Andropogon virginicus

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Andropogon virginicus
Starr 031118-0122 Andropogon virginicus.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Genus: Andropogon
A. virginicus
Binomial name
Andropogon virginicus

Andropogon virginicus is a species of grass known by several common names, including broomsedge bluestem, yellowsedge bluestem and (in Australia, because it was introduced to that country after being used as packaging for bottles of American whiskey) whiskey grass. It is native to the southeastern United States and as far north as the Great Lakes. It is known as an introduced species in California and Hawaii, where it is weedy.

Invasive species[edit]

Andropogon virginicus has also been introduced to Japan and Australia. It competes with other species by allelopathy, releasing persistent herbicidal chemicals from its dying tissues, such as decaying leaves.[2][3][4] A. virginicus colonizes disturbed areas such as abandoned mining sites. It is a weed of pastures and grazing ranges, where it proves less palatable and nutritious to cattle than other grasses.[2] This species is tolerant of fire and grows back quickly and more abundantly after a burn.[2] It is perhaps most problematic in Hawaii, where its natural growth patterns are out of synch with the local climate. It is dormant during the Hawaiian rainy season, dying back and leaving the slopes it has colonized exposed and vulnerable to significant erosion.[5] Despite its weediness, the grass is sometimes grown as an ornamental plant.[6]

The species is now considered invasive in New Caledonia and is stated in legal texts.[7]

The species features on the list of Invasive Alien Species of Union Concern.[8][9] This means that import of the species and trade in the species is forbidden in the whole of the European Union.[10]

Typical appearance of broomsedge in winter (Stone County, Mississippi, 2010)

Life history[edit]

Andropogon virginicus is a perennial grass forming narrow clumps of stems up to just over a meter in maximum height [approx. 3 feet 3 inches]. Its stems and leaves are green when new, turning purplish to orange and then straw-colored with age. It produces large amounts of seeds small enough to disperse on the wind. This grass is successful in a wide range of habitats. It is a prolific seed producer, it has a high germination rate and seedling survival rate, and it thrives in poor soils.[2]


Andropogon virginicus has been used as the straw base for the production of handmade brooms in the southeastern United States.[11]


  1. ^ Romand-Monnier, F (2013). "Andropogon virginicus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 208. e.T13506888A44401411. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-2.RLTS.T13506888A44401411.en.
  2. ^ a b c d Uchytil, Ronald J. (1992). "Andropogon virginicus". Fire Effects Information System (FEIS). US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service (USFS), Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.
  3. ^ "Andropogon virginicus". Hawaiian Alien Plant Studies. University of Hawaii Botany Department. May 21, 1998.
  4. ^ E.L. Rice (1972). "Allelopathic effects of Andropogon virginicus and its persistence in old fields". American Journal of Botany. American Journal of Botany, 1972. 59 (7): 752–755. doi:10.2307/2441147. JSTOR 2441147.
  5. ^ "Global Invasive Species Database".
  6. ^ Evans, Erv (2005). "Andropogon virginicus". Ornamental Grasses. North Carolina State University. Archived from the original on 2013-11-17.
  7. ^ Code de l'environnement de la province Sud. Nouméa. 2020. p. 160.
  8. ^ "List of invasive alien species of union concern". June 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. ^ "National Scientific Secretariat IAS (BE) - Website". June 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. ^ "European Regulation on IAS". June 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ Marturano, Arlene (2016-02-12). "Harvesting Brooms". Columbia Star. Retrieved March 20, 2022.

External links[edit]