Andrew Hill (jazz musician)

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Andrew Hill
Andrew Hill.jpg
Background information
Born June 30, 1931[1]
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Died April 20, 2007(2007-04-20) (aged 75)
Jersey City, New Jersey, United States
Genres Jazz, avant-garde jazz, bebop, hard bop
Occupation(s) Musician, bandleader, composer
Instruments Piano, celeste, harpsichord
Years active 1954–2007
Labels Blue Note, SteepleChase, Soul Note, Palmetto

Andrew Hill (June 30, 1931[1] – April 20, 2007) was an American jazz pianist and composer.

Jazz critic John Fordham described Hill as a "uniquely gifted composer, pianist and educator" although "his status remained largely inside knowledge in the jazz world for most of his career."[2] His most-lauded work was recorded for Blue Note Records, spanning nearly a decade and a dozen albums that featured his cerebral interpretation of post-bop, often described as avant garde but uniquely Hill's own style that shared little in common with free jazz of the 1960s.


Early life[edit]

Andrew Hill was born in Chicago, Illinois (not in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, nor was he born in 1937, as was reported by many earlier jazz reference books), to William and Hattie Hille. He had a brother, Robert, who was a singer and classical violin player.[3] Hill took up the piano at the age of thirteen, and was encouraged by Earl Hines. As a child, he attended the University of Chicago Experimental School.[4] He was referred by jazz composer Bill Russo to Paul Hindemith, with whom he studied informally until 1952.

While a teenager, he performed in rhythm and blues bands and with touring jazz musicians, including Charlie Parker and Miles Davis. Hill recalls some of his experience as a youngster, during a 1964 interview with Leonard Feather: "I started out in music as a boy soprano, singing and playing the accordion, and tap dancing. I had a little act and made quite a few of the talent shows around town from 1943 until 1947. I won turkeys at two Thanksgiving parties at the Regal Theatre," parties sponsored by the newspaper Chicago Defender, which Hill coincidentally used to sell on the streets.[3]


In 1950, Hill learned his first blues changes on the piano from the saxophonist Pat Patrick and in 1953, he played his first professional job as a musician, with Paul Williams' band. "At that time", he recalls, "I was playing baritone sax as well as piano."[5] During the next few years, the piano gigs brought him into contact with many musicians, some of whom became relevant influences: Joe Segal and Barry Harris, among others. In 1961, after travelling as an accompanist for Dinah Washington, the young pianist settled in New York City in 1961,[2] where he worked for Johnny Hartman and Al Hibbler, then briefly moved to Los Angeles County, where he worked with Roland Kirk's quartet and at the jazz club Lighthouse Café, in Hermosa Beach.

Hill first recorded as a sideman in 1954, but his reputation was made by his Blue Note recordings as leader from 1963 to 1970, which featured several other important post-bop musicians including Joe Chambers, Richard Davis, Eric Dolphy, Bobby Hutcherson, Joe Henderson, Freddie Hubbard, Elvin Jones, Woody Shaw, Tony Williams, and John Gilmore. Hill also played on albums by Henderson, Hutcherson, and Hank Mobley. His compositions accounted for three of the five pieces on Bobby Hutcherson's classic Dialogue album.[6]

Hill rarely worked as a sideman after the 1960s, preferring to play his own compositions. This may have limited his public exposure. He later taught in California and held a tenure-track faculty appointment at Portland State University from 1989 to 1996. While at PSU, he established a Summer Jazz Intensive program, in addition to performing, conducting workshops and attending residencies at other universities such as Wesleyan University, University of Michigan, University of Toronto, Harvard University and Bennington College.[7]

Hill's album Dusk was selected best album of 2001 by both Down Beat and JazzTimes; and in 2003, Hill received the Jazzpar Prize.[2] Hill's earlier work also received renewed attention as a result of the belated release of several unissued sessions made in the 1960s for Blue Note, notably the ambitious large-group date Passing Ships. In 2004, he appeared on SOLOS: The Jazz Sessions. As a consequence of his renewed prominence, a new Blue Note album titled Time Lines was released on February 21, 2006.

His final public performance was on March 29, 2007 at Trinity Church in New York City.

Private life[edit]

It was while working at the Lighthouse Café, in Hermosa Beach that he met his future wife, Laverne Gillette,[8] at the time an organist at the Red Carpet. They married in 1963 and moved to New York.[3]

Laverne died following a long illness in California, where the couple had settled, in 1989.[9] He married dancer/educator Joanne Robinson Hill in Portland in 1992. They moved to New York City in 1995. From 2000, Hill and his wife lived in Jersey City, New Jersey from 2000.[9]

Andrew Hill suffered from lung cancer during the last years of his life. He died at his home in Jersey City, New Jersey.[10][11]

In May 2007, he became the first person to receive a posthumous honorary doctorate from Berklee College of Music.

Playing style[edit]

Hill's main influences were pianists Thelonious Monk, Bud Powell and Art Tatum. "Monk's like Ravel and Debussy to me, in that he put a lot of personality into his playing [...] it's the personality of music which makes it, finally," he said in a 1963 interview with A. B. Spellman. Powell was an even greater influence, but Hill thought that his music was a dead end: "If you stay with Bud too much, you'll always sound like him, even if you're doing something he never did." Hill referred to Tatum as the epitome of "all modern piano playing".[4]


As leader[edit]

Blue Note Records

East Wind Records

Soul Note

SteepleChase Records

Freedom Records

Palmetto Records

Other labels


As sideman[edit]

With Walt Dickerson

With Roland Kirk

With Jimmy Woods

With Hank Mobley

With Joe Henderson

With Bobby Hutcherson

With Russel Baba

  • Earth Prayer (1992)

With Reggie Workman

  • Summit Conference (1994)

With Greg Osby

  • The Invisible Hand (Blue Note, 2000)


  1. ^ a b Mandel, Howard (April 20, 2007) "Andrew Hill: 1931–2007" All About Jazz. Archived September 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved April 20, 2007. During his lifetime, Hill's year of birth was always given as 1937.
  2. ^ a b c Fordham, John (April 23, 2007). "Andrew Hill". The Guardian. Retrieved March 11, 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c Feather, Leonard. Original liner notes to Judgment!
  4. ^ a b Spellman, A. B. Original liner notes to Black Fire.
  5. ^ Rosenthal, David (1992). Hard bop: Jazz and Black music, 1955-1965. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195085566. OCLC 23693923. 
  6. ^ Litweiler, John (1984), The Freedom Principle: Jazz After 1958. Da Capo, pp. 116–118.
  7. ^ "Andrew Hill: Biography" Boosey & Hawkes Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  8. ^ Original liner notes to Smokestack.
  9. ^ a b Ratliff, Ben (February 24, 2006). "Andrew Hill: One Man's Lifelong Search for the Melody in Rhythm". Retrieved March 11, 2018. 
  10. ^ Ratliff, Ben (April 21, 2007). "Andrew Hill, 75, Jazz Artist Known for His Daring Style, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved January 2, 2008. Andrew Hill, a pianist and composer of highly original and sometimes opaquely inner-dwelling jazz whose work only recently found a wide audience, died yesterday at his home in Jersey City. He was 75. 
  11. ^ "The State of Jazz: Meet 40 More Jersey Greats", The Star-Ledger, September 28, 2003, backed up by the Internet Archive as of September 27, 2008. Accessed September 15, 2017. "Andrew Hill -- Pianist and composer Hill, who lives in Jersey City, is an artist who can meld the past modes of jazz with its current streams."

External links[edit]