Androgen receptor

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AR
2AM9.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases AR, AIS, AR8, DHTR, HUMARA, HYSP1, KD, NR3C4, SBMA, SMAX1, TFM, androgen receptor
External IDs OMIM: 313700 MGI: 88064 HomoloGene: 28 GeneCards: 367
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE AR 211110 s at.png

PBB GE AR 211621 at.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001011645
NM_000044

NM_013476

RefSeq (protein)

NP_000035.2
NP_001011645.1
NP_000035.2
NP_001011645.1

NP_038504.1

Location (UCSC) Chr X: 67.54 – 67.73 Mb Chr X: 98.15 – 98.32 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse
Androgen_recep
PDB 1xow EBI.jpg
crystal structure of the human androgen receptor ligand binding domain bound with an androgen receptor nh2-terminal peptide, ar20-30, and r1881
Identifiers
Symbol Androgen_recep
Pfam PF02166
InterPro IPR001103
Normal function of the androgen receptor. Testosterone (T) enters the cell and, if 5-alpha-reductase is present, is converted into dihydrotestone (DHT). Upon steroid binding, the androgen receptor (AR) undergoes a conformational change and releases heat-shock proteins (hsps). Phosphorylation (P) occurs before or after steroid binding. The AR translocates to the nucleus where dimerization, DNA binding, and the recruitment of coactivators occur. Target genes are transcribed (mRNA) and translated into proteins.[3][4][5][6]

The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor[7] that is activated by binding either of the androgenic hormones, testosterone, or dihydrotestosterone [8] in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus. The androgen receptor is most closely related to the progesterone receptor, and progestins in higher dosages can block the androgen receptor.[9][10]

The main function of the androgen receptor is as a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates gene expression;[11] however, the androgen receptor has other functions as well.[12] Androgen regulated genes are critical for the development and maintenance of the male sexual phenotype.

Function[edit]

Effect on development[edit]

In some cell types, testosterone interacts directly with androgen receptors, whereas, in others, testosterone is converted by 5-alpha-reductase to dihydrotestosterone, an even more potent agonist for androgen receptor activation.[13] Testosterone appears to be the primary androgen receptor-activating hormone in the Wolffian duct, whereas dihydrotestosterone is the main androgenic hormone in the urogenital sinus, urogenital tubercle, and hair follicles.[14] Hence, testosterone is responsible primarily for the development of male primary sexual characteristics, whereas dihydrotestosterone is responsible for secondary male characteristics.

Androgens cause slow epiphysis, or maturation of the bones, but more of the potent epiphysis effect comes from the estrogen produced by aromatization of androgens. Steroid users of teen age may find that their growth had been stunted by androgen and/or estrogen excess. People with too little sex hormones can be short during puberty but end up taller as adults as in androgen insensitivity syndrome or estrogen insensitivity syndrome.[15]

Also, AR knockout-mice studies have shown that AR is essential for normal female fertility, being required for development and full functionality of the ovarian follicles and ovulation, working through both intra-ovarian and neuroendocrine mechanisms.[16]

Maintenance of male skeletal integrity[edit]

Via the Androgen receptor, androgens play a key role in the maintenance of male skeletal integrity. The regulation of this integrity by androgen receptor (AR) signaling can be attributed to both osteoblasts and osteocytes.[17]

Mechanism of action[edit]

Genomic[edit]

The primary mechanism of action for androgen receptors is direct regulation of gene transcription. The binding of an androgen to the androgen receptor results in a conformational change in the receptor that, in turn, causes dissociation of heat shock proteins, transport from the cytosol into the cell nucleus, and dimerization. The androgen receptor dimer binds to a specific sequence of DNA known as a hormone response element. Androgen receptors interact with other proteins in the nucleus, resulting in up- or down-regulation of specific gene transcription.[18] Up-regulation or activation of transcription results in increased synthesis of messenger RNA, which, in turn, is translated by ribosomes to produce specific proteins. One of the known target genes of androgen receptor activation is the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R).[19] Thus, changes in levels of specific proteins in cells is one way that androgen receptors control cell behavior.

One function of androgen receptor that is independent of direct binding to its target DNA sequence, is facilitated by recruitment via other DNA-binding proteins. One example is serum response factor, a protein that activates several genes that cause muscle growth.[20]

Androgen receptor is modified by acetylation, which directly promotes contact independent growth of prostate cancer cells.[21]

Non-genomic[edit]

More recently, androgen receptors have been shown to have a second mode of action. As has been also found for other steroid hormone receptors such as estrogen receptors, androgen receptors can have actions that are independent of their interactions with DNA.[12][22] Androgen receptors interact with certain signal transduction proteins in the cytoplasm. Androgen binding to cytoplasmic androgen receptors can cause rapid changes in cell function independent of changes in gene transcription, such as changes in ion transport. Regulation of signal transduction pathways by cytoplasmic androgen receptors can indirectly lead to changes in gene transcription, for example, by leading to phosphorylation of other transcription factors.

Genetics[edit]

Gene[edit]

In humans, the androgen receptor is encoded by the AR gene located on the X chromosome at Xq11-12.[23][24]

AR deficiencies[edit]

The androgen insensitivity syndrome, formerly known as testicular feminization, is caused by a mutation of the androgen receptor gene located on the X chromosome (locus:Xq11-Xq12).[25] The androgen receptor seems to affect neuron physiology and is defective in Kennedy's disease.[26][27] In addition, point mutations and trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms has been linked to a number of additional disorders.[28]

Structure[edit]

Structural domains of the two isoforms (AR-A and AR-B) of the human androgen receptor. Numbers above the bars refer to the amino acid residues that separate the domains starting from the N-terminus (left) to C-terminus (right). NTD = N-terminal domain, DBD = DNA binding domain. LBD = ligand binding domain. AF = activation function.

Isoforms[edit]

Two isoforms of the androgen receptor (A and B) have been identified:[29]

  • AR-A - 87 kDa - N-terminus truncated (lacks the first 187 amino acids), which results from in vitro proteolysis.[30]
  • AR-B - 110 kDa - full length

Domains[edit]

Like other nuclear receptors, the androgen receptor is modular in structure and is composed of the following functional domains labeled A through F:[31]

  • A/B) - N-terminal regulatory domain contains:[32]
    • activation function 1 (AF-1) between residues 101 and 370 required for full ligand activated transcriptional activity
    • activation function 5 (AF-5) between residues 360-485 is responsible for the constitutive activity (activity without bound ligand)
    • dimerization surface involving residues 1-36 (containing the FXXLF motif where F = phenylalanine, L = leucine, and X = any amino acid residue) and 370-494, both of which interact with the LBD in an intramolecular[33][34][35] head-to-tail interaction[36][37][38]
  • C) - DNA binding domain (DBD)
  • D) - Hinge region - flexible region that connects the DBD with the LBD; along with the DBD, contains a ligand dependent nuclear localization signal[39]
  • E) - Ligand binding domain (LBD) containing
    • activation function 2 (AF-2), responsible for agonist induced activity (activity in the presence of bound agonist)
    • AF-2 binds either the N-terminal FXXFL motif intramolecularly or coactivator proteins (containing the LXXLL or preferably FXXFL motifs)[38]
    • A ligand dependent nuclear export signal[40]
  • F) - C-terminal domain

Splice variants[edit]

AR-V7 is an androgen receptor splice variant that can be detected in circulating tumor cells of metastatic prostate cancer patients.[41][42] and is predictive of resistance to some drugs.[43]

As a drug target[edit]

AR inhibitors[edit]

AR antagonists: flutamide, nilutamide, bicalutamide, enzalutamide, apalutamide, cyproterone acetate, megestrol acetate, chlormadinone acetate, spironolactone, canrenone, drospirenone, ketoconazole, topilutamide (fluridil), cimetidine.

AR agonists[edit]

See Selective androgen receptor modulator

Interactions[edit]

Androgen receptor has been shown to interact with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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