Androcide

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In the biblical narrative the Massacre of the Innocents, males under the age of two were selected to be executed by the state.

Androcide refers to the systematic killing of men, boys, or males in general. Worldwide, males constitute 79% of non-conflict homicides[1] and the majority of direct conflict deaths.[2]

Lexicology[edit]

Androcide is a coordinate term of femicide and a hyponym of gendercide.[3] The etymological root of the hybrid word is derived from a combination of the Greek prefix andro meaning "man" or boy,[4] with the Latin suffix cide, meaning killing.[5]

People[edit]

In the proactive scenario of human societies, androcide may be a deliberate goal, perhaps to degrade the offensive capabilities of an adversary.[6] In a more passive scenario, androcide has been likened to misandry when society in general participate in or permit the effective passing of a death sentence on a significant proportion of men and boys, as a result of conscription for military service.[7] An androcidal animosity towards males may be due to rivalry, a perception of a challenge to their dominance or a combination of the two.[8] Some organizations that are critical of feminism as well as some publishers have argued that the targeting of men is a contemporary issue in war.[9] Androcide has also been a feature of literature in ancient Greek mythology[10] and in hypothetical situations wherein there is discord between the sexes.[11]

Warfare[edit]

Generally, military services will forcibly conscript men to fight in warfare, inevitably leading to massive male casualties when faced with males on the opposing side.[12] Non-combatant males make up a majority of the casualties in mass killings in warfare.[13] Gendercide Watch, an independent human rights group, documents multiple gendercides which were committed against males: the Anfal campaign (Iraqi Kurdistan), 1988[14]Armenian genocide, 1915–17[15]Rwanda, 1994.[16] This practice occurs since soldiers see opposing men, fighting or otherwise, as rivals and a threat to their superiority. Alternatively, they are afraid that these men will attempt to fight back and kill them for any number of reasons, including self defense.[17] In the year 1211, Genghis Khan had planned on the widescale killing of males in retaliation for the revolt against his daughter Alakhai Bekhi, until she persuaded him to only punish the murderers of her husband, the event which caused the revolt.

Plants[edit]

With regards to plants, androcide may refer to efforts to direct pollination through emasculating certain crops.[18]

Anfal genocide[edit]

The Anfal genocide was a genocide that killed between 50,000 to 182,000 Kurds and thousands of Assyrians at the final stages of the Iran-Iraq War. This act committed during the Anfal Campaign was led by Ali Hassan al-Majid, under the orders of President Saddam Hussein. Anfal, which officially began in 1988, had eight stages in six geographical areas. Every stage followed the same patterns, steer civilians to points near the main road, where they were met by the jash forces and transported to temporary meeting points where they were then separated into three groups: teenage boys and men, women and children, and the elderly. The men and teenage boys were never to be seen again. While women, all children, and the elderly of both genders were sent to camps, men were immediately stripped out of their clothes, only wearing a sharwal, and were executed.[19] Many Kurd men and boys were killed in order to reduce the chance of ever fighting back. Men kill other men in order to stabilize their domains and ward off attacks.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gibbons, Jonathan (2013). "Global Study on Homicide" (PDF). www.unodc.org. United National Office of Drugs and Crime (Vienna).
  2. ^ Ormhaug, Christin (2009). "Armed conflict deaths disaggregated by gender". www.prio.org. International Peace Research Institute (Oslo).
  3. ^ Welsh, EE (2012). Establishing Difference: The Gendering and Racialization of Power in Genocide (PDF).
  4. ^ Danner, Horace (2013). A Thesaurus of Medical Word Roots. p. 17.
  5. ^ Green, Tamara (2014). The Greek & Latin Roots of English. p. 51.
  6. ^ Synnott, Anthony (2012). Re-Thinking Men: Heroes, Villains and Victims. ISBN 9781409491958.
  7. ^ Nathanson, Paul (2015). Replacing Misandry: A Revolutionary History of Men. without referring to the androcide of course that many societies have imposed at a later stage of the life cycle in the form of military conscription
  8. ^ Srivastava, U.S. (1980). Golden jubilee commemoration volume, 1980. p. 51.
  9. ^ Nathanson, Paul (2006). Legalizing Misandry: From Public Shame to Systemic Discrimination Against Men. p. 154.
  10. ^ Skempis, Marios (2014). Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic. p. 172.
  11. ^ Morgan, Robin (1977). Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicle of a Feminist. p. 3.
  12. ^ Nathanson, Paul (2015). Replacing Misandry: A Revolutionary History of Men. without referring to the androcide of course that many societies have imposed at a later stage of the life cycle in the form of military conscription
  13. ^ HSR (2005), "Assault on the vulnerable", in HSR (ed.). Human security report 2005: war and peace in the 21st century. New York Oxford: Published for the Human Security Center, University if British Columbia, Canada by Oxford University Press. p. 111. ISBN 9780195307399. Citing Jones (2000), "Gendercide and genocide Archived 2018-06-18 at the Wayback Machine" p. 186.
  14. ^ "Case Study: The Anfal Campaign (Iraqi Kurdistan), 1988". gendercide.org. Gendercide Watch. Archived from the original on 2015-05-13. Retrieved 2020-02-03.
  15. ^ "Case Study: The Armenian Genocide, 1915–17". gendercide.org. Gendercide Watch. Archived from the original on 2015-06-29. Retrieved 2020-02-03.
  16. ^ "Case Study: Genocide in Rwanda, 1994". gendercide.org. Gendercide Watch. Archived from the original on 2015-06-29. Retrieved 2020-02-03.
  17. ^ Srivastava, U.S. (1980). Golden jubilee commemoration volume, 1980. p. 51.
  18. ^ Verma, MM (1978). "Ethrel-a male gametocide that can replace the male sterility genes in barley". Euphytica. 27 (3): 865–868. doi:10.1007/BF00023727. S2CID 12676427.
  19. ^ Lemarchand René, Choman Hardi. Forgotten Genocides: Oblivion, Denial, and Memory. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013
  20. ^ Paul Nathanson; Katherine K. Young (2015). "Replacing Misandry". MQUP, JSTOT.