Andrew Weil

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This article is about the integrative medicine proponent. For the two similarly named mathematicians, see Andrew Wiles or André Weil.

Andrew Weil (/wl/, born June 8, 1942)—broadly referred by this name preceded by "Dr.", or simply as Dr. Weil—is an U.S.-trained physician, and successful author, spokesperson, and broadly described "guru" for holistic health and integrative medicine, whose names also constitute an emerging brand of healthcare services and products in these fields.

Weil studied at Harvard in the early 1960s, bringing him into contact with social scientists David McClelland, Richard Alpert, and Timothy Leary. He graduated cum laude in 1964 from a biology major and a concentration in the ethnobotany of medicinal plants, following this with an Harvard M.D. in 1968, and fellowship years in San Francisco and at the National Institute of Mental Health. Throughout these periods, Weil displayed a strong curiosity regarding the emerging field of psychopharmacology, accessing it through study and personal experimentation. Weil then spent a decade with the Harvard Botanical Museum (1971-1984), and in personal travel, exploration, and writing focused on this field. His writings on the relationships between human consciousness, culture, healing, and drug experience appeared in regular contributions to High Times magazine (1975-1983), and in book-length works (The Natural Mind, 1972; The Marriage of Sun and Moon, 1980; From Chocolate to Morphine, 1983).

Weil's became interested in the ideas and practices of complementary and alternative medicine, and went on to play a seminal role in codifying and establishing the emerging field of integrative medicine, which aims to combine alternative medicine, conventional evidence-based medicine, and other practices into a higher-order "system of systems" to address human healing via action in multiple "dimensions" (biological, psychogical, sociological, and spiritual). As of 2015, Weil serves as an academician at the University of Arizona College of Medicine, where he is Lovell-Jones Professor of Integrative Rheumatology, Clinical Professor of Medicine, and Professor of Public Health. In 1994, Weil founded and has since directed the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine. He served as founding editor of a seminal OUP series offering medical best-practice methods alongside yet-to-be-proven ones, the Weil Integrative Medicine Library (2009-2015), which includes specialty volumes in oncology, cardiology, rheumatology, pediatrics, psychology, and other specialties.

Weil has given extensive efforts to popular communication encouraging patients to incorporate alternative therapies—use of nutritional supplements, meditation and “spiritual” strategies, etc.—into conventional treatment plans. His many broad, health-related books include Spontaneous Healing (1995), Eight Weeks to Optimum Health (1997), Eating Well for Optimum Health (2000), The Healthy Kitchen (2002, with chef Rosie Daley), and Healthy Aging (2005), several of which have appeared on recognized best seller lists. This popular exposure has included frequent guest appearances (e.g., Larry King Live, Oprah, and the Today show). Weil blogs for The Huffington Post, and occasionally writes for Time magazine (and was recognized in a global 100 list of influential people by them in 2005).

In addition to his publisher-offered print, electronic, and audio products, Weil has founded several commercial enterprises (e.g., and to offer information, consulting services, and various products; in this regard, the "Dr. Andrew Weil" name represents both the individual, and a clear commercial brand. Services though Weil's businesses include vitamin advice and subscription websites paralleling his popular books. Products offered include vitamins, personal hygiene and skin care items, orthotics and foot-ware, medical devices, food preparation equipment, and a food product line. Registered trademarks of the brand include the Dr. Andrew Weil for Origins skin care/cosmetic and Dr. Andrew Weil Integrative Footwear lines.

The development of Weil's ideas and of his brand have not been without criticism. His experimentation with drugs during college and after and his relationships with Harvard faculty during the tumultuous early 1960s has received attention (e.g., from Don Lattin in The Harvard Psychedelic Club, 2010). Moreover, there have been recurring reports in which mainstream medical professionals have criticized Weil for specific cases where he has appeared to reject aspects of evidence-based medicine, or promote unverified beliefs; and critiques by scientific watchdog organizations for his failing to disclaim in cases of his writings that have had connections to his own commercial interests. Finally, academics have taken him to task, in print, for his and his peers downplaying social, structural, and environmental factors that contribute to the etiology of disease in the West, and for the clear component of entrepreneurialism associated with his establishing his brand of health care services and products.

Subject and brand descriptions[edit]

Andrew Weil, as individual and brand,[1] is described by Encyclopedia Britannica as an "American physician and popularizer of alternative and integrative medicine,"[2] and by his 2015 publishers, Little, Brown/Hachette, as "the founder and director of the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine" and "author of several bestselling books."[3] At the Oxford University site for the academic imprint, the Weil Integrative Medicine Library, Weil is described as "Lovell-Jones Professor of Integrative Rheumatology, Clinical Professor of Medicine, Professor of Public Health, [and] Director of the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Arizona."[4] He is described by Hans Baer as a "Holistic Health/New Age Guru" (alongside Deepak Chopra), and as a biomedically trained physician that has "emerged as [a] visible and financially successful spokesperso[n]" of the holistic health/New Age movement.[5][6] Weil provides extensive biographical information about himself at his informational and commercial website;[7] in his page, which links from his commercial site, he describes himself as "Physician, Best-Selling Author, Speaker & Integrative Medicine Thought-Leader" and "a world-renowned leader and pioneer in the field of integrative medicine, a healing oriented approach to health care which encompasses body, mind, and spirit."[8]

Early life and education[edit]

Early years[edit]

Andrew Thomas Weil was born in Philadelphia on June 8, 1942,[2] the only child of parents who operated a millinery store,[2] in a family that was secularly Jewish.[citation needed] He graduated from high school in 1959 and was awarded a scholarship from the American Association for the United Nations,[2] giving him the opportunity go abroad for a year, living with families in India, Thailand, and Greece.[citation needed] From this experience he became convinced that in many ways American culture and science was insular and unaware of non-American practices.[citation needed] He began hearing that mescaline enhanced creativity and produced visionary experiences, and finding little information on the subject, he discovered The Doors of Perception by Aldous Huxley.[when?][9]:24f

Undergraduate period[edit]

Weil entered Harvard University in 1960,[citation needed] majoring in biology with a concentration in ethnobotany.[2] He had an early curiosity regarding psychoactive drugs, and in that period, met Harvard psychologists Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert, and separately engaged in organized experimentation with mescaline (along with fellow undergraduate Ronnie Winston).[10] Weil would write for and eventually serve as an editor of the Harvard Crimson.[9]:86[11] One published account of the period describes a falling out of Weil from the group that included the faculty—among whom the experimentation with drugs was contentious, and with regard to undergraduates, proscribed;[12][13] the falling out involved an exposé on drug-use and supply that Weil wrote for the Crimson.[10] Records are in any case clear that Weil wrote of faculty experimentation with drugs in a series of Crimson pieces:[14]

  • "Better Than a Damn," (February 20, 1962), his apparent first Crimson piece;[11][15]
  • "Alpert Defends Drugs on ‘Open End,’" (May 27, 1963);[16] and
  • "Investigation Unlikely in Dismissal of Alpert," (May 29, 1963).[17]

and that this reporting included the claim that "undergraduates had indeed been able to obtain access to psilocybin from members" of the Harvard faculty research team that was involved in such research.[14] As late as 1973, Weil's name appears in conjunction with an editorial regarding the 1963 firing of Alpert, which stated the view that it would be "unfortunate if the firing of Richard Alpert led to the suppression of legitimate research into the effects of hallucinogenic compounds," distancing himself and the Crimson from the "shoddiness of their work as scientists… less [the result] of incompetence than of a conscious rejection of scientific ways of looking at things."[18]

Weil went on to write an undergraduate thesis, "The Use of Nutmeg as a Psychotropic Agent,"[10] specifically, on the narcotic properties of nutmeg,[19] inspired by a class with David McClelland,[citation needed] chair of the Department of Social Relations, and a former director of Harvard's Center for Research in Personality;[13] he graduated with a B.A. in ethnobotany,[citation needed] cum laude, in 1964.[2]

Medical training[edit]

Weil entered Harvard Medical School, "not with the intention of becoming a physician but rather simply to obtain a medical education."[2] He received a medical degree in 1968,[5][6][20] although it is reported that "the Harvard faculty… threatened to withhold it because of a controversial marijuana study Weil had helped conduct" in his final year.[2] Weil moved to San Francisco and completed a medical residency at Mount Zion Hospital.[when?][5][6] While there, volunteered at the Haight-Ashbury Free Clinic.[citation needed]

Career highlights[edit]

Following his residency, Weil took a position with the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) that lasted approximately one year,[where?] to pursue his interests in research on marijuana and other drugs;[5][6] during this time he may have received formal institutional permission to acquire marijuana for the research.[9]:145f

Weil is reported to have experienced opposition to this line of inquiry at the NIMH, to have departed to his rural northern Virginia home (1971-1972), and to have begun his practices of vegetarianism, yoga, and meditation, and work on writing The Natural Mind (1972).[5][6] At the same time, Weil began an affiliation with the Harvard Botanical Museum that would span from 1971-1984, where his work included duties as a research associate investigating "the properties of medicinal and psychoactive plants."[5][6] His interests led him to explore the healing systems of indigenous people, and with this aim, Weil traveled throughout South America and other parts of the world, "collecting information about medicinal plants and healing," from 1971 to 1975, as a fellow for the Institute of Current World Affairs.[5][6][21]

In 1994, Weil founded the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson, Arizona, where he serves as its director.[4][better source needed] He is Lovell-Jones Professor of Integrative Rheumatology,[when?] Clinical Professor of Medicine,[when?] and Professor of Public Health[when?] at the University of Arizona College of Medicine.[4][better source needed]

View of conventional medicine[edit]

Evidence based medicine is a stated central component of the higher-order "system of systems" Weil envisions integrative medicine to be.[22] It is clear that in both scholarly/academic and popular settings, Weil's statements suggest practices from alternative therapies as being something to add to conventional medical treatment plans.[22][23] However, Weil is also on record speaking disparagingly of conventional, evidence-based medicine, both in academic and popular contexts. For instance, he is quoted as having said to a group commencing after a month-long training program in integrative medicine at the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine that "that evidence-based medicine, at its worst, 'is exactly analogous to religious fundamentalism'" (though the source leaves unclear whether any specific aspect of evidence-based medicine was given).[1]

Influences and philosophy[edit]

Weil acknowledges many experiences and individuals that have influenced his philosophical and spiritual ideas, and the techniques he considers valid in his approach to medicine.[citation needed] Weil has been open about his own history of experimental and recreational drug use, including experiences with narcotics and mind-altering substances.[24] Among the individuals who strongly influenced his personal and professional life is the late osteopath Robert C. Fulford, who specialized in cranial manipulation.[25][26][page needed] Weil has further stated that he respects the work of psychologist Martin Seligman, who pioneered the field of positive psychology and now directs the Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania.[citation needed] Weil has also professed admiration for the work of Stephen Ilardi, professor of psychology at the University of Kansas, and author of The Depression Cure.[27]

Weil is widely recognized as having a seminal role in establishing the field of integrative medicine,[citation needed] where this field is defined as:

"a higher-order system of systems of care that emphasizes wellness and healing of the entire person (bio-psycho-socio-spiritual dimensions) as primary goals, drawing on both conventional and CAM [complementary and alternative medicine] approaches in the context of a supportive and effective physician-patient relationship.[22]

He says that patients are urged to take the Western medicine prescribed by their physicians.[citation needed] and—in what Publishers Weekly describes as a message "becoming a signature formula"—then "bend the 'biomedical model' [conventional, evidence-based medicine] to incorporate alternative therapies, including supplements like omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, and herbal remedies; [and] meditation and other 'spiritual' strategies."[23] Proper nutrition, exercise, and stress reduction are also emphasized by Weil.[23] In particular, he is a proponent of diets that are rich in organic fruits, organic vegetables, and fish, and is a vocal critic of foods and diets rich in partially hydrogenated oils.[citation needed] In an interview on Larry King Live, Weil focused on a view that sugar, starch, refined carbohydrates, and trans-fats are more dangerous to the human body than saturated fats.[full citation needed]

Regarding treatment strategies, their side effects, and their efficacy, Weil advocates for the use of whole plants as a less problematic approach in comparison to synthetic pharmaceuticals.[citation needed] In addition, Weil is an advocate of incorporating specific medicinal mushrooms[clarification needed] into one's daily diet.[dubious ][citation needed]

Weil has expressed opposition to the war on drugs, citing benefits of many banned plants.[dubious ][citation needed]

Books and publications[edit]


While Weil's early books and publications primarily explored altered states of consciousness,[citation needed] he has since expanded the scope of his work to encompass healthy lifestyles and health care in general.[citation needed] In the last ten years, Weil has focused much of his work on the health concerns of older people.[citation needed] In his book Healthy Aging, Weil looks at the process of growing older from a physical, social, and cross-cultural perspective,[citation needed] and in his book Why our Health Matters is focused on health care reform.[citation needed]

Of his books, several have appeared on various bestseller lists, both as hardbacks and as paperbacks (many appearing so in the 1990s[28]), some of them being Spontaneous Healing (1995; on the NYT list),[29][better source needed] Eight Weeks to Optimum Health (1997; on the PW and NYT lists),[30][29][better source needed] Eating Well for Optimum Health (2000; PW, NYT),[30][29][better source needed] The Healthy Kitchen (2002, with chef Rosie Daley; NYT),[29][better source needed] Healthy Aging (2005; NYT),[29][better source needed] and Spontaneous Happiness (2011; NYT).[29][better source needed]

List of popular works[edit]


Ask Dr. Weil collections[edit]

Published collections of answers to questions received on his website:

Audio-only publications[edit]

In addition to the foregoing individual paperback, hardback, audio, and electronic versions, various combined and compendia editions have appeared.[citation needed]

Academic works[edit]

As of 2015, Weil was serving as series editor of an academic imprint from Oxford University Press called the Weil Integrative Medicine Library, volumes for clinicians in more than 10 medical specialties, including oncology, cardiology, rheumatology, pediatrics, and psychology.[31] Weil co-edited the first volume, Integrative Oncology, with Donald Abrams, which appeared in 2009.[4] Academic and scholarly reviews of the series and individual volumes were lacking as of 2015—in almost all cases, the publisher's "Reviews and Awards" tabs lack society or other published reviews (apart from Doody's).[32] A cancer society review of the second edition of the series' Integrative Oncology volume, the first volume to have been published, describes the field as "an exciting new discipline" and the book as offering "best-practice methods to prevent cancer and support those affected by it on all levels: body, mind, and spirit" and as being comprehensive, and offering "meticulous, well-written chapters on proven and yet-to-be-proven methods for enhancing cancer care with integrative oncology."[33]

Other works[edit]

Weil was a regular contributor to High Times magazine from 1975 to 1983.[34]

More recently, Weil has written the forewords to a variety of books, for instance, by:

among others.[citation needed] In the new millennium, Weil has occasionally written articles for Time magazine.[37]

Affiliated commercial operations[edit]

In addition to the informational print and corresponding electronic and audio products that Andrew Weil offers through publishers, Weil is affiliated with and and offers these and variety of other products through these and a wide variety of other associated e-business and commercial ventures; in this regard, the "Dr. Andrew Weil" name can be understood to represent both an individual and a brand.[1][38][39] Services though these businesses include vitamin advice,[39][better source needed] and subscription websites associated with his Optimum Health, Healthy Aging, and Spontaneous Happiness publications (i.e., some popular titles with regard to sales).[39][better source needed] [30][29][better source needed] Products include:[39][better source needed]

  • vitamins,
  • items for personal hygiene and skin care (e.g., the Dr. Andrew Weil for OriginsTM line),
  • orthotics and foot ware (Vionic with Orthaheel and Dr. Andrew Weil Integrative Footwear lines),
  • medical devices (RESPeRATE for hypertension),
  • food preparation equipment (blenders, extractors, mixers, and rice and slow cookers), as well as a
  • food product line (salmon sausage products).

According to, "Dr. Weil donates all of his after-tax profits from the sale of Weil Lifestyle natural health products[clarification needed] to the Weil Foundation. The Weil Foundation, an independent 501(c)(3), is dedicated to sustaining the vision of integrative medicine by improving the training of health care professionals; educating the public about health, healing, and nutrition; reforming public policies governing health care; and researching the application of integrative medicine."[this quote needs a citation][better source needed]

Critiques and controversies[edit]


Medical professionals in particular have criticized Weil for promoting treatment claims and alternative medicine practices described as unverified or inefficacious, or for otherwise rejecting aspects of evidence-based medicine. Weil's rejection of some aspects of evidence-based medicine and his promotion of alternative medicine practices that are not verifiably efficacious were criticized in a 1998 New Republic piece by Arnold S. Relman, emeritus editor-in-chief of The New England Journal of Medicine and emeritus professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.[40] The late Barry Beyerstein of Simon Fraser University, writing in the journal Academic Medicine in 2001, criticized Weil and various aspects of complementary and alternative medicine, asserting that it held a "magical world-view"; he continued, saying,

On advocating emotional criteria for truth over criteria based on empirical data and logic, New Age medical gurus such as Andrew Weil… have convinced many that 'anything goes'… By denigrating science, these detractors have enlarged the potential following for magical and pseudoscientific health products.[41]

In 2003, Steven Knope, author of The Body/Mind Connection (2000),[full citation needed] a physician trained at Weill Cornell Medical College, and former Chair of the Department of Medicine in the Tucson, Arizona, Carondelet system, criticized Weil in a televised discussion for what he considered irresponsible advocacy of untested treatments.[42] Simon Singh, a recognized British science writer, and Edzard Ernst, a former Professor of Complementary Medicine at the University of Exeter, echoed Beyerstein's criticism in their 2008 book Trick or Treat, saying that while Weil correctly promotes exercise and smoke-free lifestyles, "much of his advice is nonsense."[43]

Social scientific[edit]

Hans Baer of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Arkansas, writing in 2003, has argued that Weil's approach represents a general limitation of the holistic health/New Age movement, in its "tendenc[y] to downplay the role of social, structural, and environmental factors in the etiology of disease" in the United States, and in doing so, represents a failure to "suggest substantive remedies for improving access to health care," generally, for the "millions of people who lack any type go health insurance…"; at the same time, Baer notes (with negative connotations) that Weil instead contributes "to a long tradition of entrepreneurialism in the U.S. medical system."[5][6]:20,29,119,130ff


Beginning in 2006, as the result of his commercial ventures, Weil—as David Gumpert of Forbes has described—has placed himself in the "awkward position of... having to defend himself against charges of inappropriately exploiting his medical-celebrity status."[44] Commenting on a cover article in a recent 2006 edition of the Center for Science in the Public Interest's "highly respected" Nutrition Action Healthletter,[45] Gumpert called attention to:

  • a $14 million deal Weil's business enterprise had made with,[45][44]
  • the personalized service of recommending supplements (purchase of which are made easy via and,[44][45]
  • long-standing recommendations for supplements appearing despite studies questioning their efficacy,[45][44] and to
  • the clear nature of the pressures on Weil because of the deals, and the clear consanguinity of person and brand.[44]

The Forbes article noted, in particular,'s 2005 lawsuit against for Weil's having "failed to perform any of his marketing obligations," noting that in a 2004 Larry King Live interview, Weil failed to promote this business partner, despite the program offering "reasonable opportunity for Weil to use efforts to promote"[44] Moreover, the CSPI's newsletter noted that their investigations into the vitamin and supplement recommendation service led them to conclude that the algorithms behind the recommendations were, by default, set to recommend purchases: regardless of how the online inquiries of the personalized service were answered, "we couldn't get the Advisor to stop recommending that we buy supplements."[45][44] The CPSI article concludes, "Beware of doctors who sell what they recommend."[45][44]

In 2006, the Center for Science in the Public Interest also commented on a Time magazine piece by Weil rebutting a recent JAMA report on the failure of fish oil supplements to significantly reduce risk of serious heart arrhythmias[citation needed]), where he emphasized the benefits of fish oil supplements without a disclaimer that he had a direct commercial interest in the sale of these supplements.[46]

Another specific criticism has been leveled with regard to the message of his Healthy Aging (2005), which argues that aging should be accepted as a natural stage in life,[citation needed] while these skin care products were being sold at Macy's with the advertising claim of the products' "optimiz[ing] skin's defense against aging"—alongside a large picture of Weil.[47]

Weil has also been accused by others in the alternative health movement, in particular, from individuals with less credentialed backgrounds,[verification needed] of being involved in the "dishonest practice of spreading fear, uncertainty, and doubt about competitors' products, while pretending to be [an] objective 3rd [party]." [48][better source needed]


Weil's 1983 Chocolate to Morphine roused the ire of Florida senator Paula Hawkins, "who demanded that the book, a veritable encyclopaedia of various drugs and their effects on humans, be removed from schools and libraries."[2][49]

Formal corrective actions[edit]

In 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration sent a warning letter to Weil's Weil Lifestyle LLC, regarding "Unapproved / Uncleared / Unauthorized Products Related to the H1N1 Flu Virus" in particular, a "Notice of Potential Illegal Marketing of Products to Prevent, Treat or Cure the H1N1 Virus H1N1 [influenza] Virus."[50][non-primary source needed][better source needed] The FDA was primarily concerned with several implicit claims in Weil Lifestyle LLC's marketing literature, that certain products could help ward off such viruses.[citation needed]

Awards and recognition[edit]

Weil appeared on the cover of Time magazine in 1997 and again in 2005, and Time named him one of the 25 most influential Americans in 1997 and one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2005.[51][verification needed] He was inducted into the Academy of Achievement in 1998.[19] His "Ask Dr. Weil" website was chosen by Forbes' Best of the Web Directory in 2009 for having offered "straightforward tips and advice on achieving wellness through natural means and educating the public on alternative therapies."[52]

In popular culture[edit]

Weil blogs for the Huffington Post.[53] and has been a frequent guest on "Larry King Live" on CNN,[54][better source needed] Oprah,[55][better source needed] and the "Today" Show.[56][better source needed]

Weil appeared in the critically well reviewed documentary on the need for a "rescue" of American healthcare, Escape Fire (2012).[57][58]


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  22. ^ a b c Bell IR, Caspi O, Schwartz GE, Grant KL, Gaudet TW, Rychener D, Maizes V & Weil A (January 2002). "Integrative medicine and systemic outcomes research: issues in the emergence of a new model for primary health care". Arch. Intern. Med. 162 (2): 133–40. doi:10.1001/archinte.162.2.133. PMID 11802746. Retrieved 18 November 2015. 
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  32. ^ E.g., for Integrative Cardiology, note absent tab at [5], and for Integrative Dermatology, note sole appearance of Doody's at [6]
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  34. ^ Simunek, Chris (2003). "Grow: Interview, Dr. Andrew Weil". High Times (online, September 8). Archived from the original on August 2, 2007. 
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  36. ^ Weil, Andrew (2011) "Foreward," in Lewis Mehl-Madrona, Coyote Medicine: Lessons from Native American Healing, p. 13f, New York, NY, USA: Simon and Schuster, ISBN 1439144540, see [8], accessed 17 November 2015.
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