|Other names||Hypoandrogenism, androgen deficiency syndrome, men with hypogonadism|
Signs and symptoms
Symptoms of the condition in males consist of loss of libido, impotence, infertility, shrinkage of the testicles, penis, and prostate, diminished masculinization (e.g., decreased facial and body hair growth), low muscle mass, anxiety, depression, fatigue, vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes), insomnia, headaches, and osteoporosis. In addition, symptoms of hyperestrogenism, such as gynecomastia and feminization, may be concurrently present in males.
In females, hypoandrogenism consist of loss of libido, decreased body hair growth, depression, fatigue, vaginal vasocongestion (which can result in cramps), vasomotor symptoms (e.g., hot flashes and palpitations), insomnia, headaches, osteoporosis and reduced muscle mass. Symptoms of hypoestrogenism may be present in both sexes in cases of severe androgen deficiency (as estrogens are synthesized from androgens).
Hypoandrogenism is caused primarily by either dysfunction, failure, or absence of the gonads (hypergonadotropic) or impairment of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (hypogonadotropic), which in turn can be caused by a multitude of different stimuli, including genetic conditions (e.g., GnRH/gonadotropin insensitivity and enzymatic defects of steroidogenesis), tumors, trauma, surgery, autoimmunity, radiation, infections, toxins, drugs, and many others. Alternatively, it may be the result of conditions such as androgen insensitivity syndrome or hyperestrogenism. More simply, old age may also be a factor in the development of hypoandrogenism, as androgen levels decline with age.
Diagnosis of androgenic deficiency in males should be based on symptoms together with at least two measurements of testosterone done first thing in the morning after a period of not eating. In those without symptoms testing is not generally recommended.
Androgen deficiency is not usually a checked for diagnosis in healthy women.
Alternatively, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/GnRH agonists or gonadotropins may be given (in the case of hypogonadotropic hypoandrogenism). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated in 2015 that neither the benefits nor the safety of testosterone have been established for low testosterone levels due to aging. The FDA has required that testosterone pharmaceutical labels include warning information about the possibility of an increased risk of heart attacks and stroke.
|Route||Medication||Major brand names||Form||Dosage|
|Oral||Testosteronea||–||Tablet||400–800 mg/day (in divided doses)|
|Testosterone undecanoate||Andriol, Jatenzo||Capsule||40–80 mg/2–4x day (with meals)|
|Methyltestosteroneb||Android, Metandren, Testred||Tablet||10–50 mg/day|
|Fluoxymesteroneb||Halotestin, Ora-Testryl, Ultandren||Tablet||5–20 mg/day|
|Buccal||Testosterone||Striant||Tablet||30 mg 2x/day|
|Methyltestosteroneb||Metandren, Oreton Methyl||Tablet||5–25 mg/day|
|Sublingual||Testosteroneb||Testoral||Tablet||5–10 mg 1–4x/day|
|Methyltestosteroneb||Metandren, Oreton Methyl||Tablet||10–30 mg/day|
|Intranasal||Testosterone||Natesto||Nasal spray||11 mg 3x/day|
|Transdermal||Testosterone||AndroGel, Testim, TestoGel||Gel||25–125 mg/day|
|Androderm, AndroPatch, TestoPatch||Non-scrotal patch||2.5–15 mg/day|
|Testoderm||Scrotal patch||4–6 mg/day|
|Axiron||Axillary solution||30–120 mg/day|
|Androstanolone (DHT)||Andractim||Gel||100–250 mg/day|
|Rectal||Testosterone||Rektandron, Testosteronb||Suppository||40 mg 2–3x/day|
|Injection (IM or SC)||Testosterone||Andronaq, Sterotate, Virosterone||Aqueous suspension||10–50 mg 2–3x/week|
|Testosterone propionateb||Testoviron||Oil solution||10–50 mg 2–3x/week|
|Testosterone enanthate||Delatestryl||Oil solution||50–250 mg 1x/1–4 weeks|
|Xyosted||Auto-injector||50–100 mg 1x/week|
|Testosterone cypionate||Depo-Testosterone||Oil solution||50–250 mg 1x/1–4 weeks|
|Testosterone isobutyrate||Agovirin Depot||Aqueous suspension||50–100 mg 1x/1–2 weeks|
|Testosterone phenylacetateb||Perandren, Androject||Oil solution||50–200 mg 1x/3–5 weeks|
|Mixed testosterone esters||Sustanon 100, Sustanon 250||Oil solution||50–250 mg 1x/2–4 weeks|
|Testosterone undecanoate||Aveed, Nebido||Oil solution||750–1,000 mg 1x/10–14 weeks|
|Testosterone buciclatea||–||Aqueous suspension||600–1,000 mg 1x/12–20 weeks|
|Implant||Testosterone||Testopel||Pellet||150–1,200 mg/3–6 months|
|Notes: Men produce about 3 to 11 mg testosterone per day (mean 7 mg/day in young men). Footnotes: a = Never marketed. b = No longer used and/or no longer marketed. Sources: See template.|
- Bhasin, S; Brito, JP; Cunningham, GR; Hayes, FJ; Hodis, HN; Matsumoto, AM; Snyder, PJ; Swerdloff, RS; Wu, FC; Yialamas, MA (1 May 2018). "Testosterone Therapy in Men With Hypogonadism: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 103 (5): 1715–1744. doi:10.1210/jc.2018-00229. PMID 29562364.
- Jakiel G, Baran A (2005). "[Androgen deficiency in women]". Endokrynologia Polska (in Polish). 56 (6): 1016–20. PMID 16821229.
- Bachmann GA (April 2002). "The hypoandrogenic woman: pathophysiologic overview". Fertility and Sterility. 77 Suppl 4: S72–6. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(02)03003-0. PMID 12007907.
- Bremner WJ (27 May 2003). Androgens in Health and Disease. Humana Press. pp. 365–379. ISBN 978-1-58829-029-8. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- Wierman ME, Arlt W, Basson R, Davis SR, Miller KK, Murad MH, Rosner W, Santoro N (October 2014). "Androgen therapy in women: a reappraisal: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 99 (10): 3489–510. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-2260. PMID 25279570.
- Staff (3 March 2015). "Testosterone Products: Drug Safety Communication - FDA Cautions About Using Testosterone Products for Low Testosterone Due to Aging; Requires Labeling Change to Inform of Possible Increased Risk of Heart Attack And Stroke". FDA. Retrieved 5 March 2015.