Andrew Moray

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Andrew Moray
Personal details
BornScotland, exact location of birth is not known
Cause of deathDue to wounds received at the Battle of Stirling Bridge
ChildrenSir Andrew Murray
Parent(s)Sir Andrew Moray of Petty
an unnamed daughter of John Comyn I of Badenoch
RelativesDavid Moray (uncle)
OccupationMilitary leader
Military service
AllegianceKingdom of Scotland
Years of service1297
Battles/warsFirst War of Scottish Independence:

Andrew Moray (Anglo-Norman: Andreu de Moray; Latin: Andreas de Moravia), also known as Andrew de Moray, Andrew of Moray, or Andrew Murray, was an esquire,[1] who became one of Scotland's war-leaders during the First Scottish War of Independence. He initially raised a small band of supporters at Avoch Castle in early summer 1297 to fight King Edward I of England, and soon had successfully regained control of north Scotland for the Scots king, John Balliol. He subsequently merged his army with that of William Wallace, and jointly led the combined army to victory at the Battle of Stirling Bridge on 11 September 1297. Moray was mortally wounded in the fighting at Stirling, dying at an unknown date and place that year.


Andrew Moray the younger of Petty was born late in the second half of the 13th century.[2] The date and place is unknown. Andrew's father was Sir Andrew Moray of Petty, Justiciar of Scotia (1289?–1296),[3] a younger son of Walter Moray of Petty, Justiciar of Lothian (1255?–1257), and his wife, a member of the Olifard family and the heiress of Bothwell.[4] Andrew Moray the younger's mother was the anonymous fourth daughter of John Comyn I of Badenoch.[5]

Nothing is known of the formative years of Andrew Moray the younger of Petty's life. Similarly to other members of his social class, he likely embarked on the training for knighthood. This would have entailed him joining the household of a mature knight outwith his family, where he would undergo training in horsemanship and the use of weapons.

The Morays of Petty’s place in Scottish society[edit]

The Morays of Petty were a wealthy and politically influential baronial family whose power base was located in the province of Moray in north-east Scotland. The family traced their origins to Freskin of Uphall, in Lothian, who was granted lands in the Laich of Moray during the 12th-century reign of King David I of Scotland. [6] Freskin built a motte-and-bailey castle on these lands at Duffus on the north shore of Loch Spynie (this sea-loch was almost completely drained in the 18th and 19th centuries to bring hundreds of acres of land into agricultural use).

Duffus Castle. The stone-built bailey is a 14th-century addition to the site of Freskin's castle.

At the outbreak of the Scottish Wars of Independence the Moray family was well established in north and south Scotland. Sir Andrew Moray, the head of the north branch of the family, held the lordship of Petty,[7] which was controlled from Hallhill manor on the south bank of the Moray Firth; the lordship of Avoch in the Black Isle,[7] controlled from Avoch Castle situated to the east of Inverness and overlooking the Moray Firth; and the lordship of Boharm[7] in Banffshire, controlled from Gauldwell Castle. Amongst Sir Andrew's estates at Petty were lands at Alturile, Brachlie and Croy, and at Boharm were lands at Arndilly and Botriphnie.[8] Andrew Moray the younger was heir to these lands and castles.[9]

The Morays of Petty's wealth was accompanied by significant political influence. Sir Andrew acted from 1289 as the king's chief law officer in north Scotland (the Justiciar)[7] and may have been co-opted to the guardianship following in the premature death of King Alexander III.[10]

Sir Andrew had close personal connections to the most politically influential family in Scottish society, the Comyns. Sir Andrew’s first wife, and the mother of his son, was a daughter of John (I) 'the Red' Comyn of Badenoch, and his second wife was Euphemia Comyn.[11] The Morays of Petty also had links to the Douglases of Douglasdale.[12]

The influence of the Moray family was not confined to north Scotland. Sir William Moray of Bothwell, the elder brother of Andrew the younger's father, held extensive lands in Lanarkshire and at Lilleford in Lincolnshire.[13]

Bothwell Castle, construction of which was begun by Sir William Moray.

Sir William, who was known as le riche due to his extensive personal wealth, was in 1296 constructing Bothwell Castle overlooking the River Clyde. Its design was influenced by the latest continental European trends in castle construction. It was clearly intended as an unequivocal statement of his influence and wealth. Moray the younger was heir to his uncle's lands and castles.[9]

Elgin Cathedral, from the south-east. Construction of it was begun under the supervision of Bishop Andrew Moray.

The Morays of Petty also had a presence in the Scottish medieval church. A forebear of Moray the younger, also named Andrew, was bishop of Moray early in the thirteenth century and was responsible for the transfer of the seat of the bishopric of Moray to Elgin in 1224 and the establishment in the town of the bishopric's cathedral. The Moray family continued to maintain its link to the church. A younger brother of Sir Andrew Moray of Petty, David, was in the closing years of the thirteenth century a rector of Bothwell church in central Scotland and a canon of Moray.[14] He would subsequently be consecrated in the summer of 1299 as Bishop of Moray by Pope Boniface VIII,[15] and become one of the staunchest supporters of King Robert I's kingship.

A kingdom in turmoil[edit]

A depiction of a meeting of the English Parliament in 1278 in which King Alexander III is shown sitting at King Edward I's right.

The late thirteenth century was a time of upheaval in Scotland. On 19 March 1286, King Alexander III died after apparently being thrown from his horse as he made his way to Kinghorn, in Fife, from Edinburgh Castle to be with his young Flemish queen, Yolande.[16] Although the king had previously been married to Margaret, a sister of King Edward I, his children from that marriage predeceased him.[17] On Alexander III's death, the Crown passed to his three-year-old granddaughter, Margaret, Maid of Norway. The child-queen was never enthroned, dying in 1290 during the sea passage to Scotland.[18]

Scots nobles had vied for the vacant crown. The Bruces of Annandale made an attempt in November 1286 to seize it in an armed coup.[19] It was suppressed by the Scottish political community. In this uncertain time, Scotland's leaders turned for support to their nearest neighbour, King Edward I of England.

Edward I was a widely respected king. The relationship between him and recently deceased King Alexander had been good. The power and influence that he possessed allowed him to preside over a court to assess the merits of the claims to the Scots Crown, and the military might of his kingdom meant he could enforce its decision. This role came at a price: the claimants had to acknowledge him as Overlord of Scotland.

The most serious claims to the vacant Crown, in what became known as 'The Great Cause', were advanced by John Balliol, the lord of Galloway, and Robert Bruce, lord of Annandale and grandfather of the future king. After lengthy deliberation, Balliol was awarded the Crown. This decision was widely accepted by the Scottish political community, including many who previously supported Bruce.

The newly enthroned King John duly acknowledged King Edward I as his feudal superior. And Edward became a constant presence in Scottish legal and political affairs. The Scottish political community did not welcome his involvement, and by late 1295 King John had renounced his fealty and entered into a treaty with France. King Edward was enraged by such defiance, making hostilities between the kingdoms inevitable.

Invasion and defeat[edit]

In the spring of 1296, Andrew Moray the younger was part of the Scottish feudal host assembling at Caddonlee in preparation for war with England. He was likely part of his father's retinue. A part of this host, led by the earls of Atholl, Ross, and Mar and John Comyn the younger of Badenoch, entered Cumberland. It marched to Carlisle, destroying, according to The St. Edmundsbury Chronicle, 120 villages. More Scots raiders crossed from Jedburgh, burning homes and farms in Northumberland. Pierre de Langtoft, an English chronicler, records:[20]

Mar, Ross, Menteith ... have destroyed Tindale to cinders and coals, The town of Corbridge, and two monasteries, Hexham and Lanercost, they have annihilated by burning; They have made slaughter of the people of the country, Carried off the goods driven away the canons.

King Edward I assembled a large army on the Anglo-Scottish border for the invasion of Scotland. By 30 March it was besieging the prosperous Scottish port of Berwick.

Image of King Edward from a contemporary memorandum

Berwick soon fell. The English Lanercost Chronicle condemned the ensuing slaughter as a "crime" and recorded that fifteen thousand "of both sexes perished, some by the sword, others by fire, in the space of a day and a half".[21]

It had been many years since Scotland had mobilized for war, and at the Battle of Dunbar the Scots were overwhelmed quickly by a force from King Edward's army led by John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. The author of the Chronicle of Bury St. Edmunds records the death of eight thousand Scots soldiers at Dunbar.

Following defeat at Dunbar, Scotland capitulated. Edward I deposed King John at Montrose castle: the symbols of the Scottish kingship were stripped from him, including the royal coat of arms from his surcoat (thereby earning him the enduring title Toom Tabard ('Empty Coat')). King Edward undertook an extended march across Scotland, reaching Elgin on 26 July 1296. He remained in the town's castle for a few days, taking the fealty of a number of Scots nobles,[22]

Scots nobles captured at Dunbar were sent to prisons in England. The most important prisoners, such as Sir Andrew Moray of Petty, were taken to the Tower of London.[23] Sir Andrew spent the remainder of his life there, dying in the Tower on 8 April 1298.[24] Andrew Moray the younger, a prisoner of less significance, was imprisoned in Chester Castle.[23]


King Edward's English administration in Scotland was headed by the Earl of Surrey.[25] Sir Hugh de Cressingham was appointed Treasurer, and Walter Amersham installed as Chancellor. The offices of Justiciars for Lothian, Scotia (i.e. the territories north of the Forth), and Galloway were filled with English appointees.[26][27] Most of Scotland's former royal castles were placed in the keeping of Edward's nobles.[28] English tax collectors imposed heavy taxes to fill their king's coffers, and corruptly exploited the Scots populace to enrich themselves.[29] Cressingham energetically collected taxes, and by the end of May 1297, had dispatched £5,188 6s. 8d. to the English treasury.[30] Edward also sought to conscript Scots, including the nobility, into the armies being raised to fight in Flanders.[31] This plan caused widespread alarm. A combination of these factors contributed to a growing restlessness against English rule.

While the Scots suffered English occupation, Andrew Moray the younger continued to endure imprisonment. Sometime in the winter of 1296–97, he escaped from Chester and made his way back to his father's lands in the north of Scotland.

Scotland may have been easily conquered by King Edward in 1296, but early the following year there were widespread outbreaks of violence against the English occupiers and their Scots allies. Argyll and Ross were the scenes of the earliest violence. In Argyll, Lachlann Mac Ruaidhrí and Ruaidhrí Mac Ruaidhrí and the MacDougall sons of the imprisoned Alexander de Ergadia were in rebellion, attacking Edward I's MacDonald supporters, killing royal officials and destroying royal property.[32] In Galloway the rebels seized English-held castles.[33] There was violence in Fife, where MacDuff of Fife and his sons led the rising.[34]

King Edward I responded by ordering supporters in Argyll and Ross to assist "his chosen and faithful subject the Sheriff of Argyll Alexander of the Isles" to suppress the rebels.[35] The English Sheriff of Aberdeen, Sir Henry de Latham, was ordered on 11 June 1297 to deal with rebels in the north-east.[36] Men were dispatched from England, including Henry Percy and Walter Clifford, to assist in the suppression of the rebellion.[37]

"In the month of May of the same year [1297]", the Hemingsburgh Chronicle notes, "the perfidious race of Scots began to rebel." This first act of this rebellion was marked by two events: Andrew Moray proclaiming his defiance of English rule at Avoch; and the murder of William Hesilrig, the English sheriff of Lanark, on 3 May 1297, during an attack on the town led by William Wallace and Richard Lundie.[38] News of Moray's actions quickly drew supporters to him. Sir William fitz Warin, the English constable of Urquhart Castle on the shores of Loch Ness, wrote to King Edward in July 1297: "Some evil disposed people have joined Andrew Moray at the castle of [Avoch] in Ross." Amongst them were Alexander Pilche, a burgess from Inverness, and a number of burgesses from the town. Although Sir Andrew Moray of Petty remained imprisoned in the Tower of London many of his tenants joined his son.

Attack on Castle Urquhart[edit]

In May 1297 Andrew Moray the younger was leading the rebellion against the English king in the province of Moray. King Edward's principal Scots follower in the area was Sir Reginald Cheyne, the sheriff of Elgin. The active support of some Scots lords had allowed King Edward to rule Scotland without deploying a large occupying force. Cheyne was now alarmed by the growth of Moray's rebellion. He wrote to the king requesting assistance, who responded by instructing him to vigorously suppress the rebels.[39] Sir Reginald ordered his lieutenants to a meeting at Inverness Castle on 25 May 1297 to discuss how to deal with Andrew Moray. One participant was Sir William fitz Warin constable of Urquhart Castle standing on the western shore of Loch Ness.[40]

Urquhart Castle, which Andrew Moray sought to capture by night assault in late-May 1297

After the meeting, Sir William fitz Warin returned to Urquhart Castle accompanied by an escort of men-at-arms. A few miles to the south of Inverness, Sir William was ambushed by a force led by Andrew Moray and Alexander Pilche. He escaped to the safety of his loch-side stronghold. Next day, Sir William found his castle besieged by Moray. The Countess of Ross unexpectedly arrived on the scene with her retinue. The countess, whose husband was still held by King Edward in the Tower of London,[23] advised him to surrender. Although her advice was ignored, her actions were later commended to the king by Sir William. Moray, with no heavy siege equipment, unsuccessfully tried to take the castle in a night attack. He left Sir William in possession of the castle to lick his wounds and send an account of this mêlee to his king.[40]

King Edward fights back[edit]

Although Andrew Moray the younger was thwarted at Urquhart Castle, he continued to prosecute a vigorous campaign against his enemies in the province of Moray. One such foe was Sir Reginald Cheyne. The devastation of Sir Reginald's lands was later reported to King Edward[41]

a very large body of rogues swept through the province of Moray towards the Spey, destroying the lands of Duffus, laid waste and captured the castle.

The remnant of the stone keep at Duffus Castle, built in the early 14th century to replace the earlier structure on that site burned by Andrew Moray in 1297.

King Edward I of England, whose main concern was preparing for his impending campaign in Flanders, sought to deal with the threat posed by Andrew Moray by making use of loyal Scots nobles released from his prisons to serve in Flanders. The king issued orders on 11 June 1297 to a number of apparently loyal Scots lords to raise their retinues and march into the province of Moray to relieve fitz Warin and to restore English royal authority. Amongst those in receipt of these orders were Henry Cheyne, Bishop of Aberdeen, Sir Gartnait of Mar, heir to the earldom of Mar and whose father was currently held in the Tower of London,[23] and John Comyn, Earl of Buchan and Constable of Scotland, together with his brother, Alexander. The Comyn brothers, who were related to Moray via his mother, were instructed to remain in the province of Moray until all signs of the rebellion had been stamped out.

The column departed from Aberdeen in early July 1297. Moray responded to news of its advance by marching east to confront it. The two forces met on the banks of the River Spey at Enzie, where the road from Aberdeen to Inverness forded the waters of the river, on the eastern edge of the province of Moray.[42]

An extremely ambiguous account of events at Enzie was sent on 25 August 1297 from Inverness to King Edward by Bishop Cheyn,[43] It relates that after some discussion, Moray and his rebel army withdrew into "very great stronghold of bog and wood" [where] "no horseman could be of service". This was a highly dubious explanation when one considers the Comyn family pacified for the Scots king the province of Moray in the early thirteenth century. It appears more likely that neither side wished to fight men that they did not consider their enemies. But if Cheyne thought he could save face with this letter, he failed to reckon with Hugh de Cressingham. Cressingham, having seen this letter, wrote to the king on 5 August:[44]

Sire, the peace on the other side of the Scottish Sea [the Firth of Forth] is still in obscurity, as it is said, as to the doings of the earls who are there.

Cressingham clearly did not believe that the Scots lords tasked with dealing with Moray had done their duty, believing they were playing a double game at King Edward's expense. He was especially dismissive of the account of confrontation at the Spey, writing to King Edward:[44]

Sir Andrew de Rait is going to you with a credence, which he has shown to me, and which is false in many points ... you will give little weight to it.

While Andrew Moray seized control of north Scotland and William Wallace was active in west-central Scotland, a rising led by Scotland's traditional feudal leaders was taking place in the south of the kingdom. Amongst its leaders were James, the High Steward of Scotland, Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow, and Robert Bruce of Carrick, the future king. Faced with an army led by Henry de Percy and Robert de Clifford, they entered negotiations in June and capitulated at Irvine in July.

King Edward, having failed to deal with Moray by force of arms, now resorted to more subtle methods. The king proposed to release Moray's father, Sir Andrew Moray of Petty, from imprisonment in the Tower to serve in the ranks of the English army in Flanders, if his son was prepared to take his father's place as a royal hostage. A safe conduct, allowing Moray the younger to come to England, was issued under the king's seal on 28 August 1297.[45] It is not known if this letter ever reached him, but if it did, it was ignored and his father was forced to remain in confinement in the Tower, dying there on 4 April 1298.[46]

Battle of Stirling Bridge[edit]

By late summer 1297, King Edward I had lost control of Scotland. The reality of the breakdown in his rule was described in a letter to the king from Cressingham[47]

by far the greater part of your counties of the realm of Scotland are still unprovided with keepers, as [they have been killed or imprisoned]; and some have given up their bailiwicks, and others neither will nor dare return; and in some counties the Scots have established and placed bailiffs and ministers, so that no county is in proper order, excepting Berwick and Roxburgh, and this only lately.

A Victorian depiction of the battle. The bridge collapse suggests that the artist has been influenced by Blind Harry's account of the battle.

Of the castles north of the River Forth, only Dundee remained in English hands. In the late summer of 1297, the earl of Surrey finally stirred to action against Moray and Wallace. He had previously done little and was subsequently vilified for his indolence. Walter of Guisborough, said of him:[48]

The earl [of Surrey] ... to whom our king committed the care and custody of the Kingdom of Scotland, because of the awful weather, said that he could not stay there and keep his health. He stayed in England, but in the northern part and sluggishly pursued the exiling [of the] enemy, which was the root of our later difficulty.

Surrey now mustered a small army and marched into central Scotland. Moray and Wallace responded by entrusting the siege of Dundee castle to the townspeople and marching their combined army to Stirling. They deployed their men to the north of the River Forth close to the old bridge at Stirling and Stirling Castle.

Surrey's conduct of the ensuing battle was inept. He sent the vanguard of his army across the narrow bridge. Moray and Wallace struck when only part of it had crossed over it. In the Battle of Stirling Bridge, the isolated vanguard was destroyed. The bulk of Surrey's army, which had still not crossed the bridge, fled as it became clear that their leader had been outmanoeuvred and outfought. The flight was led by Surrey who galloped for Berwick. One English chronicler, Walter of Guisborough, sneered that Surrey's "charger never once tasted food during the whole journey".[49]

The Scottish army's casualties in this battle were unrecorded as it was composed largely of anonymous infantry soldiers, but there was one known noble casualty of note: Andrew Moray the younger.

On the English side, it is estimated Surrey lost one hundred knights and five thousand infantrymen at Stirling.[50] The most notable of these casualties was Hugh Cressingham, who, according to the chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft[51] unaccustomed "to the saddle, From his steed in its course fell under foot, His body was cut to pieces by the ribalds of Scotland". The Lanercost Chronicle claims that Wallace had:[52] "a broad strip [of Cressingham’s skin] ... taken from the head to the heel, to make therewith a baldrick for his sword".

The defeat of Surrey at the Battle of Stirling Bridge was the zenith of Andrew Moray the younger's campaign against King Edward. He was no skilled soldier by accident. The training for knighthood that he had received would have equipped him, as a baron's son, with the skills to fulfill a leadership role in Scotland's feudal host and would have included the skills to lead large groups of soldiers on the battlefield.


There is contradictory evidence about the death of Andrew Moray the younger. Two letters issued in autumn 1297 appear to indicate he survived for some months after the fighting at Stirling Bridge. The first letter, sent from Haddington on 11 October 1297 to the mayors of Lübeck and Hamburg, two of the towns of the Hanseatic League, was issued by:[53] "Andrew de Moray and William Wallace, leaders of the kingdom of Scotland and the community of the realm." The second was issued just under a month later, on 7 November, during a Scottish raid on the northern counties of England to the prior of Hexham by:[54] "Andrew de Moray and William Wallace, the leaders of the army and of the realm of Scotland." Moray's name does not appear on any other later document.

The inclusion of Moray's name in these letters is apparently contradicted by a formal inquisition into the affairs of his uncle, Sir William Moray of Bothwell. It was held in Berwick-upon-Tweed in November 1300 and determined that Moray the younger was: "slain at Stirling against the king."[9] It is perhaps significant that no chronicle source places Moray the younger at Hexham or ascribes to him any role in this raid, which Walter Guisborough's chronicle says was led by Wallace. The letters issued to the mayors of Lübeck and Hamburg, and the prior of Hexham may, for reasons unknown, have been issued in Moray's absence.[55]

In response to these clearly conflicting facts, most historians choose to believe that Moray the younger was wounded at Stirling Bridge, dying of his injuries sometime around November 1297.[56][57]


Andrew Moray the younger's early death has meant that his achievements have not fully received the recognition that they deserve. They are often obscured by the greater fame of William Wallace. The deeds of Wallace have been long celebrated, first in verse by Blind Hary. Nevertheless, in the late twentieth century there was increased recognition of Moray's important role in the events of 1297. One historian recently described his actions as "the greatest threat to the English government".[58]

One legacy that is not in doubt is the birth of his son. At Pentecost 1298, Moray's widow bore him a son, also named Andrew.[9] The child eventually acceded to the lordships of Avoch, Boharm, Petty and Bothwell, and would play a major role in defeating the attempts of King Edward III of England to conquer Scotland in the 1330s. He would twice be guardian for King David II.

Moray the younger's lack of recognition has even been noted in the Scotland's parliament. In December 2009, Murdo Fraser, a Conservative List MSP for Mid-Scotland and Fife, called for a national debate on an appropriate monument to Moray. He stated that it should raise awareness of Moray's historical role.[59]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Barrow, Robert Bruce, fourth edition, p. 98.
  2. ^ Andrew Fisher, "Murray, Andrew (d. 1297)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 2 Aug 2007
  3. ^ Barrow, Kingdom of the Scots, pp. 99–100, 110–11
  4. ^ Paul. The Scots Peerage, Vol 2, pp. 120–131
  5. ^ Paul. The Scots Peerage, Vol 1, p. 507
  6. ^ Oram, David I, pp. 104–105
  7. ^ a b c d Barrow, Robert Bruce, p. 98
  8. ^ Barron, Scottish Wars of Independence, pp. 33 & 204
  9. ^ a b c d Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, ed. J. Bain, vol. 2, no. 1178, p. 300
  10. ^ Barrow, Robert Bruce, p. 36
  11. ^ Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, ed. J. Bain, vol. 2, no. 307, p. 84
  12. ^ Barrow, Robert Bruce, p. 109.
  13. ^ Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, ed. J. Bain, vol. 2, no. 725, p. 168
  14. ^ Barrow, The Kingdom of the Scots, p. 218
  15. ^ Barrow, Robert Bruce, p. 152
  16. ^ Oram, Kings & Queens of Scotland, p. 89
  17. ^ Oram, Kings & Queens of Scotland, pp. 89–90
  18. ^ Oram, Kings & Queens of Scotland, p. 93
  19. ^ Barrow, Robert Bruce, p. 24.
  20. ^ The Chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft, ed. T. Wright, vol. II, p. 237.
  21. ^ Chronicle of Lanercost, ed. H. Maxwell, vol. 1, p. 135.
  22. ^ Calendar of Documents, ed. J. Bain, vol. 2, no. 789, p. 182.
  23. ^ a b c d Calendar of Documents, ed. J. Bain, vol. 2, no. 742, pp. 176–178.
  24. ^ Barrow, Robert Bruce, fourth edition, p. 445, n. 111.
  25. ^ Calendar of Documents, ed. J. Bain, vol. 2, no. 871, p. 229.
  26. ^ Barrow, Robert Bruce, p. 99.
  27. ^ Watson, Under the Hammer, pp. 31–32
  28. ^ Watson, Under the Hammer, pp. 33–34
  29. ^ Scalacronica, ed. H. Maxwell, p. 18.
  30. ^ Prestwich, Edward I, p. 476.
  31. ^ Documents Illustrative of Scotland, ed. Rev. J. Stevenson, vol. 2, CCCCXXIX, pp. 167–169.
  32. ^ Watson, Under the Hammer, pp. 42–43.
  33. ^ Calendar of Documents, ed. J. Bain, vol. 2, no. 894, p. 234.
  34. ^ Documents Illustrative of Scotland, ed. Rev. J. Stevenson, vol. 2, CCCCLXXII, p. 217.
  35. ^ Barron, Scottish War of Independence, pp. 19–20.
  36. ^ Barron, Scottish War of Independence, p. 60.
  37. ^ Documents Illustrative of Scotland, ed. Rev. J. Stevenson, vol. 2, CCCCXXXI, pp. 170–173.
  38. ^ Broun, 'New information on the Guardians and Wallace's rising'.
  39. ^ Barron, Scottish War of Independence, p. 35 & p. 42.
  40. ^ a b Calendar of Documents, ed. J. Bain, vol. 2, no. 922, p. 239.
  41. ^ Documents Illustrative of Scotland, ed. Rev. J. Stevenson, vol. 2, CCCCLVII, p. 212.
  42. ^ Barron, Scottish War of Independence, p. 50.
  43. ^ Documents Illustrative of Scotland, ed. Rev. J. Stevenson, vol. 2, CCCCLVII, pp. 211–213.
  44. ^ a b Documents Illustrative of Scotland, ed. Rev. J. Stevenson, vol. 2, CCCCLXVII, pp. 225–227.
  45. ^ Documents Illustrative of Scotland, ed. Rev. J. Stevenson, vol. 2, CCCCLXVIII, pp. 227–228.
  46. ^ Barrow, Robert Bruce, Fourth Edition, n. 111, p. 445.
  47. ^ Documents Illustrative of Scotland, ed. Rev. J. Stevenson, vol. 2, CCCCLV, p. 207.
  48. ^ Quoted in Watson, Under the Hammer, p. 39.
  49. ^ Quoted in Kightly, Outlaw General, in Folk Heroes, p. 167.
  50. ^ Fisher, William Wallace, p. 55
  51. ^ The Chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft, ed. T. Wright, vol. II, p. 301.
  52. ^ Chronicle of Lanercost, ed. H. Maxwell, vol. 1, p. 164.
  53. ^ Source Book of Scottish History, eds. W. C. Dickinson, G. Donaldson & I. A. Milne. vol. 1, pp. 136–137.
  54. ^ Stones, Anglo-Scottish Relations, no. 26(a), p. 155.
  55. ^ Taylor, 'Fighting for the Lion' in History Scotland, September 2005.
  56. ^ Peter Traquair Freedom's Sword
  57. ^ Michael Lynch A New History of Scotland
  58. ^ Brown, The Wars of Scotland, p. 183.
  59. ^, The Scotsman, 26 December 2009 - accessed 3 January 2010


  • Anglo-Scottish Relations 1174-1328: Some Selected Documents, ed. E. L. G Stones, 1970;
  • Barron, E. M., The Scottish War of Independence, Second Edition. 1934;
  • Barrow, G. W. S. Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm, Third Edition, 1988;
  • Barrow, G. W. S. Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm, Fourth Edition, 2005;
  • Barrow, G. W. S. The Kingdom of the Scots, Second Edition, 2003;
  • Broun, D, New information on the Guadians' appointment in 1286 and Wallace's rising in 1297, September 2011,
  • Brown, M., The Wars of Scotland 1214–1371, 2004;
  • Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, Four Volumes, ed. J. Bain, 1881–1888;
  • The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, ed. H. Rothwell, 1957;
  • Chronicle of Holyrood, ed. M. A. Anderson, 1938;
  • The Chronicle of Lanercost 1272–1346, ed. H. Maxwell, 1913;
  • The Chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft, ed. T Wright, Two volumes. 1866–8.
  • Documents Illustrative of Scotland 1286-1306," ed. Rev. J. Stevenson, 2 vols. 1870;
  • Ferguson, J, William Wallace, 1938;
  • Fisher, A, William Wallace, 1992;
  • Foedera, Conventiones, Litterae, ed T. Rymer, 1816;
  • Kightly, Folk Heroes of Britain, 1982;
  • Oram, Richard, Ed., The Kings and Queens of Scotland, Stroud, 2001;
  • Oram, Richard, David I: The King who made Scotland, Stroud, 2004;
  • Paul, James Balfour, ed. (1905), The Scots Peerage, vol. 2, Edinburgh: David Douglas
  • Prestwich, M., Edward I, 1990;
  • The Scalacronica of Sir Thomas Gray, ed. Sir H. Maxwell, 1907;
  • A Source Book of Scottish History. Three Volumes. Second Edition, eds. W. C. Dickson, G. Donaldson and I. A. Milne, 1958;
  • Taylor, J. G., Fighting for the Lion: The Life of Andrew Moray, in History Scotland, September/October 2005;
  • Watson F. J., Under the Hammer: Edward I and Scotland 1286-1306, 1998.