Donelson|
|2nd United States Envoy to Prussia|
July 18, 1846 – November 2, 1849
|President||James K. Polk
|Preceded by||Henry Wheaton|
|Succeeded by||Edward A. Hannegan|
|6th United States Chargé d'Affaires in Texas|
November 29, 1844 – August 9, 1845
James K. Polk
|Preceded by||Tilghman Howard|
|Succeeded by||Texas annexed by the United States|
August 25, 1799|
Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.
|Died||June 26, 1871
Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
|Know Nothing (1856)
Constitutional Union (1860)
|Spouse(s)||Emily Donelson (1824–1836)
Elizabeth Martin Randolph (1841–1871)
|Relations||Daniel Smith Donelson (brother)|
|Alma mater||United States Military Academy
Andrew Jackson Donelson (August 25, 1799 – June 26, 1871) was an American diplomat and the Know Nothing nominee for Vice President of the United States in 1856 on a ticket with former President Millard Fillmore.
Life and career
One of the three sons of Samuel and Mary Donelson, Andrew Jackson Donelson was born in Nashville, Tennessee. His younger brother, Daniel Smith Donelson, was the Confederate brigadier general after whom Fort Donelson was named. Donelson's father died when Donelson was about five. When his mother remarried, Donelson moved to The Hermitage, the home of his aunt, Rachel Donelson Jackson, and her husband, Donelson's namesake, future President of the United States Andrew Jackson. Rachel and Andrew Jackson adopted all three Donelson sons, including Andrew.
Donelson attended Cumberland College in Nashville and then joined the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, graduating second in his class in 1820. His two years as an officer in the United States Army were spent as aide-de-camp to Andrew Jackson, by then a major general, as Jackson campaigned against the Seminoles in Florida. With the campaign over, Donelson resigned his commission and studied law at Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky. A year later, he started practicing law in Nashville and, less than a year after that, had married his first cousin, Emily Tennessee Donelson.
Donelson assisted his uncle during the 1824 and 1828 presidential campaigns and, in 1829, he became Jackson's private secretary when his uncle was inaugurated as President of the United States. His wife Emily served as White House hostess and unofficial First Lady of the United States due to Rachel Jackson's death in December, 1828. Donelson remained Jackson's private secretary throughout his administration. During his stay in Washington, Donelson had his new home, Poplar Grove (later renamed Tulip Grove), constructed on the land he had inherited from his father, which was adjacent to the Hermitage.
In 1836, Tulip Grove was completed. Shortly afterward Emily died of tuberculosis, leaving four young children. Donelson moved back to Nashville after Jackson's retirement the following year, where he helped Jackson sustain the Democratic party in a variety of ways for the next seven years. These services included writing newspaper editorials defending Democratic principles and helping Democratic candidates campaign for state, local, and national offices. In 1841, Donelson married another cousin, Elizabeth (Martin) Randolph, with whom he would have eight more children. Elizabeth Martin Randolph was a widow of Meriwether Lewis Randolph, a son of Martha Jefferson Randolph, and a grandson of Thomas Jefferson).
In 1844, Donelson was instrumental in helping James K. Polk win the Democratic presidential nomination over Martin Van Buren and other more notable candidates. President John Tyler appointed Donelson Chargé d’Affaires of the United States mission to the Republic of Texas, probably hoping that Jackson's nephew would help persuade former Tennessee politician Sam Houston to endorse the United States' annexation of Texas. Donelson was successful in this endeavor, and Texas joined the United States on December 29, 1845. He was then made Minister to Prussia in 1846, a position he would hold until President Polk's Democratic administration was replaced by the Whig administration of Zachary Taylor in 1849 (Donelson's constant complaining about his personal finances and desire for a higher salary probably had more to do with the change than partisan differences.). Between September 1848 and November 1849, during the time of the Frankfurt Parliament, he was the U.S. envoy to the short-lived revolutionary government of Germany in Frankfurt.
In 1851, Donelson became the editor of the Washington Union, a Democratic newspaper. However, as sectionalism became the dominant issue of American politics, Donelson became unpopular with several factions within the Democratic party, who forced him out in 1852. In 1856, Donelson was nominated as the running mate of former President Millard Fillmore on the American Party ticket. Fillmore and Donelson managed to garner only 8 electoral votes from Maryland.
In 1858, Donelson sold Tulip Grove and moved to Memphis, Tennessee. He participated primarily in local politics there, although he was a delegate to the Constitutional Union party's national nominating convention, which nominated his old Tennessee nemesis, John Bell, as its presidential candidate. During the Civil War, Donelson was harassed by both sides of the conflict. He also lost two of his sons in the war. During Reconstruction, he split time between his Memphis home and his plantation in Bolivar County, Mississippi. In his correspondence with his wife, he groused about the need to pay wages to African American workers who had once been slaves. He died at the Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tennessee and is buried in Elmwood Cemetery.
- Mark R. Cheathem, Old Hickory's Nephew: The Political and Private Struggles of Andrew Jackson Donelson (LSU Press, 2007).
- "Andrew Jackson Donelson's Home in Bolivar County, Mississippi". Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics blog. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- "The History". Historic Rock Castle. Retrieved February 20, 2006.
- Ellis, Hugo (2001-06-06). "Donelson, Andrew Jackson". Handbook of Texas Online. The Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
- U.S. Department of State: Chiefs of Mission to Texas
- Andrew Jackson Donelson: Jackson's Confidant and Political Heir
- Andrew Jackson Donelson at Find A Grave
- "Donelson, Andrew Jackson". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900.
|Chargé d’Affaires of U.S. Mission to Texas
November 29, 1844 – August 9, 1845
|United States Envoy to Berlin
July 18, 1846 – November 2, 1849
Edward A. Hannegan
|Party political offices|
|American Party nominee for
Vice President of the United States