Jump to content


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Androgynous)

Androgyny is the possession of both masculine and feminine characteristics.[1] Androgyny may be expressed with regard to biological sex, gender identity, or gender expression.

When androgyny refers to mixed biological sex characteristics in humans, it often refers to conditions in which characteristics of both sexes are clearly expressed in a single individual, with fully developed sexual organs of both sexes, also called hermaphrodites.[2] It also refers to intersex people, who are born with congenital variations that complicate assigning their sex at birth, but do not have fully developed sexual organs of both sexes.

Regarding gender identity, androgynous individuals may identify as transgender or non-binary and use this as a form of gender expression, in which androgyny has fluctuated in popularity in different cultures and throughout history. Physically, an androgynous appearance may be achieved through personal grooming, fashion, or hormone treatment, and may not present as distinctly male or female.


The term derives from Ancient Greek: ἀνδρόγυνος, from ἀνήρ, stem ἀνδρ- (anér, andro-, meaning man) and γυνή (gunē, gyné, meaning woman) through the Latin: androgynus.[3]


Androgyny is attested from earliest history and across world cultures. In ancient Sumer, androgynous and intersex men were heavily involved in the cult of Inanna.[4]: 157–158  A set of priests known as gala worked in Inanna's temples, where they performed elegies and lamentations.[4]: 285  Gala took female names, spoke in the eme-sal dialect, which was traditionally reserved for women, and appear to have engaged in sexual acts with men.[5] In later Mesopotamian cultures, kurgarrū and assinnu were servants of the goddess Ishtar (Inanna's East Semitic equivalent), who dressed in female clothing and performed war dances in Ishtar's temples.[5] Several Akkadian proverbs seem to suggest that they may have also engaged in sexual activity with men.[5] Gwendolyn Leick, an anthropologist known for her writings on Mesopotamia, has compared these individuals to the contemporary Indian hijra.[4]: 158–163  In one Akkadian hymn, Ishtar is described as transforming men into women.[5] The 2nd century CE Mishnah, a foundational text of Rabbinic Judaism, mentions the term androgynos 32 times. In one mention, Rabbi Meir describes the androgynos as "a creation of its own type, which the sages could not decide whether is male or female".[6]

The ancient Greek myth of Hermaphroditus and Salmacis, two divinities who fused into a single immortal – provided a frame of reference used in Western culture for centuries. Androgyny and homosexuality are also seen in Plato's Symposium, in a myth where humanity started as three sexes: male-male people that descended from the sun, female-female people who descended from Earth, and male-female people who came from the Moon.[7] This is one of the earlier written references to androgyny - and the only case in classical Greek texts that female homosexuality (lesbianism) is ever mentioned.

Philosophers such as Philo of Alexandria, and early Christian leaders such as Origen and Gregory of Nyssa, continued to promote the idea of androgyny as humans' original and perfect state during late antiquity."[8] In medieval Europe, the concept of androgyny played an important role in both Christian theological debate and alchemical theory. Influential theologians such as John of Damascus and John Scotus Eriugena continued to promote the pre-fall androgyny proposed by the early Church Fathers, while other clergy expounded and debated the proper view and treatment of contemporary hermaphrodites.[8]

Modern history[edit]

Western esotericism's embrace of androgyny continued into the modern period. A 1550 anthology of alchemical thought, De Alchemia, included the influential Rosary of the Philosophers, which depicts the sacred marriage of the masculine principle (Sol) with the feminine principle (Luna) producing the "Divine Androgyne," a representation of alchemical Hermetic beliefs in dualism, transformation, and the transcendental perfection of the union of opposites.[9]

The symbolism and meaning of androgyny was a central preoccupation of the German mystic Jakob Böhme and the Swedish philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg. The philosophical concept of the "Universal Androgyne" (or "Universal Hermaphrodite") – a perfect merging of the sexes that predated the current corrupted world and/or was the utopia of the next – is also important in some strains of Rosicrucianism[10][11] and in philosophical traditions such as Swedenborgianism and Theosophy.[citation needed] Twentieth century architect Claude Fayette Bragdon expressed the concept mathematically as a magic square, using it as building block in many of his most noted buildings.[12]

In the mid-18th century, the macaronis of Georgian-era England were a wealthy subculture of young men, known for androgynous gender expression.[13] Their unusually large wigs, lavish fashion, and sentimental behavior prompted backlash from conservative generations of the time. In 1770, the Oxford Dictionary declared, "There is indeed a kind of animal, neither male nor female, a thing of the neuter gender, lately started up among us. It is called a macaroni."[14] An example is portrait artist Richard Cosway, referred to as "the Macaroni artist."[15]


In psychological study, various measures have been used to characterize gender, such as the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire.[16]

Masculine traits are categorized as agentic and instrumental, dealing with assertiveness and analytical skill. Feminine traits are categorized as communal and expressive, dealing with empathy and subjectivity.[17] Androgynous individuals exhibit behavior that extends beyond what is normally associated with their given sex.[18] Due to the possession of both masculine and feminine characteristics, androgynous individuals have access to a wider array of psychological competencies in regards to emotional regulation, communication styles, and situational adaptability. Androgynous individuals have also been associated with higher levels of creativity and mental health.[19][20]

Bem Sex-Role Inventory[edit]

The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) was constructed by the early leading proponent of androgyny, Sandra Bem (1977).[21][22] The BSRI is one of the most widely used gender measures. Based on an individual's responses to the items in the BSRI, they are classified as having one of four gender role orientations: masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated. Bem understood that both masculine and feminine characteristics could be expressed by anyone and it would determine those gender role orientations.[23]

An androgynous person is an individual who has a high degree of both feminine (expressive) and masculine (instrumental) traits. A feminine individual is ranked high on feminine (expressive) traits and ranked low on masculine (instrumental) traits. A masculine individual is ranked high on instrumental traits and ranked low on expressive traits. An undifferentiated person is low on both feminine and masculine traits.[21]

According to Sandra Bem, androgynous individuals are more flexible and more mentally healthy than either masculine or feminine individuals; undifferentiated individuals are less competent.[21] More recent research has debunked this idea, at least to some extent, and Bem herself has found weaknesses in her original pioneering work.[citation needed] Now she prefers to work with gender schema theory.

One study found that masculine and androgynous individuals had higher expectations for being able to control the outcomes of their academic efforts than feminine or undifferentiated individuals.[24]

Personal Attributes Questionnaire[edit]

The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) was developed in the 70s by Janet Spence, Robert Helmreich, and Joy Stapp. This test asked subjects to complete a survey consisting of three sets of scales relating to masculinity, femininity, and masculinity-femininity. These scales had sets of adjectives commonly associated with males, females, and both. These descriptors were chosen based on typical characteristics as rated by a population of undergrad students. Similar to the BSRI, the PAQ labeled androgynous individuals as people who ranked highly in both the areas of masculinity and femininity. However, Spence and Helmreich considered androgyny to be a descriptor of high levels of masculinity and femininity as opposed to a category in and of itself.[16]

Biological sex[edit]

Historically, the word androgynous was applied to humans with a mixture of male and female sex characteristics, and was sometimes used synonymously with the term hermaphrodite.[25] In some disciplines, such as botany, androgynous and hermaphroditic are still used interchangeably.

When androgyny is used to refer to physical traits, it often refers to a person whose biological sex is difficult to discern at a glance because of their mixture of male and female characteristics. Because androgyny encompasses additional meanings related to gender identity and gender expression that are distinct from biological sex, today the word androgynous is rarely used to formally describe mixed biological sex characteristics in humans.[26] In modern English, the word intersex is used to more precisely describe individuals with mixed or ambiguous sex characteristics. However, both intersex and non-intersex people can exhibit a mixture of male and female sex traits such as hormone levels, type of internal and external genitalia, and the appearance of secondary sex characteristics.

Gender identity[edit]

An individual's gender identity, a personal sense of one's own gender, may be described as androgynous if they feel that they have both masculine and feminine aspects. The word androgyne can refer to a person who does not fit neatly into one of the typical masculine or feminine gender roles of their society, or to a person whose gender is a mixture of male and female, not necessarily half-and-half. Many androgynous individuals identify as being mentally or emotionally both masculine and feminine. They may also identify as "gender-neutral", "genderqueer", or "non-binary".[citation needed][27] A person who is androgynous may engage freely in what is seen as masculine or feminine behaviors as well as tasks. They may have a balanced identity that includes the virtues of both men and women and may disassociate the task with what gender they may be socially or physically assigned to.[28] People who identify as androgynous typically disregard which traits are culturally constructed specifically for males and females within a society, and rather focus on what behavior is most effective within the situational circumstance.[28]

Some non-Western cultures recognize additional androgynous gender identities, called third genders.

Gender expression[edit]

Louise Brooks exemplified the flapper. Flappers challenged traditional gender roles and had boyish hair cuts and androgynous figures.[29]

Gender expression that includes a mixture of masculine and feminine characteristics can be described as androgynous. The categories of masculine and feminine in gender expression are socially constructed, and rely on shared conceptions of clothing, behavior, communication style, and other aspects of presentation. In some cultures, androgynous gender expression has been celebrated, while in others, androgynous expression has been limited or suppressed. To say that a culture or relationship is androgynous is to say that it lacks rigid gender roles, or has blurred lines between gender roles.

The word genderqueer is often used by androgynous individuals to refer to themselves, but the terms genderqueer and androgynous are neither equivalent nor interchangeable.[30] Genderqueer, by virtue of its ties with queer culture, carries sociopolitical connotations that androgyny does not carry. For the association with homosexuality, some androgynes may find the label genderqueer inaccurate, inapplicable, or offensive. Androgyneity is considered by some to be a viable alternative to androgyn for differentiating internal (psychological) factors from external (visual) factors.[31][unreliable source?]

An alternative to androgyny is gender-role transcendence: the view that individual competence should be conceptualized on a personal basis rather than on the basis of masculinity, femininity, or androgyny.[32]

In agenderism, the division of people into women and men (in the psychical sense), is considered erroneous and artificial.[33] Agendered individuals are those who reject gender labeling in conception of self-identity and other matters.[34][35][36][37] They see their subjectivity through the term person instead of woman or man.[34]: p.16  According to E. O. Wright, genderless people can have traits, behaviors and dispositions that correspond to what is currently viewed as feminine and masculine, and the mix of these would vary across persons. Nevertheless, it does not suggest that everyone would be androgynous in their identities and practices in the absence of gendered relations. What disappears in the idea of genderlessness is any expectation that some characteristics and dispositions are strictly attributed to a person of any biological sex.[38]

Contemporary trends[edit]

Labor leader Luisa Capetillo wearing men's clothing

Throughout most of twentieth century Western history, social rules have restricted people's dress according to gender. Trousers were traditionally a male form of dress, frowned upon for women.[39] However, during the 19th century, female spies were introduced and Vivandières wore a certain uniform with a dress over trousers. Women activists during that time would also decide to wear trousers, for example Luisa Capetillo, a women's rights activist and the first woman in Puerto Rico to wear trousers in public.[40]

Yves Saint Laurent, the tuxedo suit "Le Smoking", created in 1966

In the 20th century, starting around World War I traditional gender roles blurred and fashion pioneers such as Paul Poiret and Coco Chanel introduced trousers to women's fashion. The "flapper style" for women of this era included trousers and a chic bob, which gave women an androgynous look.[41] Coco Chanel, who had a love for wearing trousers herself, created trouser designs for women such as beach pajamas and horse-riding attire.[39] During the 1930s, glamorous actresses such as Marlene Dietrich fascinated and shocked many with their strong desire to wear trousers and adopt the androgynous style. Dietrich is remembered as one of the first actresses to wear trousers in a premiere.[42]

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the women's liberation movement is likely to have contributed to ideas and influenced fashion designers, such as Yves Saint Laurent.[43] Yves Saint Laurent designed the Le Smoking suit and introduced it in 1966, while Helmut Newton's erotized androgynous photographs of the suit made it iconic and a classic.[44]

Elvis Presley introduced an androgynous style in rock'n'roll.[45] His pretty face and use of eye makeup often made people think he was a rather "effeminate guy",[46] When the Rolling Stones played London's Hyde Park in 1969, Mick Jagger wore a white "man's dress" designed by Michael Fish.[47] Fish was the most fashionable shirt-maker in London, the inventor of the Kipper tie, and a principal taste-maker of the peacock revolution in men's fashion.[48] His creation for Mick Jagger was considered to be the epitome of the swinging 60s.[49]

Pop stars Boy George (pictured) and Annie Lennox appeared on the front cover of Smash Hits magazine in December 1983 in identical makeup, followed by the cover of Newsweek in January 1984 to mark a second British Invasion.[50] Music journalist Sue Steward wrote that the Smash Hits cover "begged the question, 'Which one is the boy?'"[51]

In 1972, David Bowie presented his alter ego Ziggy Stardust, a character that was a symbol of sexual ambiguity when he launched the album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and Spiders from Mars.[52] Marc Bolan, the other pioneer of glam rock, performed on the BBC's Top of the Pops in 1971 wearing glitter and satins, with The Independent stating his appearance "permitted a generation of teeny-boppers to begin playing with the idea of androgyny".[53] The 1973 West End musical The Rocky Horror Show also depicted sexual fluidity.[54]

Continuing into the 1980s, the rise of avant-garde fashion designers like Yohji Yamamoto,[55] challenged the social constructs around gender. They reinvigorated androgyny in fashion, addressing gender issues. This was also reflected within pop culture icons during the 1980s, such as Grace Jones, Prince, Annie Lennox and Boy George.[50][56]

X Japan founder Yoshiki is often labelled androgynous, known for having worn lace dresses and acting effeminate during performances.[57]

Power dressing for women became even more prominent within the 1980s which was previously only something done by men in order to look structured and powerful. However, during the 1980s this began to take a turn as women were entering jobs with equal roles to the men. In the article "The Menswear Phenomenon" by Kathleen Beckett written for Vogue in 1984 the concept of power dressing is explored as women entered these jobs they had no choice but to tailor their wardrobes accordingly, eventually leading the ascension of power dressing as a popular style for women.[58] Women begin to find through fashion they can incite men to pay more attention to the seduction of their mental prowess rather, than the physical attraction of their appearance. This influence in the fashion world quickly makes its way to the world of film, with movies like "Working Girl" using power dressing women as their main subject matter.

Japanese designers began popularizing androgynous fashion in the 1980s, as seen in the work of Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo, who brought in a distinct Japanese style that adopted distinctively gender ambiguous theme. These two designers consider themselves a part of the avant-garde, reinvigorating Japanism.[59] Yamamoto has expressed the lack of necessity behind gender distinctions, stating "I always wonder who decided that there should be a difference in the clothes of men and women" [60]

Also during the 1980s, Grace Jones, a singer and fashion model, gender-thwarted appearance in the 1980s, which startled the public. Her androgynous style inspired many and she became an androgynous style icon for modern celebrities.[61]

South Korean pop star G-Dragon is often noted for his androgynous looks.[62][63]

Androgyny has been gaining more prominence in popular culture in the early 21st century.[64] Both the fashion industry[65] and pop culture have accepted and even popularized the "androgynous" look, with several current celebrities being hailed as creative trendsetters.

The rise of the metrosexual in the first decade of the 2000s has also been described as a related phenomenon associated with this trend. Traditional gender stereotypes have been challenged and changed since the 1960s, which included the hippie movement and flower power. Artists in film such as Leonardo DiCaprio sported the "skinny" look in the 1990s, a departure from traditional masculinity, which resulted in the fad "Leo Mania".[66] Musical stars such as Kurt Cobain of Nirvana, Andre 3000, and the band Placebo have used clothing and makeup to popularize androgynous and genderqueer aesthetics throughout the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s.[67]

While the 1990s unrolled and fashion developed an affinity for unisex clothes, there was a rise of designers who favored that look, including Helmut Lang, Giorgio Armani, and Pierre Cardin. Men in catalogues started wearing jewellery, make up, visual kei, and designer stubble. These styles have become a significant mainstream trend of the 21st century, both in the Western world and in Asia.[68] Japanese and Korean cultures have featured the androgynous look as a positive attribute in society, as depicted in both K-pop, J-pop,[69] in anime and manga,[70] as well as the fashion industry.[71]

Symbols and iconography[edit]

In the ancient and medieval worlds, androgynous people and/or hermaphrodites were represented in art by the caduceus, a wand of transformative power in ancient Greco-Roman mythology. The caduceus was created by Tiresias and represents his transformation into a woman by Juno in punishment for striking at mating snakes. The caduceus was later carried by Hermes/Mercury and was the basis for the astronomical symbol for the planet Mercury and the botanical sign for hermaphrodite. That sign is now sometimes used for transgender people.

Another common androgyny icon in the medieval and early modern period was the Rebis, a conjoined male and female figure, often with solar and lunar motifs. Still another symbol was what is today called sun cross, which united the cross (or saltire) symbol for male with the circle for female.[72] This sign is now the astronomical symbol for the planet Earth.[73]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Chris Park; Michael Allaby (2017). A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. Androgyny. ISBN 9780191826320.
  2. ^ "Androgyny | Gender Identity, Gender Expression & Non-Binary | Britannica". www.britannica.com. 8 April 2024. Retrieved 4 May 2024.
  3. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary: androgynous". Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  4. ^ a b c Leick, Gwendolyn (2013) [1994]. Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature. New York City, New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-92074-7. Archived from the original on 21 March 2023. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d Roscoe, Will; Murray, Stephen O. (1997). Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature. New York City, New York: New York University Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-8147-7467-9. Archived from the original on 21 March 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  6. ^ "Mishnah Bikkurim 4:5". www.sefaria.org. Archived from the original on 10 August 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  7. ^ Plato; Cobb, William S. (1993). The Symposium and The Phaedrus: Plato's erotic dialogues. SUNY series in ancient Greek philosophy. Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-1617-4.
  8. ^ a b van der Lugt, Maaike, "Sex Difference in Medieval Theology and Canon Law," Medieval Feminist Forum (University of Iowa) vol. 46 no. 1 (2010): 101–121
  9. ^ Hauck, Dennis William (2008). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Alchemy. New York: Alpha Books. ISBN 9781592577354. OCLC 176917711.
  10. ^ Atkinson, William Walker (2012). Marsh, Clint (ed.). The Secret Doctrine of the Rosicrucians. San Francisco, CA: Weiser Books. pp. 52–61. ISBN 9781578635344. OCLC 792888485.
  11. ^ Rosicrucian Order, AMORC (13 December 2011). "Rosicrucian Prophecies" (PDF). rose-croix.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  12. ^ Ellis, Eugenia Victoria (June 2004). "Geomantic Mathematical (re)Creation: Magic Squares and Claude Bragdon's Theosophic Architecture". Nexus V: Architecture and Mathematics: 79-92.
  13. ^ Rauser, Amelia (2004). "Hair, Authenticity, and the Self-Made Macaroni". Eighteenth-Century Studies. 38 (1): 101–117. ISSN 0013-2586.
  14. ^ Shipley, Joseph Twadell (1 July 2001). The Origins of English Words: A Discursive Dictionary of Indo-European Roots. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9643-9. Archived from the original on 21 March 2023. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  15. ^ McNeil, Peter (1 January 2018). Pretty Gentlemen: Macaroni Men and the Eighteenth-century Fashion World. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-21746-9. Archived from the original on 21 March 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  16. ^ a b Cook, Ellen Piel (1985). Psychological Androgyny. Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-031613-1.
  17. ^ Sargent, Alice G. (1981). The Androgynous Manager. New York: AMACOM. ISBN 0-8144-5568-9.
  18. ^ Rogers, Kara (6 February 2009). "Androgyny". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 30 June 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  19. ^ Gartzia, Leire; Pizzaro, Jon; Baniandres, Josune (2018). "Emotional Androgyny: A Preventive Factor of Psychosocial Risks at Work?". Frontiers in Psychology. 9: 2144. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02144. PMC 6275296. PMID 30534094.
  20. ^ Kaufman, Scott Barry (1 September 2013). "Blurred Lines, Androgyny and Creativity". Scientific American Blog Network. Archived from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  21. ^ a b c Santrock, J. W. (2008). A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development. New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies. 007760637X [page needed]
  22. ^ "Sandra Lipsitz Bem". faculty.webster.edu. Retrieved 20 June 2023.
  23. ^ DeFrancisco, Victoria L. (2014). Gender in Communication. SAGE Publications. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4522-2009-3.
  24. ^ Choi, N. (2004). Sex role group differences in specific, academic, and general self-efficacy. Journal of Psychology, 138, 149–159.
  25. ^ "Androgyny | psychology". Archived from the original on 30 June 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  26. ^ "What is intersex? | Intersex Society of North America". Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  27. ^ "Advanced Trans* Terminology" (PDF). Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  28. ^ a b Woodhill, Brenda; Samuels, Curtis (2004). "Desirable and Undesirable Androgyny: A Prescription for the Twenty-First Century". Journal of Gender Studies. 13: 15–28. doi:10.1080/09589236.2004.10599911. S2CID 146597061.
  29. ^ New world coming: the 1920s and the making of modern America. New York: Scribner, 2003, p. 253, ISBN 978-0-684-85295-9.
  30. ^ "Definition of Genderqueer". Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  31. ^ "Psychological Androgyny -- A Personal Take". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  32. ^ Pleck, J. H. (1995). "The gender-role strain paradigm". In R. F. Levant & W. S. Pollack (Eds.), A new psychology of men. New York: Basic Books.
  33. ^ Butler, Judith P. (1993). Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex'. New York: Routledge. pp. 2–3. ISBN 9780415903660. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  34. ^ a b Galupo, M. Paz; Pulice-Farrow, Lex; Ramirez, Johanna L. (2017). ""Like a Constantly Flowing River": Gender Identity Flexibility Among Nonbinary Transgender Individuals". Identity Flexibility During Adulthood. pp. 163–177. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-55658-1_10. ISBN 978-3-319-55656-7.
  35. ^ Johanna Schorn. "Taking the "Sex" out of Transsexual: Representations of Trans Identities in Popular Media" (PDF). Inter-Disciplinary.Net. Universität zu Köln. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  36. ^ Galupo, M. Paz; Henise, Shane B.; Davis, Kyle S. (2014). "Transgender microaggressions in the context of friendship: Patterns of experience across friends' sexual orientation and gender identity". Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity. 1 (4): 462. CiteSeerX doi:10.1037/sgd0000075.
  37. ^ Sumerau, J. E.; Cragun, R. T.; Mathers, L. A. B. (2015). "Contemporary Religion and the Cisgendering of Reality". Social Currents. 3 (3): 2. doi:10.1177/2329496515604644. S2CID 148049302.
  38. ^ Erik Olin Wright (2011). "In defense of genderlessness (The Sex-Gender Distinction)". In Axel Gosseries, Philippe Vanderborght (ed.). Arguing about justice. Louvain: Presses universitaires de Louvain. pp. 403–413. ISBN 9782874632754. Archived from the original on 22 April 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  39. ^ a b Ewing, E.; Mackrell, A. (2002). History of Twentieth Century Fashion. LA: Quite Specific Media Group Ltd.
  40. ^ Valle-Ferrer, Norma (1 June 2006). Luisa Capetillo, Pioneer Puerto Rican Feminist: With the collaboration of students from the Graduate Program in Translation, The University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras, Spring 1991. Peter Lang Publishing Inc. ISBN 9780820442853.
  41. ^ Köksal, Duygu; Falierou, Anastasia (10 October 2013). A Social History of Late Ottoman Women: New Perspectives. BRILL. ISBN 9789004255258.
  42. ^ "Harriet Fisher". The Queen of Androgyny – Marlene Dietrich – Blog. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  43. ^ Kohn, Sally (21 July 2015). "The Seventies: The sex freakout". CNN. Archived from the original on 22 May 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  44. ^ Moet, Sophie (1 May 2014). "Androgyny and Feminism". Sophie Moet. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  45. ^ "Elvis Never Gets Credit for One of His Greatest Gifts to Rock 'n Roll". Observer. 8 January 2016. Archived from the original on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  46. ^ Daniel, Pete (1 January 2000). Lost Revolutions: The South in the 1950s. Univ of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9780807848487.
  47. ^ Baker, Lindsay. "His or hers: Will androgynous fashion catch on?". www.bbc.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  48. ^ Elan, Priya (13 March 2016). "Peacock revolution back with label that dressed Mick Jagger and David Bowie". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 10 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  49. ^ "Mick Jagger's white dress cast him as a romantic hero". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 8 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  50. ^ a b "Boy George, The Man". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2021. Newsweek put Boy George and Eurythmic Annie Lennox on a cover heralding a second British Invasion, pop's gender benders
  51. ^ Steward, Sue (1984). Signed, Sealed, and Delivered: True Life Stories of Women in Pop. South End Press. p. 51.
  52. ^ Lalovic, Itana (19 November 2013). "Androgyny in the fashion world". Wall Street International. Archived from the original on 25 May 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  53. ^ Sherwin, Adam (29 October 2013). "Box-set billed as the definitive guide to Seventies music genre has further ostracised its disgraced former star". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  54. ^ Berman, Judy (25 September 2015). "We Live in the World 'Rocky Horror' Created". Flavorwire. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  55. ^ "Global Influences: Challenging Western Traditions". London: Berg.
  56. ^ Andrew Anthony (10 October 2010). "Annie Lennox: the interview". The Observer. London, UK. Archived from the original on 23 October 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  57. ^ Ian Chapman, Henry Johnson, ed. (2016). Global Glam and Popular Music: Style and Spectacle from the 1970s to the 2000s. Routledge. pp. 203–205. ISBN 9781317588191. Archived from the original on 21 March 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  58. ^ "The Menswear Phenomenon". Vogue; Conde Nast.
  59. ^ "Global Influences: Challenging Western Traditions". London: Berg.
  60. ^ "How Japanese designers pioneered gender-neutral dressing". The Independent. 13 December 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2024.
  61. ^ "Androgynous Fashion Moments". Highsnobiety. 14 May 2015. Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  62. ^ "Move over, Psy! Here comes G-Dragon style". The Independent. 17 August 2014. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  63. ^ "K-pop: a beginner's guide". The Guardian. 3 March 2014. Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  64. ^ "Androgyny becoming global?". uniorb.com. Archived from the original on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  65. ^ Wendlandt, Astrid. "Androgynous look back for spring". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  66. ^ Peter Hartlaub (24 February 2005). "The teenage fans from 'Titanic' days jump ship as Leonardo DiCaprio moves on". sfgate.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  67. ^ Cavendish, Marshall (2010). Sex and Society, Vol 1. Paul Bernabeo. p. 69.
  68. ^ "Androgynous look catches on". The Himalayan Times. 13–16 September 2010. Archived from the original on 19 November 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  69. ^ "Harajuku Girls Harajuku Clothes And Harajuku Gothic fashion Secrets". Tokyo Top Guide. Archived from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  70. ^ "Profile of Kagerou". jpopasia.com. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  71. ^ Webb, Martin (13 November 2005). "Japan Fashion Week in Tokyo 2005. A stitch in time?". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  72. ^ William Wallace Atkinson, The Secret Doctrines of the Rosicrucians (London: L.N. Fowler & Co., 1918), 53-54.
  73. ^ "Solar System Symbols". Solar System Exploration: NASA Science. Archived from the original on 20 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2018.

External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of androgyny at Wiktionary