Andrey V. Martynov (21 August 1879 – 29 January 1938) was a Russian entomologist and palaeontologist, a founder of the Russian palaeoentomological school. Originally interested in caddisflies and crustaceans, he later turned his attention to the study of the extensive fossil insect deposits in the territory of the newly established Soviet Union (e.g. Karatau and Sayan Mountains). He was able to interpret fossil insects in terms of comparative morphology of recent species, and his description of the evolutionary relationships of the various insect orders was ahead of its time. A number of major lineages that he proposed are still accepted in current insect classification.