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Google Pay

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Google Pay
Google Pay Logo (2020).svg
The new Google Pay (2020).png
Pay tab of the new Google Pay application
Developer(s)Google
Initial releaseMay 26, 2011; 11 years ago (2011-05-26) (as Google Wallet)
September 11, 2015; 6 years ago (2015-09-11) (as Android Pay)
January 8, 2018; 4 years ago (2018-01-08) (as Google Pay)
Stable release(s) [±]
Operating systemAndroid Lollipop 5.0 or later
iOS 11 or later (US and India only)
TypeDigital wallet
LicenseProprietary
Websitepay.google.com

Google Pay (stylized as G Pay; formerly Android Pay) is a digital wallet platform and online payment system developed by Google to power in-app, online, and in-person contactless purchases on mobile devices, enabling users to make payments with Android phones, tablets, or watches. Users in the United States and India can also use an iOS device, albeit with limited functionality. In addition to this, the service also supports passes such as coupons, boarding passes, campus ID cards, car keys, event tickets, movie tickets, public transportation tickets, store cards, health records, and loyalty cards.

As of 2021, it is currently available in 42 countries.[1] In 2022, a companion app named Google Wallet was announced.

Service

Google Pay uses near-field communication (NFC) to transmit card information facilitating funds transfer to the retailer. It replaces the credit or debit card chip and PIN or magnetic stripe transaction at point-of-sale terminals by allowing the user to upload these in the Google Pay wallet. It is similar to contactless payments already used in many countries, with the addition of two-factor authentication. The service lets Android devices wirelessly communicate with point of sale systems using a near field communication (NFC) antenna, host-based card emulation (HCE), and Android's security.

Google Pay takes advantage of physical authentications such as fingerprint ID where available. On devices without fingerprint ID, Google Pay is activated with a passcode. When the user makes a payment to a merchant, Google Pay does not send the credit or debit card number with the payment. Instead, it generates a virtual account number representing the user's account information. This service keeps customer payment information private, sending a one-time security code instead of the card or user details.[2]

Google Pay requires that a screen lock be set on the phone.[3] It has no card limit.[4][5][6]

Users can add payment cards to the service by taking a photo of the card, or by entering the card information manually. To pay at points of sale, users hold their authenticated device to the point of sale system. The service has smart-authentication, allowing the system to detect when the device is considered secure (for instance if unlocked in the last five minutes) and challenge if necessary for unlock information.[7] Spring CEO Alan Tisch said Google Pay improves mobile shopping business by supporting a "buy button" powered by Google Pay integrated within vendor's creative design.[8]

Technology

Google Pay uses the EMV Payment Tokenisation Specification.[9]

The service keeps customer payment information private from the retailer by replacing the customer's credit or debit card Funding Primary Account Number (FPAN) with a tokenized Device Primary Account Number (DPAN) and creates a "dynamic security code [...] generated for each transaction". The "dynamic security code" is the cryptogram in an EMV-mode transaction, and the Dynamic Card Verification Value (dCVV) in a magnetic-stripe-data emulation-mode transaction. Users can also remotely halt the service on a lost phone via Google's Find My Device service.

To pay at points of sale, users hold their authenticated Android device to the point-of-sale system's NFC reader. Android users authenticate unlocking their phone by using biometrics, a pattern, or a passcode, whereas Wear OS users authenticate by opening the app prior to payment.[10] To pay in supported Android apps, users choose Google Pay as their payment method and authenticate with biometrics, a pattern, or a passcode. Users can add payment cards to the service in any of four ways: through the payment card listed on their Google accounts, by taking a photo of the card, being provisioned from within the card issuer's app, or by entering the card information manually.

Consumer Device Cardholder Verification Method (CDCVM)

In EMV-mode transactions, Google Pay supports the use of the Consumer Device Cardholder Verification Method (CDCVM) using biometrics, pattern, or the phone's or watch's passcode. The use of CDCVM allows the device itself to provide verification for the transaction and may not require the cardholder to sign a receipt or enter their PIN. Additionally, in certain markets which have a "no verification contactless limit" using contactless cards (such as the £100 limit in the United Kingdom and the C$100 limit in Canada), the use of CDCVM can enable merchants to accept transactions higher than these amounts using Google Pay, provided that their terminal software is updated to support the latest network contactless specifications.[11][12]

History

Originally launched as Android Pay, the service was released at Google I/O 2015. Android Pay was a successor to and built on the base established by Google Wallet which was released in 2011.[13] It also used technology from the carrier-backed Softcard—Google had acquired its intellectual property in February 2015.[2][14] At launch, the service was compatible with 70% of Android devices and was accepted at over 700,000 merchants.[2] Google Wallet still powered web-based Play Store purchases and some app-based peer-to-peer payments, for instance, in Gmail.[2]

The logo of the former branding of the service, Android Pay

In 2016, Google began a public trial in Silicon Valley of a related mobile app called Hands Free. In this system, the customer does not need to present a phone or card. Instead, a customer announces that they wish to "pay with Google" and give their initials to the cashier, who verifies their identity with a photo previously uploaded to the system. The customer's phone will only authorize payment if its geographic location system indicates that it is near a participating store.[15][16]

On September 18, 2017, Google launched a payments app in India known as Tez, utilizing the Unified Payments Interface (UPI).[17] On August 28, 2018, Google rebranded Tez to Google Pay.[18]

Android Pay and Google Wallet become Google Pay

Google Pay acceptance mark

On January 8, 2018, Google announced that Google Wallet would be merged into Android Pay, with the service as a whole rebranded as Google Pay.[19][20] This merger extends the platform into web-based payments integrated into other Google and third-party services. It also took over the branding of Google Chrome's autofill feature.[21] Google Pay adopts the features of both Android Pay and Google Wallet through its in-store, peer-to-peer, and online payments services.[22][19]

The rebranding began to roll out as an update to the Android Pay app on February 20, 2018; the app was given an updated design and now displays a personalized list of nearby stores that support Google Pay.[23][24][25] The rebranded service provided a new API that allows merchants to add the payment service to websites, apps, Stripe, Braintree, and Google Assistant.[26] The service allows users to use the payment cards they have on file in their Google Account.[27]

International deployment

Upon its UK launch,[when?] Android Pay supported Mastercard, Visa, and debit cards from many of the UK's major financial institutions – including Bank of Scotland, First Direct, Halifax, HSBC, Lloyds Bank, M&S Bank, MBNA and Nationwide Building Society – "with new banks being added all the time", according to Google.[citation needed] Natwest, RBS and Ulster Bank launched on September 14, 2016. On September 8, 2016 it was reported that UK banks TSB and Santander would be participating in the following weeks.[28] Android Pay was launched in Singapore on June 28, 2016[29] and in Australia on July 14, 2016.[30][31]

Android Pay launched in the Republic of Ireland on December 7, 2016 and was initially available to customers of AIB and KBC, having since been extended to Bank of Ireland and Ulster Bank. The service works with both credit and debit cards.[32]

On December 21, 2018, Google Payment obtained an e-money license in Lithuania – the license will enable Google to process payments, issue e-money, and handle electronic money wallets in the EU.[33][34]

On November 17, 2020, Google Pay was enabled by Mastercard in ten new European countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Portugal, and Romania.[35] Cardholders of participating Mastercard partner banks for these countries will be able to use the Google Pay service through their respective mobile banking apps. The Google Pay app won't be available for download, as stated by Google in Google Pay Help page.[36]

On May 18, 2021, Google announced that it would expand Google Pay for Wear OS to be available in 26 more countries that Google Pay for Android had previously had exclusivity in.[37]

On June 30, 2022, it was announced at the Google for Mexico event that Google Pay & the Google Wallet app would soon be available in Mexico.[38]

2020 companion app

On November 18, 2020, Google launched a companion app known as "GPay" in the United States. It functions as an expansion of the Singaporean and Indian versions of the app, which were based on Tez. The companion app is different from the core Google Wallet app in that it contains messaging capabilities, an "Explore" tab for viewing and redeeming personalized offers (including discounts and cashback rewards) and searching Google Shopping by barcode, "Get gas" and "Order food" buttons that can integrate with participating filling stations and restaurants, the ability to integrate with banks to track financial status from the new "Insights" tab. Users can search their transaction history, and can scan receipts with OCR using their device's camera, or through Gmail messages and Google Photos, to add them to their records. Google is also introducing a platform known as "Plex", which will allow online banks to offer checking and savings accounts directly through the app.[39] The GPay companion app uses phone numbers for authentication rather than Google accounts, and contacts cannot be imported from the previous app. Google abandoned its plans for Plex in September 2021.[40]

The new version of GPay replaced the Tez app on the Play Store, with the existing Google Pay app deprecated and discontinued in the United States and peer-to-peer payment functionality removed from the existing app and website on April 5, 2021.[41] However, the 2018 Google Pay app continued to co-exist as a separate, pre-installed app on Android smartphones.[42] On May 11, 2022, Google announced the Google Wallet companion app during the 2022 Google I/O keynote,[43] which will replace the 2018 Google Pay app while co-existing with the 2020 GPay one.[44]

Ecosystem

Save to Google Pay badge

Google Pay has a passes feature, which exists in a larger ecosystem. They are presented in the bottom half of the app and can be sorted manually. Developers must first be granted access to the Google Pay API for Passes before they can author such items.[45]

In its simplest form, an interaction (or transaction) between a pass and a system is facilitated by a 1D or 2D code, although it requires the customer to initiate the activity. Passes can also contain nothing but plain text or an image.

More advanced passes would be ones that incorporate NFC technology to convey. Walgreens enabled this first with their Balance Rewards loyalty program in 2015; customers can add their card to Google Pay and be able to tap their phone to the terminal when prompted for their rewards card.[46] Since then, more businesses have found uses for these types of passes, like with contactless ticketing at sports venues[47][48] and Dave & Buster's Power Cards.[49]

In addition to retailer-specific passes, Google Pay also supports contactless student IDs that can be added through the Transact eAccounts and CBORD GET Mobile applications, as well as transit tickets and passes such as the Las Vegas Monorail and Portland Tri-Met's Hop Fastpass.[50][51][52]

Availability

Supported countries

Global availability of Google Pay - Green: Available;[53] Grey: No longer available/suspended

Google Pay is currently available in 42 countries worldwide.

Release date Support for payment cards issued in Flutter version Wear OS support[54] iOS support[55][56]
September 11, 2015  United States Yes Yes Yes
May 18, 2016[57]  United Kingdom No Yes No
June 27, 2016[58]  Singapore Yes Yes Yes
July 13, 2016[59]  Australia No Yes No
October 20, 2016[60][61][62]  Hong Kong No Yes No
November 17, 2016[63]  Poland No Yes No
December 1, 2016[64][62]  New Zealand No Yes No
December 7, 2016[65][62]  Ireland No Yes No
December 13, 2016[66]  Japan No No No
March 7, 2017[67][62]  Belgium No Yes No
May 23, 2017[68][69][70]  Russia (suspended)[a] No Yes No
May 31, 2017[72]  Canada No Yes No
June 1, 2017[73][62]  Taiwan No Yes No
July 26, 2017[74]  Spain No Yes No
November 1, 2017[75][62]  Ukraine No Yes No
November 14, 2017[76][77][62]  Brazil No Yes No
 Czech Republic No Yes No
February 28, 2018[78][79][62]  Slovakia No Yes No
June 26, 2018[80][81]  Germany No Yes No
July 31, 2018[82][83][84][62]  Croatia No Yes No
August 28, 2018[18]  India[b] Yes No Yes
September 19, 2018[85][86][87][88]  Italy No Yes No
October 30, 2018[89][62]  Denmark No Yes No
 Finland No Yes No
 Norway No Yes No
 Sweden No Yes No
November 14, 2018[90][62]  United Arab Emirates No Yes No
November 27, 2018[91][62]  Chile No Yes No
December 11, 2018[92]  France No Yes No
April 30, 2019[93][94]   Switzerland No Yes No
November 17, 2020[95][96][97][98]  Austria No Yes No
 Bulgaria No Yes No
 Estonia No Yes No
 Greece No Yes No
 Hungary No Yes No
 Latvia No Yes No
 Lithuania No Yes No
 Netherlands No Yes No
 Portugal No Yes No
 Romania No Yes No
December 7, 2021[99]  Israel No Yes No
 Kazakhstan No Yes No

Those on light yellow background: originally released as Android Pay.

Supported networks

Supported loyalty programs

These programs are conveyed through NFC through Google Pay's Smart Tap feature. Some of these can be added through the app, while others must be added through the respective retailer's app or website. Programs that support One Tap are conveyed at the same time as a payment card stored in Google Wallet. Conversely, Two Tap programs are redeemed in a sequential manner, where a loyalty pass is scanned first, and then payment can be presented.[102]

Country Retailer One Tap/Two Tap
 Australia Dan Murphy's My Dan's[103]
Woolworths' Everyday Rewards[104] Two Tap
 Japan d Point[105] Two Tap
Rakuten Point Card[106] Two Tap
 United Kingdom Nando's Nando Card[107] Two Tap
Texaco's Star Rewards[108] Two Tap
 United States Coca-Cola's Vending Pass[109] One Tap
Dave & Buster's Power Card[110] One Tap
Jimmy John's Freaky Fast Rewards[111] One Tap
Redbox's Redbox Perks[112] Two Tap
Walgreens' myWalgreens[113] Two Tap
Yogurtland's Real Rewards[114] One Tap

Usage within public transport systems

Due to the open nature of the Android platform, some transit cards are only available through other Android-based mobile wallets or via their own apps (e.g. Octopus card for Samsung Pay or TAP for Android). Transit cards that support direct provisioning can be issued within the Google Pay app itself, without needing to download a separate third party application.[115][116]

Country Area Skip device unlock Direct provisioning Fare Payment Method(s)
 Australia  Queensland Payment cards
 Sydney Yes Payment cards
 Victoria Yes Yes Myki
 Brazil  Rio de Janeiro (only MetrôRio) Payment cards
 São Paulo (only SPTrans) Payment cards
 Canada  Toronto Payment cards
 Vancouver Payment cards
 Japan Countrywide Yes Suica[c]
 Russia (suspended)[a]  Moscow Yes Troika, payment cards[117]
 Novosibirsk Payment cards
 Saint Petersburg Payment cards
 Singapore Countrywide Payment cards
 Slovakia Nitra, Lipto, Michalovce,

Lučenec, and Orava[118]

Yes Ubian
 Taiwan  Kaohsiung Payment cards
Taoyuan Airport MRT Payment cards
 Ukraine  Kyiv Payment cards
 United Kingdom  London Yes Payment cards
 Manchester Payment cards
 Tyne and Wear Yes Yes Pop
 West Midlands Yes Swift
 United States  Chicago Yes Ventra, payment cards
 Las Vegas Yes Contactless ticket
 Miami Yes Payment cards
 New York City Yes Payment cards
 Portland, Oregon Yes Hop Fastpass, payment cards
 San Francisco Yes Yes Clipper
 Washington, D.C. Yes Yes SmarTrip

Supported car keys

These car models can be unlocked and started via NFC with the Pixel 6. Future car models that support operation via UWB will require an UWB compatible device, such as the Pixel 6 Pro.[119][120]

Supported campus identifications

See also

References

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  2. ^ UPI based,[18] previously known as Tez release date August 17, 2017.[17]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Devices must be Osaifu-Keitai compatible.
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External links

Media related to Google Pay at Wikimedia Commons