Andy Irvine (musician)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Andy Irvine
Patrick Street Andy Irvine smile.jpg
Background information
Birth name Andrew Kennedy Irvine
Born (1942-06-14) 14 June 1942 (age 73)
Origin St John's Wood, London, UK
Genres
Occupation(s) Musician, singer-songwriter
Instruments
Years active 1962–present
Associated acts
Website andyirvine.com

Andrew Kennedy "Andy" Irvine (14 June 1942) is an Irish folk musician, singer-songwriter, and a founding member of popular bands Sweeney's Men, Planxty, Patrick Street, Mozaik, LAPD and Usher's Island. He is an accomplished player of the mandolin, mandola, bouzouki, harmonica, hurdy-gurdy.

He has been influential in folk music for over five decades, during which he collected and recorded a large repertoire of songs and tunes he meticulously researched and assembled from books, folk-song collectors and old recordings rooted in the Irish, English, Scottish, Eastern European, Australian and American old-time and folk traditions. He often sets these traditional songs to new music, and he also writes his own songs about his personal experiences or about the lives and struggles of his heroes: Michael Davitt, Mary Harris "Mother" Jones, Douglas Mawson, Raoul Wallenberg, and many others.

Imbued with a deep sense of social justice, Irvine often selects or writes songs that are presented from the victim's perspective,[1]:13 either as groups of people: the emigrants; the brutalized migrant workers; the exploited textile strikers or coalminers; or as single individuals: the destitute young man ostracized or murdered on the order of his sweetheart’s rich father; the down-on-his-luck farmer or the unemployed worker; the young man inveigled by the army's recruiting sergeant; the scapegoats; the woman seduced and betrayed by an unfaithful man or disowned by her father. Irvine also denounces worker deaths and industrial diseases, and laments the plight of hunted animals. His repertoire includes several very amusing songs but also sad ones of unrequited love; songs of lovers cruelly separated, or dramatically reunited. He sings about men or women adopting a variety of disguises, about famous racehorses, about a fantastical fox preying on young maidens, and about the violent lives of outlaws.

As a child actor, Irvine honed his performing talent from an early age and learned the classical guitar, a skill he later applied to playing the songs of Woody Guthrie, also adopting the latter’s other instruments: harmonica and mandolin. After extending Guthrie’s picking technique to the mandolin,[2]:20 he further developed his playing of this instrument—and, later, of the mandola and the bouzouki—into a richly harmonic, decorative style[3]:38 and embraced the modes and rhythms of Bulgarian folk music. Along with Johnny Moynihan and Dónal Lunny, Irvine is one of the pioneers who adapted the Greek bouzouki—with a new tuning—into an Irish instrument, and has contributed to advancing the design of his instruments in cooperation with English instrument maker Stefan Sobell.[4] He also plays a hurdy-gurdy made for him in 1972 by Peter Abnett, another English instrument maker.[5]:119,170

Although touring almost constantly as a soloist, Irvine has also enjoyed great success in pursuing collaborations through many projects that have influenced contemporary folk music, with notable performers such as (in alphabetical order): Paul Brady, Kevin Burke, Nollaig Casey, Steve Cooney, Jackie Daly, John Doyle, Rick Epping, Ged Foley, Dick Gaughan, Frankie Gavin, Paddy Glackin, Mick Hanly, Noel Hill, Dolores Keane, James Kelly, Tony Linnane, Dónal Lunny, Declan Masterson, Arty McGlynn, Michael McGoldrick, Matt Molloy, Bruce Molsky, Christy Moore, Johnny Moynihan, Tríona Ní Dhomhnaill, Gerry O'Beirne, Máirtín O'Connor, Mícheál Ó Domhnaill, Liam O'Flynn, Mícheál Ó Súilleabháin, Nikola Parov, Márta Sebestyén, Davy Spillane, Rens van der Zalm, and Bill Whelan, among others.

He continues to tour and perform extensively in Ireland, Great Britain, Europe, North and South America, Japan, Australia and New Zealand – as an indefatigable, modern-day minstrel.[6]

Contents

Early life and acting career[edit]

Andy Irvine was born in St John's Wood, north-west London on 14 June 1942 to an Irish mother from Lisburn, County Antrim, and a Scottish father from Glasgow.[5]:35

His mother, Felice Lascelles, had been a musical comedy actress and Irvine would later say that "she may have given up the stage, but she never stopped acting!".[5]:35–36 As a child, he was offered opportunities to appear on stage and in films.[7][8] In the summer holidays of 1950, when he was eight, his first role was to play Jimmy in the film A Tale of Five Cities.[9][10] At thirteen, he starred as "Nokie" (short for Pinocchio)[10] in the ITV children's series Round at the Redways[11] and joined a school for child actors.[5]:36 He made his stage debut in the Grand Theatre in Wolverhampton and, at fourteen, received rave reviews for his performance in the ITV Television Playhouse drama The Magpies (7 February 1957).[5]:36[12] The same year, he played the role of John Logie Baird as a boy in the film A Voice in Vision.[13] At sixteen, he performed in Brouhaha with Peter Sellers,[5]:36–37[14] and also had an acting part—which was cut from the final release—playing the role of Raymond opposite Laurence Harvey in Room at the Top.[10][15] At eighteen, Irvine was offered a two-year contract with 'The Rep' (the BBC's Repertory company),[16] where he befriended the celebrated Belfast-born poet Louis MacNeice who worked there as a writer for over twenty years.

As Irvine recalled much later:

There was a pub quite near the BBC called The George [...] and all these intellectual people would drink in there and I would hang out with them. Louis would be talking to other famous poets and playwrights and I wouldn't really understand a lot of the conversation, but I'd be hanging on every word.

—Leagues O'Toole, The Humours of Planxty.[5]:41

However, Irvine would give up acting in his early twenties, after moving to Dublin at the end of his time with the 'Rep'.

Musical influences[edit]

Musical comedy songs[edit]

Irvine loved music from the earliest time he could remember. His mother had a stack of old, cracked 78s that he used to play on a wind-up gramophone. "They were mainly songs from long forgotten musical comedies but I wish I had them now."[5]:36[10]

Classical guitar[edit]

As a teenager, he studied classical guitar for two years,[10] initially with Julian Bream and later under one of Bream's pupils[5]:36 but switched to folk music after discovering Woody Guthrie during the Skiffle boom of the 1950s.[5]:39

Woody Guthrie[edit]

Guthrie was to become an enduring influence on his music, on his choice of additional instruments (mandolin and harmonica) and general outlook on life.[5]:38–40 In a 1985 interview, Irvine expanded on how, in the mid-1950s, he discovered Woody Guthrie through Lonnie Donegan's recordings on the EPs Backstairs Session[10][17]:37[18] and Skiffle Session:[10][19]

He had two EPs and I thought: 'That's it!' – "Midnight Special", "It Takes A Worried Man", "Railroad Bill" and "When The Sun Goes Down". On the back of the jacket, I read that Donegan learned these wonderful songs from the recordings of Woody Guthrie and Cisco Houston. This fired my youthful imagination and I wanted so badly to hear the originals. [...]

In 1957, [I got] this record called More Songs By Woody Guthrie And Cisco Houston[20][21]:19 and it blew my mind. Eventually, I bought Woody Guthrie's Dust Bowl Ballads, the original 78s, in mint condition for $40 each. I used to sit all day, alone, and listen to Woody Guthrie and practise. I was playing with my thumb. I didn't know anything about a flatpick, but I could do the best imitation of Woody. I wanted to play every instrument he played. That's why I took up the harmonica and mandolin. When I discovered Irish and British music, I figured out how to adapt my basic Woody Guthrie 'scratch' style on guitar to playing traditional songs on the mandolin.

—Joe Vanderford, Andy Irvine – Celtic Roots... Dustbowl Inspiration.[2]:20–23

In May 1959,[17]:38 Irvine began frequenting the Ballads and Blues Club—started at the Princess Louise pub in High Holborn by Ewan MacColl in 1957[22]—which, by September 1959, had moved to 2, Soho Square under the sole leadership of Malcolm Nixon.[17]:37 American folk musicians who had been closely associated with Guthrie would be performing there: Ramblin' Jack Elliott, Derroll Adams and Cisco Houston. Irvine befriended all three of them, particularly Elliott, with whom he recorded audio tapes to send Guthrie.[5]:39–40

Ramblin' Jack Elliott [...] gave me the crucial information that Woody Guthrie used to play the harp upside down!! Apparently so did the southern blues players of that period. There is no dis/advantage in this but I'm glad I learned to play it upside down like Woody!

—Andy Irvine, Andy's Instruments.[4]

Irvine was also impressed with some of the other musicians performing at the Ballad and Blues Club, such as Long John Baldry, Rory McEwen, Robin Hall & Jimmie Macgregor, and Peggy Seeger, who had settled in London at that time, had formed a musical and personal partnership with MacColl, and performed regularly at the venue.[17]:38–39

Also in 1959, Irvine located Guthrie at Greystone Park Psychiatric Hospital in Morristown, New Jersey, and began corresponding assiduously with Sid Gleason who, with her husband Bob, would take Guthrie out of hospital and entertain him at weekends.[5]:38–40 It was Sid Gleason who first called him "Andy", and who thereafter remained a conduit between him and Guthrie.[23] However, Irvine's dream to join Guthrie in the States faded when his mother died in 1961.[5]:41

In a 2000 interview,[24]:14 Irvine stated: "I never met Woody, but I corresponded with him in hospital.[25] [...] The kind of values that Woody represented are one of my great passions."

Tribute song: "Never Tire of the Road"[edit]

In 1991, Irvine wrote his tribute song to Woody Guthrie: "Never Tire of the Road", first released on the solo album Rude Awakening.[26] He recorded it again for the album Rain on the Roof, released in 1996, after including another verse plus the chorus from a song Guthrie recorded in March 1944: "You Fascists Are Bound to Lose".[27]

Music career[edit]

1960s: Dublin, Sweeney's Men, Eastern Europe[edit]

Move to Dublin and transition from acting to folk music[edit]

In 1962, when his two-year contract with the BBC's 'Rep' ended,[5]:41 Irvine moved to Dublin and continued earning a living as an actor for a while, playing at The Olympia, The Gaiety, The Gate, The Eblana and at the Pike Theatre, where he performed as one of only two actors in Edward Albee's The Zoo Story and where he also appeared in Moytura, by Pádraic Colum, during the Dublin Theatre Festival in 1963.[5]:42[28] He featured in Tolka Row, a popular RTÉ soap,[5]:42 in which he played the part of Jim "Beardie" Toomey as the boyfriend of Laurie Morton's character, Peggy Kinnear.[29] One of his last acting performances was at the Olympia Theatre on 28 September 1964, as Sir Peregrine in the musical Sir Buccaneer, by G.P. Gallivan.[5]:42[30]

However, he very quickly noticed that a burgeoning folk scene was emerging, centered around the Baggot Street–Merrion quarter of Dublin's City centre. "As soon as I found my feet there, I thought, 'That's it, goodbye acting!'".[5]:42–43 After discovering Irish music through Séamus Ennis on Peter Kennedy's BBC programme As I Roved Out[5]:41 and through Ciarán Mac Mathúna on Raidió Éireann,[5]:44 Irvine studiously spent many hours at the National Library, scouring old songbooks like the Child Ballads and Sam Henry's Songs of the People,[31] as well as A.L. Lloyd's Penguin Book of English Folk Songs.[32] He also drew inspiration from Ewan MacColl, notably the songs he wrote for his radio-ballads.[5]:44

Gravitating around Paddy and Maureen O'Donoghue's pub,[5]:42–45[33] Irvine met like-minded people such as Ronnie Drew, Luke Kelly and Barney McKenna, who would later form The Dubliners. Decades later, he recorded "O'Donoghue's"—released on the album Changing Trains (2004)—a song of eleven verses in which he vividly recalls these happy times, naming many of the people who were part of his transition from actor to folk musician.[34]

Sweeney's Men – Sweeney's Men[edit]

One of these people was Johnny Moynihan, with whom he created a musical partnership which—with the addition of 'Galway Joe' Dolan—turned into Sweeney's Men in the summer of 1966.[5]:63–77[17][35][36] To quote Colin Irwin: "They merged the familiar American folk style so popular in the early sixties with a distinctively home-grown Irish flavour; it was not Irish music but it was real and exciting, it had verve, imagination and style."[37]:35 A distinctive aspect of the Sweeney's Men sound was Moynihan's introduction of the bouzouki—originally a Greek instrument—into Irish music, albeit with a different tuning: GDAD'[3]:15 (one octave lower than the open-tuned mandolin), instead of the modern Greek tuning of CFAD'.[3]:5

In 1996, Irvine wrote:

A lot of early Sweeney influence came from the recordings of Old Timey American musicians from the twenties and thirties. Johnny and I tried to emulate 5-string banjos and mountainy fiddles on our open-tuned mandolins and bouzoukis. Later, after being strongly affected by Charles Parker's BBC Radio Ballads with Ewan MacColl and Peggy Seeger–notably Singing The Fishing[38]–we began to incorporate this style into Irish and Scottish songs. [...] The bouzouki-mandolin interplay, which later became a strong feature of Planxty, was "invented" one evening in Johnny's family kitchen in Dalymount, Dublin, as we strove to find an accompaniment for Rattlin' Roarin' Willy.

—Sleeve notes from Sweeney's Men Two-in-One compilation CD.[39]

While in the process of adopting the itinerant lifestyle of a musician, Irvine developed a taste for travel, initially within Ireland. The first time he witnessed Willie Clancy playing his uilleann pipes was at a fleadh in Miltown Malbay in the summer of 1963, and he followed the festival trail in Ireland during the summers of 1964, 1965 an 1966.[5]:65 Irvine also returned regularly to London for short stays of a few weeks or months,[17]:158,341 and ventured further afield across Europe, hitch-hiking to Munich, Vienna and Rome in the autumn of 1965.[5]:65 In early 1966, he was playing the clubs in Denmark with Éamonn O'Doherty.[40] In June 1966, Irvine and Dolan played five nights a week as a duo at the Enda Hotel in Galway and Moynihan would join them at weekends, since he was still working as a draughtsman in Roscommon.[5]:66 It was at this time that Dolan suggested the band's name, after reading Flann O'Brien's comic novel At Swim-Two-Birds, which depicts the mad, anti-religious, tree-leaping pagan King Sweeney of Antrim.[5]:66

In a 2005 interview, Irvine added:

Sweeney’s Men was a great learning period for me. In the early days, playing with Johnny and Joe Dolan (from Galway) I was quite new to playing with other musicians and found it tremendously exciting. That first summer of 1966 was idyllic – the kind of life I had dreamed of. The only thing that could have made it better would have been freight trains!!

—Kevin Moist, Sweet Combinations of Sound - Irish Folk Legend Andy Irvine.[41]

The trio recorded their first single "Old Maid in the Garrett"/"The Derby Ram" for Pye Records at Eamonn Andrews Studios in the spring of 1967.[5]:71 The week the single was in the Irish charts, Dolan departed for Israel and the Six-Day War[5]:72 "but it took him a year to get down there",[42]:91 and was replaced by Terry Woods – later of Steeleye Span and The Pogues.[35]

In early 1968, the new line-up recorded the eponymous album, Sweeney's Men,[43] produced by Bill Leader at Livingston Studios, Barnet.[5]:75 In addition to playing either guitar, mandolin or harmonica on most tracks,[44] Irvine contributed four songs:

However, Irvine was thinking of travelling again, after his previous hitch-hiking expeditions around Europe. He wrote his first song, "West Coast of Clare", in the late summer of 1968, around the time Sweeney's Men were playing one of their last shows in Quilty, County Clare. "It was actually written with a Danish girl called Birte in mind, but [...] it very quickly became a memory of great times in Clare.[5]:141 I started the song in County Clare and finished it in Ljubljana, Jugoslavia,[45]:10 in August or September 1968."[5]:141

Irvine left Sweeney's Men after a final performance at Liberty Hall in Dublin, where he played the first half of the set with Moynihan and Woods before making way for his replacement, Henry McCullough, who played the second half.[5]:75–76

Discovering Eastern Europe and Bulgarian folk music[edit]

In the late summer of 1968, Irvine headed off to Eastern Europe and the Balkans.

I kind of remembered that, as a stamp collector, I had liked Bulgarian stamps because they had a weird script. And, of course, I had left-wing leanings. Also, nobody went there. So, I decided to go. It was 1968 and, looking back on it, that became a period where a lot of people decided to broaden their horizons.

—Leagues O'Toole, The Humours of Planxty.[5]:76–77

He later wrote several songs about his experiences there:

During a series of journeys criss-crossing Southeastern and Central Europe (Istanbul, Bulgaria, Romania and Ljubljana),[5]:79–80 Irvine discovered the elaborate styles of the region's folk music and was particularly attracted to the Bulgarian tradition.[5]:80 In a 1992 interview, Irvine related the moment he first heard Bulgarian folk music:

One day a lorry gave us a lift and the guy turned on the radio and this fantastic music came on and I thought: 'I know what that is and it's great!' So every time I was in a city or town I'd find the local music shop and go and buy records. [...] I loved the music but I didn't quite understand it [...] so it wasn't until I got home and listened to the records that I thought 'Oh, I see what they're doing!' After that, I was hooked...

—Colin Irwin, Eastern Promise.[50]:29

This lasting fascination with Bulgarian folk music would inform several of his later projects—first with Planxty, then in the recording of his first solo album (1980) and of the album East Wind (1992), and also with the creation of two multicultural, similarly named bands: Mosaic (1984–85) and Mozaik (2002-present day).[51] In turn, Irvine's integration of characteristic elements of Bulgarian folk music into his playing, such as asymmetric rhythms, would also have a profound influence on the sound of contemporary Irish music, including—via Bill Whelan—the original Riverdance score.[5]:296–300[51][52]:75[53]:39–41

He also went to Thessaloniki, a Greek-Macedonian town near the Bulgarian border, to buy a bouzouki:

I didn't want to go to Greece because the colonels were in power there and I didn't want to spend any money in Greece. I didn't want to aid their economy in any way. So I went as far as Thessaloniki and I sold my blood to pay for a bouzouki. [...] I just went into a hospital and they take your blood and give you £20 or something. Enough to buy a bouzouki anyway.

—Colin Irwin, Eastern Promise.[50]:30

While in Ljubljana, he met Rens van der Zalm,[54] a young, classically trained violinist from the Netherlands who also played guitar, mandolin, piano, accordion and tin whistle; they would later join forces in several of Irvine's projects.[51][55]:67–69

When he returned to Dublin in the autumn of 1969,[5]:81 Sweeney's Men—now reduced to Moynihan and Woods—was breaking up and Irvine played a final gig with them at Nottingham University in October or November 1969.[5]:82

1970s: Dónal Lunny, Prosperous, Planxty, Paul Brady, Mick Hanly[edit]

Duo with Dónal Lunny – "The Blacksmith"[edit]

After the demise of Sweeney's Men, a new Irish-English folk super-group was almost formed in 1970, with Irvine, Moynihan, Woods and his wife Gay, plus ex-Fairport Convention Ashley Hutchings joining on bass guitar, but this never happened.[5]:82

For a while, Irvine performed regularly at Slattery's on Capel Street. Then, he met Dónal Lunny, with whom he formed a duo after an initial gig at a party for the Irish-Soviet Union Friendship conference organised by Seán Mac Réamoinn:[5]:84[56]

Ten minutes before we went on, we arranged two pieces, one of which was "Reynard The Fox" and probably Dónal's [...] "When First unto this Country". [...] We went on stage and he was the best musician I had played with up to that point, and the quickest.
I saw the speed at which Dónal picked up on the way I was doing something and that was the first insight I had into what a great musician he was.

—Leagues O'Toole, The Humours of Planxty.[5]:84

Says Leagues O'Toole: "This partnership also furthered the presence of the bouzouki in Irish music. Just as Johnny Moynihan had introduced the instrument to Andy Irvine, he in turn passed it on to Dónal Lunny".[5]:85 As Lunny himself recalled:

Andy had loads of instruments [...] like the kaval, the gadulka, instruments I'd never seen. One day I started playing the bouzouki and I really liked the sound of it. Because there were four pairs of strings, the chords were kind of easy. And even though it was upside down for me, I could still get chords out of it and I just really loved it. And Andy said, "Ah, take it home with you, the strings are very slack for me." So he just gave it to me. Brilliant! That was the round-bodied Greek bouzouki and [it] became the thing I used most. [...] Andy at that time played more mandolin than bouzouki, so it was a good combination between the pair of us anyway.

—Leagues O'Toole, The Humours of Planxty.[5]:85

By that time, Irvine had put together his own version of "The Blacksmith", followed by a self-penned coda[5]:81—in the Bulgarian rhythm of 5/8—which would later be given the title of "Blacksmithereens" by Christy Moore, at a Planxty concert in 1973.[57]

Christy Moore – Prosperous[edit]

Before too long, Irvine and Lunny participated in a project that would lead to their big break. Moore, who had moved to England during the National Bank Strike of 1966,[5]:54 had become an established musician in the British folk music scene and even recorded his first album (Paddy on the Road) there, in 1969, at the Sound Techniques studio in Chelsea.[5]:58–59

After that, he decided to record his second album in Ireland and his guest musicians included Irvine, Lunny, and uilleann piper Liam O'Flynn. The album, Prosperous,[5]:86–91 was recorded by Bill Leader who had brought his mobile recording unit (a Revox tape machine and two microphones[37]:35) to Ireland in the summer of 1971.[5]:86 Rehearsals took place at Irvine's flat in Dublin and the recordings were made in Prosperous, County Kildare, down in the cellar of Downings house, owned by Moore's sister and brother-in-law, Anne and Davoc Rynne.[5]:87–88

In his annotated book of songs, first published in 2000, Moore recalls:

It was a magical time. The music was fresh and it sparkled. Every day brought new fun as we rollicked about Pat Dowling's pub and then up to Rynne's cellar to lay down another track. [...] I was jubilant to be playing with Dónal, Andy and Liam and their enthusiasm showed the feelings were mutual.

—Christy Moore, One Voice.[42]:334

In the words of Colin Irwin:

Prosperous took the suggestions offered by Sweeney's Men and sprinted off with them. [...] Here, Liam O'Flynn's dexterous pipering merged blissfully with Andy Irvine's mandolin and Dónal Lunny's rhythmic bouzouki to form a complex, beautiful diversion for the voice of Christy Moore.

—Colin Irwin, In Search of the Craíc.[37]:35–36

This was released as an album by Moore, but the four musicians soon thereafter formed Planxty in January 1972, to be managed by Des Kelly.[5]:99[42]:21

Planxty[edit]

The group was an instant success, and would go on to sign a six-record contract and to tour extensively throughout Europe. They played mostly traditional songs and tunes, but several were Irvine compositions, making him the lone composer of the band. Instrumentally the group was notable for the intricate bouzouki and mandolin counterpoint of Lunny and Irvine, along with O'Flynn's exceptional pipering; Irvine and Moore (who also played guitar) were the principal vocalists. Very quickly, Lunny would also develop into their own in-house producer, arranger and musical director: "It very rapidly established itself that the music demanded to be treated on its own terms. It influenced our arrangements. [...] I think it was unfamiliar to people to hear traditional music with a chassis under it and it still sounds like traditional music."[5]:108

Together, they addressed the art of arrangement rather than the formula of genre. And their diversity wasn't just defined by the instrumentation and influences, but also by the variation of time signatures and the creation of counterpoint melodies. They balanced this innovation with a delicate empathy for the music and with old-fashioned musical virtues such as thoughtful singing and intricate playing. As an acoustic band, they generated their own electricity [...], their live shows have a roof-raising dynamic that can match the best rock or electric folk groups.

—Leagues O'Toole, The Humours of Planxty.[5]:108

After honing their live set at Slattery's, they played two concerts, afternoon and evening, at Newbridge College on Thursday, 16 March 1972. Donovan was in the audience and invited Planxty to open for him on his six-date Irish tour the following week, during which their first major performance—at the Hangar in Galway—was a huge success.[5]:112–116 Neither the audience nor the band knew what to expect, and both were pleasantly surprised. Irvine, unable to see the audience through the glare of the stage lights, was worried that the crowd might be on the verge of rioting. It took him several minutes to realize that what he was hearing was the expression of their enthusiastic response to the band's music.[5]:112 On 21 April 1972, Planxty embarked on their first tour of England, which had been booked previously by Moore, and played small folk clubs in Manchester, Bolton, Leeds, Hull, Barnsley, Blackpool, Newcastle, Chester and London, to great acclaim, returning to Ireland in May.[5]:117,130

Planxty ("the black album")[edit]

Irvine contributed four songs to their first album, Planxty, recorded at the Command Studios in London during early September 1972 and released in early 1973:[5]:130–145[58]

The Well Below The Valley[edit]

Their second album, The Well Below The Valley was recorded at Escape Studios in Kent, England, from 18 June 1973 until the end of the month, and released the same year.[5]:169–181 It features three songs by Irvine:[46]

  • "Pat Reilly" is another anti-recruiting song, about "a silver-tongued sergeant who meets a callow youth, inveigles him into a public house and offers him the king's shilling". It is listed as entry H574 in Sam Henry's collection, Songs of the People.[31]:80–81[45]:16–17[61]
  • "As I Roved Out", which Irvine learned from "the singing of Paddy Tunney who lives in Letterkenny, County Donegal". It dates "back to the days of the famine, when any bit of property at all was enough to tempt a man to jilt his true love in favour of the lassie that had the land".[60]:6–7[61]
  • "Time Will Cure Me" was one of a series of four songs that Irvine wrote "while on my travels in Eastern Europe in 1968-69. Suffice it to say that time did cure my aching heart!".[45]:18–20[61]

After the completion of this album, Planxty embarked on their first tour of Germany, where the group had become very popular. They also toured extensively in Ireland and were making more frequent trips abroad to festivals in Brittany and in England, at the Durham Folk Festival and the Cambridge Folk Festival.[5]:182–184 At the start of September 1973, Lunny left Planxty after playing his last gig with the band at the Edinburgh Festival. He was replaced by Johnny Moynihan.[5]:184–185

Cold Blow and the Rainy Night[edit]

Rehearsals for Planxty's third album, Cold Blow and the Rainy Night, began in the summer of 1974 at Moynihan's family summer home in Rush, on the north coast of County Dublin. At Irvine's behest, Lunny was co-opted back into the band to arrange the selected material and to play on the album,[5]:191–192 which was recorded in Sarm Studios, Whitechapel, London during August 1974 and released the same year.[5]:193–202 It includes four pieces by Irvine:[47]

  • "Johnny Cope" was "written after the battle of Prestonpans in 1745, when the Scots were jubilant after their defeat of the English forces".[60]:24–25[62]
  • "Băneasă's Green Glade" was written by Irvine "after living in Băneasă forest just outside Bucharest for two months, busking outside the nearby zoo on Sundays and generally living a life of indolent drunkenness".[45]:98–100[62]
  • "Mominsko Horo" is a Bulgarian dance adapted by Irvine and Lunny.[62][63]
  • "The Green Fields of Canada" is another song Irvine learned from the repertoire of Paddy Tunny. "Unlike most emigration songs, the émigré in this one appears to believe he has done the right thing".[5]:200–201[62]

After the completion of this third album, Moore departed and was replaced by Strabane native Paul Brady.[64] The band's new line-up (Irvine, O'Flynn, Moynihan, and Brady) toured extensively but released no recordings, breaking up after playing their final show in Brussels on 5 December 1975.[5]:220

Duo with Paul Brady – Andy Irvine/Paul Brady[edit]

Irvine continued to tour with Brady, including a series of concerts in the USA in 1977 (Irvine's first ever visit there) highlighted by a very successful gig at the Town Hall in New York.[65] Irvine was also invited by Alec Finn to join De Dannan after Dolores Keane had left,[65] but he soon had to relinquish this new venture because of scheduling conflicts.[5]:243 Nonetheless, Irvine performed with De Dannan at 'The 3rd Irish Folk Festival' in Germany on 30 April 1976,[66] playing "Martinmas Time/Danny O'Brien's Hornpipe", "Maíre Rua/Hardiman The Fiddler", "The Emigrant's Farewell", "The Boys of Ballysodare" and "The Plains of Kildare".[67]

In August 1976, Irvine and Brady recorded an album together at the Rockfield Studios,[65] Andy Irvine/Paul Brady,[5]:243–247 produced by Lunny who also plays on most tracks, and with Kevin Burke on fiddle; it was released in December 1976 by Mulligan Music Ltd. This album included "Autumn Gold", on which Irvine commented: "Written in Ljubljana in 1968, while sitting in a sunny park, stood up on a date. Waiting, as ever, for Vida."[45]:29 It is the final song of a quartet written during his sojourn in Eastern Europe during 1968-69, after spending several months in the Slovenian capital.[68]

Duo with Mick Hanly – As I Went Over Blackwater[edit]

Irvine also toured extensively in Europe with Mick Hanly,[65] including at 'The 4th Irish Folk Festival' in Germany on 30 April 1977.[69] They started their set with Irvine performing a full version of "Johnny Cope": first the song,[60]:24–25 followed by the 6-part hornpipe of the same name, which Irvine played complete on bouzouki. Hanly then sang "A Kiss in the Morning Early". Irvine followed with "Bonny Woodhall", accompanying himself on Fylde 'Octavius' bouzouki (with the bottom two courses strung in octave). This recording of "Bonny Woodhall"[45]:24–25 is Irvine's interpretation of "Bonny Woodha' " (H476 in Sam Henry's Songs of the People)[31]:84 and would later appear as a bonus track on the CD version of Rainy Sundays... Windy Dreams.[70] Their set ends with Hanly singing "John Barleycorn" and "The Verdant Braes of Skreen".[71]

The following year, Irvine and Hanly were joined on stage by Liam O'Flynn at 'The 5th Irish Folk Festival' in Germany on 28 April 1978,[72] playing "I Buried My Wife And Danced on Top of Her", a jig learnt from the great uilleann piper Willie Clancy; "Molly Bawn", sung by Hanly (with Irvine on hurdy-gurdy first, then on bouzouki); "Brian O'Lynn/Sean Bun"; "I Courted A Wee Girl"; "The Longford Weaver" sung by Irvine accompanying himself on hurdy-gurdy and harmonica; and "Masters Return/Kittie's Wedding".[73]

Two years later, in 1980, Hanly released his second solo album As I Went Over Blackwater,[74] featuring Irvine on four tracks: "Jack Haggerty" (harmonicas), "The Guerriere and The Constitution" (harmony vocals and a superb hurdy-gurdy accompaniment, suggesting an aural impression of tall ships in motion), "Every Circumstance" (mandolin) and "Miss Bailey/Jessica's Polka" (harmonica).[75]

The Gathering[edit]

Sometime during 1977, Irvine also recorded The Gathering,[76] along with Paul Brady, Dónal Lunny, Matt Molloy, Tommy Potts, Tríona Ní Dhomhnaill and uilleann piper Peter Browne. This album was funded by Diane Meek, a Guggenheim heiress who had used the pseudonym "Hamilton" as her maiden name to disguise her wealth. She was the owner of Tradition Records and a patron of traditional music in Dublin at the time. She had lent Mulligan Records money in the early days and had also formed a small record label for traditional music called Srutháin [a stream], on which she had intended to release The Gathering. However, the album was finally released in 1981 on Greenhays, a label connected with Rounder Records.[5]:247

Irvine contributed two songs to the album, and also accompanied Brady on a third track:

  • "There's Sure To Be A Row" is a song Irvine learnt from "an old tape of the inimitable, much loved, late Willie Clancy." It is "obviously of Music Hall origin and sung to the ubiquitous tune [of] "Star of the County Down"."[45]:100–102 Irvine sings the song, accompanied by Brady (tin whistle) and Lunny (bouzouki and guitar)[77]
  • "The Mall of Lismore" is a song written in the first person—and as a warning to "other fair maids"—by a girl who was disowned by her father for falling in love with a "dashing young soldier" who, in turn, leaves her "all alone on the Mall of Lismore, when to Dublin his regiment was ordered". Irvine sings and plays harmonica & mandolin, accompanied on harpsichord by Tríona Ní Dhomhnaill.[77]
  • He also plays mandolin and harmonica on Paul Brady's cover of "Heather on the Moor".[77]

Paul Brady – Welcome Here Kind Stranger[edit]

On Friday 21 July 1978, Brady launched his album Welcome Here Kind Stranger[78] with a concert in the auditorium of Liberty Hall in Dublin. He decided to record the concert on his own domestic Akai reel-to-reel tape machine with Brian Masterson in attendance, who had engineered the album and was doing the sound that night.[79]

Performing with him were: Lunny, O'Flynn, Paddy Glackin, Matt Molloy, Noel Hill and Irvine, who played on nine of the ten numbers performed that night: "Paddy's Green Shamrock Shore" (harmonica, mandolin); "I Am A Youth That's Inclined To Ramble" (hurdy-gurdy); "The Creel/Out The Door And Over The Wall" (mandolin, bouzouki); "The Jolly Soldier/The Blarney Pilgrim" (harmonica, bouzouki); "Mary And The Soldier" (mandolin, harmonica); "Jackson And Jane" (hurdy-gurdy); "Don't Come Again" (mandolin); "The Lakes Of Pontchartrain" (bouzouki); "The Crooked Road To Dublin" (Portuguese guitarra with 8 tuners [4 removed],[80] re-strung with 4 courses and tuned like a mandola).[79]

After the concert, Brady took the tapes home, put them somewhere so safe that he only found them again in November 2000, still in good enough condition to be transferred onto CD and released, in 2002, under the title The Missing Liberty Tapes![79]

Planxty – After The Break[edit]

By the autumn of 1978,[5]:256 Moore was ready to re-form the original Planxty line-up, complete with Lunny, who brought along flutist Matt Molloy from The Bothy Band, and rehearsals began on Tuesday, 19 September 1978.[5]:259 Their new manager, Kevin Flynn, then organised a mammoth European tour for the following year, from 15 April to 11 June 1979, during which the band played forty-seven concerts in fifty-eight days, in the UK, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, France and Ireland.[5]:259–262

After the tour, the band went to Windmill Lane Studios from 18 to 30 June 1979[5]:260–262 to record their fourth album: After The Break,[5]:262–268[81] released the same year. Irvine contributed three pieces to the album:

  • "You Rambling Boys of Pleasure" is a song that Irvine learned from the singing of Len Graham and Joe Holmes from County Antrim.[45]:35–36 Irvine adds: "This is the song that was half remembered by W.B. Yeats and re-written by him as 'Down by the Sally Gardens'."[82]
  • "The Rambling Siúler" is another song from Sam Henry's collection, Songs of the People,[82] where it is listed under entry H183.[31]:268 Irvine explains: "If songs about girls dressing up as men are commonplace, songs about Gentlemen dressing up as beggars occur quite frequently also."[45]:32–34
  • "Smeceno Horo" is a Bulgarian dance in 9/16 time,[82] from an album that Irvine bought in Sofia. "I had it in my rucksack for nine months after that before I got a chance to play it. It was in bits when I got home but this tune was on it without a scratch".[45]:37–38 Irvine would later refer to this recording as "the closest I ever got to melding two traditions together".[5]:266

After recording the album, Planxty resumed touring more sporadically, playing The National in Kilburn, a handful of dates in Belgium and France, and also headlining the third Ballisodare Festival.[5]:268 Molloy left Planxty to join The Chieftains in the autumn of 1979.[83]

1980s: Solo album, Planxty, Dick Gaughan, Mosaic, Patrick Street[edit]

Rainy Sundays... Windy Dreams[edit]

At the end of 1979, Irvine recorded his first solo album at Windmill Lane Studios in Dublin: Rainy Sundays... Windy Dreams, produced by Dónal Lunny and released on Tara Records in 1980.[5]:274 Personnel included Irvine, Lunny, O'Flynn, Brady (guitar and piano), Frankie Gavin (fiddle), Rick Epping (accordion, harmonica, jaw harp), John Wadham (bongo and congas), Paul Barrett (Fender Rhodes and Polymoog), Keith Donald (soprano sax) and Lucienne Purcell (vocals).[84]

As was to be expected, this first solo album showcased songs and tunes from two of his main influences:

  • side one (on the 33rpm, vinyl LP) featured pieces inspired by the Irish tradition, while
  • side two luxuriated in Balkan music played by some of the most adventurous Irish musicians of the time.

The original, vinyl album[49] closed with the self-penned "Rainy Sundays",[45]:72–76 a nostalgic song reminiscing about Vida, with whom Irvine pursued "a one-sided romance in Ljubljana years ago."[45]:72

High Kings of Tara[edit]

In 1980, Tara Records released High Kings of Tara,[85] a compilation album showcasing tracks previously released by some of its artists: Shaun Davey, Oisín, Jolyon Jackson, Paddy Glackin, Paddy Keenan, Stockton's Wing and Christy Moore.[86]

This album also included five previously unreleased tracks by Planxty, Irvine and Moore. Two of these, Irvine's "The Bonny Light Horseman" and a set of reels by Planxty, "Lord McDonald/The Chattering Magpie", were subsequently added to the CD version of After The Break.[87] The remaining three tracks were:

  • "General Monroe" [sic] – a majestic, traditional song re-arranged by Irvine (bouzouki, harmonica) in duet with Lunny (guitar), about Henry Munro who was chosen to lead the insurgents of County Down in the 1798 rebellion and who, defeated at the battle of Ballynahinch on 13 June 1798, was hanged in front of his house three days later.[45]:53–55
  • "First Slip/Hardyman The Fiddler A&B/The Yellow Wattle" – a set of jigs by Planxty, with Matt Molloy on board.

Planxty – The Woman I loved So Well[edit]

On 28 February 1980, Planxty headlined the Sense of Ireland concert at the Royal Albert Hall in London. When they returned to Ireland, they recorded two programmes for RTÉ at the Pavilion Theatre in Dún Laoghaire, then started rehearsals at Kilkea Castle in Castledermot, County Kildare with two musicians from County Clare: concertina player Noel Hill and fiddler Tony Linnane. This six-member formation of Moore, Irvine, Lunny, O’Flynn, Hill and Linnane were joined by Matt Molloy and keyboardist Bill Whelan, to record the band's fifth album, The Woman I Loved So Well,[88] at Windmill Lane Studios over two periods: 23–29 April and 16–19 May.[5]:275–281 The album was wrapped up with a reception at Windmill Lane Studios on 9 June and released on Tara Records in July 1980.[5]:280 Irvine contributed three songs to the album:[89]

  • "Roger O'Hehir" is a song from Sam Henry's collection, Songs of the People,[89] where it is listed as entry H486 under the title of "Eight Mile Bridge".[31]:121 Irvine says: "Roger seems to have been quite famous as a highwayman in the early nineteenth century. However his crimes, as listed here, are pretty petty and he certainly doesn't seem to have been very good at it."[45]:39–41 "He seems to have been best at breaking out of jail."[89]
  • "Kellswater" is also from Sam Henry's collection,[89] where it is listed under entry H695.[31]:442–443 In the sleeve notes, Irvine comments: "The story appears to be that the girl's father did not consider Willie to be a suitable match for his daughter and had him sent away overseas."[89] "If a father did not care for the boy his daughter had set her heart on, he would either have him murdered or sent away to America".[45]:41–44
  • "Johnny of Brady's Lea" is Irvine's version of "a famous Scottish ballad, usually called 'Johnny O'Breadislee'. It has the drama of a Greek tragedy, Johnny's fate being sealed from the outset."[45]:45–47 Irvine adds: "Johnny is evidently an outlaw or at least a man who pays little regard to the game-laws."[89]

Planxty then resumed touring as a four-piece again during the summer of 1980, playing a tour of Italian castles in July and returning to The Boys of Ballisodare festival on 9 August, where they were joined by Whelan and a young Cork fiddler, Nollaig Casey.[5]:281–282 Shows around this time would feature the quartet for the first set, with Whelan and Casey joining in for the second set. This sextet played a week of shows at the Olympia Theatre in Dublin on 18–23 August 1980,[5]:283 which was recorded for a potential live album that eventually emerged in 1987 as the unlicensed release The Best of Planxty Live.[5]:283–285 The same sextet also played a series of one-off events, including at the Hammersmith Odeon in March 1981,[5]:292 and recorded a suite called "Timedance"—with full orchestra and rhythm section—which was also performed during the interval of the Eurovision Song Contest, held in Dublin on 4 April 1981. "Timedance" was the genesis for what Whelan would later develop into Riverdance.[5]:296–299

Parallel Lines with Dick Gaughan[edit]

In his online autobiography, Irvine recalls:

After one of these tours [in 1980], I went into a recording studio in Northeim, Germany to record an album called Folk Friends 2[90] – others had already made number one. Assembled were my old friends Jack Elliott and Derroll Adams, Alex Campbell, Dick Gaughan, Dolores Keane and John Faulkner and many others.[91] That was some week! [...] We recorded in different combinations and I recorded "Thousands Are Sailing" with Dick which would lead to our making an album together a year later: Parallel Lines.

—Andy Irvine, Andy's History - Chapter 6.[83]

In August 1981,[83] Irvine and Gaughan recorded Parallel Lines[92] at Günter Pauler's Tonstudio in St Blasien/Herrenhaus, Northeim, Germany, released in 1982 on the German FolkFreak-Platten label.[93] It was produced by Gaughan, Irvine and Carsten Linden, with a line-up including Gaughan (acoustic and electric guitars, bass guitar and vocal), Irvine (bouzouki, mandola, mandolin, harmonica, hurdy-gurdy and vocal), Nollaig Casey (fiddle), Martin Buschmann (saxophone), Judith Jaenicke (flute) and Bob Lenox (Fender Rhodes piano). Dónal Lunny also overdubbed the fiddle parts and remixed the album at Lombard Studios in Dublin.[93]

In 1997, Parallel Lines was re-issued on CD, including "Thousands Are Sailing" as a bonus track that Irvine and Gaughan had recorded during the above-mentioned Folk Friends 2 recording sessions, held in 1980.[83][91]

About the recording of Parallel Lines, Irvine would later comment:

We had had a couple of rehearsals in Dick's place in Leith and my place in Dublin but mainly of my songs as Dick didn’t really decide what he would sing till we got to Germany. He did a fantastic job on my material. The more so because this was my ‘really really complicated’ period! Whenever we meet, we always make plans to do another one! Don't know if it will ever happen...

—Kevin Moist, Sweet Combinations of Sound - Irish Folk Legend Andy Irvine.[41]

Irvine and Gaughan did, however, perform live at Whelan's venue in Dublin on Wednesday 2 February 2011, nearly thirty years after recording Parallel Lines.[94]

Planxty – Words & Music[edit]

The Planxty sextet continued to tour, but began to drift apart. In 1980,[95] O’Flynn recorded The Brendan Voyage with Shaun Davey.[5]:287 Moore and Lunny, eager to experiment with a rhythm section and a different, more political song set, formed Moving Hearts in 1981.[5]:290 Lunny also kept busy producing albums by other artists. As a result of all these parallel projects, the original quartet would end up playing their last show together on 24 August 1982, at the National Stadium in Dublin.[5]:301

Nevertheless, Planxty—with Whelan and Casey still on board—reconvened at Windmill Lane Studios in late October and early November 1982, to record Words & Music, which also featured fiddler James Kelly and Moving Hearts bass guitarist Eoghan O’Neill.[5]:301–304 It was released on the WEA label in 1983.[96] Irvine contributed three pieces to the album:

  • "Thousands Are Sailing" is Planxty's version of the song Irvine recorded with Gaughan for the album Folk Friends 2. Says Irvine: "I first heard this song sung by another hero of mine, Eddie Butcher from Magilligan, County Londonderry".[45]:48–49
  • "Accidentals" is an instrumental piece Irvine wrote "somewhere between Windmill Lane Studios and Milan".[97]
  • "Aragon Mill" is a song Irvine learned from Si Kahn, the singer-songwriter from North Carolina,[97] who said of this song: "This is a true song about Aragon, Georgia, a small town near the Alabama border, in 1971. The red brick chimney with the white brick letters 'Aragon' is real. So is the line "It's so quiet I can't sleep" spoken by a loom fixer whose front porch overlooked the now silent weave room."[98]

A final line-up that Irvine dubbed "Planxty-Too-Far"—Irvine, O'Flynn, Whelan, Arty McGlynn on guitar, James Kelly on fiddle and singer Dolores Keane, but without Casey—undertook a UK tour on Friday 1 April 1983, followed by a series of live engagements in Ireland, an appearance on the Late Late Show and some eight shows, including the National Stadium in Dublin on 27 April 1983. Two days later, Irvine went on tour in the Balkans and, on his return in mid-June, found that: "to my surprise, the band hadn't actually split up, it has just fallen asunder. An unfortunate ending to the second coming...".[5]:304–306

After Planxty[edit]

Irvine resumed his solo career, playing occasionally with McGlynn and Casey, and also travelled to Hungary, where he played and fraternised with local musicians:

I had met a number of people in Hungary by this time, whose careers bore a comparison with my own. I mean city people in Budapest who had discovered their folk music, gone out to collect it and formed bands to play it. First I met Kolinda with the beautiful voice of Ágnes Zsigimondi [sic][99] and then I ran into Muzsikás, who would become my firm friends. I started to play there a lot. I loved the place. I lost my heart to many things there!

—Andy Irvine, Andy's History - Chapter 7.[100]

He would later write a song about this period of his life in Budapest: "The Wind Blows Over The Danube", released on the album Changing Trains.[101]

Mosaic[edit]

In the winter of 1984, Irvine gathered a collection of musicians from throughout Europe and formed Mosaic,[100] with a line-up including Irvine, Dónal Lunny along with his former Moving Hearts associate, uilleann piper Declan Masterson, Danish bassist and singer Lissa Ladefoged, Dutch guitarist and singer Hans Theessink, and singer Márta Sebestyén from Muzsikás.[102]:11

Their first public gig was in Budapest on 12 July 1985, followed by a further two gigs in Hungary and an appearance at the Dranouter festival in Belgium in early August, prior to their English tour.[102]:11 Their seventh gig was billed at the Southport Arts Center, which Chris Hardwick of Folk Roots reviewed with the following introduction: "Every once in a while the folk scene throws up a new permutation in which exceptionally gifted individuals come together to produce something so innovative and exhilarating that it goes way beyond the sum of the parts".[103]:42–43

Their set included: Stan Rogers's "Northwest Passage", an unspecified Macedonian dance tune ("one of Andy's 90 mph specials"[103]:43), a solo Hungarian love song from Sebestyén, a brooding cover of Eric Von Schmidt's Caribbean lament "Joshua Gone Barbados" from Theessink, the Irish three (Irvine, Lunny and Masterson) on a set of reels including "The Spike Island Lasses", and Irvine singing Andy Mitchell's "Indiana". However, the band lasted only that one summer.

A couple of years later,[1]:15 Irvine stated that he would have liked to try the experiment again by concentrating on the Irish and East European sound without bringing in the blues influence.

Patrick Street[edit]

Also in 1985, Irvine joined up with fiddler Kevin Burke and guitarist Mícheál Ó Domhnaill (who had been gigging together around America for some time) and toured as a trio in the USA; when Ó Domhnaill wasn't available for some of the dates, guitarist/vocalist Gerry O'Beirne stepped in.[104]:34–35 "This tour was such fun and so successful that we decided to expand the outfit into a four-piece by adding Jackie Daly", Irvine wrote.[105]

Initially billed on a 1986 American tour as "The Legends of Irish Music", they soon chose to call themselves Patrick Street.[104]:34 The line-up for the band underwent several changes, but always included Irvine, Burke, and Daly. The guitar role, however, passed:

  • from O'Beirne to Arty McGlynn – before the recording of their first album, Patrick Street, which began in August 1986;[106]
  • from McGlynn to Ged Foley – after the band recorded their fourth album, All in Good Time, released in 1993;[107]
  • back to McGlynn – when they resumed touring after the completion of their ninth album, On the Fly, released in 2007.[108]

After Jackie Daly retired from Patrick Street, John Carty joined on fiddle, flute and tenor banjo in time to record On The Fly.[109]

Originally agreed to as a part-time band, they have nevertheless recorded eight studio albums together, plus one live album (Live from Patrick Street) and two compilations (The Best of Patrick Street and Compendium: The Best of Patrick Street).

On their first album, Patrick Street, released in 1986,[110] Irvine sings four songs: the traditional "Patrick Street" set to new music by the whole band, Gerry O'Beirne's "The Holy Ground", Andy Mitchell's "Indiana" (which is introduced by Irvine's own instrumental composition, "The Dream") and Colum Sands' "The Man with the Cap".[106]

No. 2 Patrick Street, released in 1988,[111] again features four songs sung by Irvine: "Tom Joad" (his adaptation of Woody Guthrie's two-part recording of the ballad inspired by John Steinbeck's novel The Grapes of Wrath), "Facing the Chair", his composition about Sacco and Vanzetti and two traditional songs, "Braes of Moneymore" and "William Taylor".[112]

Their third album, Irish Times, released in 1990,[113] includes three songs by Irvine: "Brackagh Hill"–which he set to new music–is a traditional song about a man who travels to Scotland to see the world, doesn't care for it and promptly returns home; "Forgotten Hero", his composition about Michael Davitt, and the traditional song "The Humours of the King of Ballyhooley".[114]

Playing style – The Irish Bouzouki[edit]

In 1989, Irvine's style of playing the bouzouki was summarised thus in The Irish Bouzouki, an instructional guide:

Andy plays the bouzouki in a very melodic style, using a lot of sustain. He creates this by hitting the strings individually, allowing them to ring rather than using heavy chording. His style involves using intricate counter-melody which greatly fills out the sound, especially when used in a duet or group situation using two bouzoukis or bouzouki and mandolin. Good examples of this can be found on Planxty albums or Andy's solo album, Rainy Sundays... Windy Dreams. Andy is constantly experimenting, trying to find new sounds. He searches for new chords or chord formations, plays a guitar-shaped bouzouki and uses a wound or covered second (A) string which results in a much mellower, sweeter tone.

—Niall Ó Callanain & Tommy Walsh, The Irish Bouzouki.[3]:38–41

The tutor also provided simple standard notation scores and lyrics for two of Irvine's songs: "Brackagh Hill" (which he recorded with Patrick Street on the album Irish Times released the same year) and "Bridget",[45]:93–96 a song written by Jane Cassidy which he never released elsewhere. The cassette accompanying this tutor provided both songs, with Irvine accompanying himself on bouzouki.[3]:38–41 In the same tutor, Irvine's Irish bouzouki tuning (GDAD',[3]:15 one octave lower than the open-tuned mandolin) was also contrasted with the traditional Greek bouzouki tuning (CFAD').[3]:5

1990s: Solo albums, East Wind, Patrick Street[edit]

Rude Awakening[edit]

In December 1990 and January 1991, Irvine recorded his second solo album, Rude Awakening,[115] produced by Bill Whelan. The line-up included Whelan (keyboards), Rens van der Zalm (fiddle, mandolin, guitar), Carl Geraghty (soprano saxophone), Arty McGlynn (guitar), Davy Spillane (whistle) and Fionnuala Sherry (fiddle). The album was released on Green Linnet Records, later in 1991.[26]

It features "Never Tire of the Road", Irvine's tribute song to Woody Guthrie, alongside mainly self-penned material celebrating some of his other heroes:

The only other traditional song is "Allan McLean", for which Irvine wrote new music also. The sleeve notes of "Love To Be With You"[26]—a poignant song of longing—show a faded, black & white photo of Vida, the heroine of his song from ten years earlier: "Rainy Sundays".[45]:72–76

East Wind[edit]

Irvine had also played some Balkan tunes to Whelan and mentioned his aspiration to record them.[116] So, shortly thereafter, he was rehearsing again with Davy Spillane (uilleann pipes and low whistle) to record East Wind, a collection of Bulgarian and Macedonian tunes played Irish-style[117] and produced by Whelan, who also contributed keyboards and piano.[118]

This project would have a profound influence on the future genesis of the highly successful Riverdance:

It is significant, also, that Bill Whelan had been working as a producer of [an] album about two years before Riverdance. It was called East Wind and that entire album was comprised of East European music. Its making can be ascribed to combining the talents of Davy Spillane and Andy Irvine, and its geographic origins can be ascribed to Irvine who introduced the East European tempo and style onto the Irish traditional scene.

—Barra O'Cinnéide, Riverdance: The Phenomenon.[52]:75

The extensive line-up included Nikola Parov on Bulgarian instruments (gadulka, kaval, gaida) & bouzouki, Máirtín O'Connor (accordion), Noel Eccles & Paul Moran (percussion), Tony Molloy (bass), Carl Geraghty & Kenneth Edge (saxophones), John Sheahan (fiddle), Anthony Drennan (guitar), Mícheál Ó Súilleabháin (piano), Márta Sebestyén (vocals) and Rita Connolly (backing vocals).[118]

In an interview with Folk Roots in August 1992,[50]:29–33 Irvine stated: "We finished it eighteen months ago but [...] John Cook at Tara wanted to try the avenue of big companies." The album was eventually released on the Tara label itself in mid-1992.[119]:42

For a while, Irvine and Parov were joined by Rens van der Zalm and toured together in Europe as the 'East Wind Trio',[55]:69 and then again in the US during 1996.[120]

Patrick Street – All in Good Time[edit]

Irvine contributed six pieces to Patrick Street's fourth album, All in Good Time, released in 1993.[121]

  • First comes "A Prince Among Men (Only a Miner)"–a song about the hazards and dangers of working underground in a mine–which Irvine wrote from the perspective of a man whose late father, James Doyle, had been a miner. About the origins of the song, Irvine stated in the sleeve notes:

I heard a song way back in the 50's on an album of Aunt Molly Jackson, the feisty, sharp-shooting midwife and union organiser from the coal mining area of Harlan County, Kentucky. The song didn't strike me as special, but I wrote this song around the chorus.

—Sleeve notes from Patrick Street – All in Good Time.[122]
  • Lintheads is one of Irvine's trilogies; in this case, he assembled two songs–linked by an instrumental piece–about the lives of mill workers on both sides of the Atlantic:
1. "The Pride of the Springfield Road" is an optimistic song Irvine learned from Maurice Leyden of Belfast, about the courtship of a young couple from the community around the cotton spinning mill located on that road;[122][123]
2. "Lawrence Common" is Irvine's instrumental composition inspired while walking on the Common in Lawrence, MA, "a piece of park land forever associated with the struggle and victory of the striking woolen mill workers in 1912";[122]
3. "Goodbye, Monday Blues" is the story of an old 'linthead' reminiscing about a whole life spent working in cotton mills, from "when I was a little boy" until "cotton dust has got my lungs";[124] it was written by Si Kahn from North Carolina.[122]
  • "Carrowclare" is Irvine's rendition of a song written in about 1870 by James McCurry, a blind fiddler from Myroe. It is listed as entry H169[31]:298–299 in Sam Henry's collection, where it appears under the title of "The Maid of Carrowclare".[122]
  • Finally, "The Girls Along the Road" is another song Irvine learned from Maurice Leyden, who collected it from Willy Nicholl in Cullybackey, County Antrim.[122]

Patrick Street – Cornerboys[edit]

Patrick Street's fifth album, Cornerboys, was released in 1996[125] and includes seven pieces provided by Irvine.[126]

  • "Sweet Lisbweemore" is a lively, traditional song re-arranged by the band.
  • "Morlough Shore" is another poignant song Irvine learned from Eddy Butcher of Magilligan, County Londonderry.
  • Pity the Poor Hare is the title of a suite assembled by Irvine,
1. beginning with "On Yonder Hill", a song he arranged from the singing of Geordie Hanna from Derrytresk, County Tyrone;
2. it is followed by "Merrily Tripping O'er The Plain", a lively jig composed by Irvine and leading into
3. "The Kilgrain Hare", his adaptation of entry H12[31]:31 in Sam Henry's collection;
4. the whole suite was named after its closing piece, "Pity the Poor Hare", a slow air also composed by Irvine.
  • "Down By Greer's Grove", written by Irvine, is an amusing song "based on a fragment recorded in the '50s by Robert Cinnamond of Glenavy, County Antrim, who was a fairly old man by the time the folk song collectors got to him".[126]

Rain on the Roof[edit]

Recorded in June, July and August 1996, Irvine's third solo album, Rain on the Roof,[127] is the closest the listener could get to the experience of attending one of his gigs. It was also the first released on his own label, "Andy Irvine", under product number "AK-1" (presumably: "Andrew Kennedy-1"). The album mixes some of Irvine's compositions with traditional songs and Bulgarian tunes. As he explains in the sleeve notes:

Most of the recordings on this CD were done as if live. [...] I sat in front of microphones with my bouzouki or mandolin in my lap, my harmonica in its holder round my neck, and my drone volume pedal on the floor, under my foot, and played and sang all in one go.

—Sleeve notes from Andy Irvine – Rain on the Roof.[27]

Other instruments were added (on four of the eleven tracks) by Rens van der Zalm (fiddle and mandolin), Stephen Cooney (didgeredoo, Kpanlogo drum), Declan Masterson (low whistle) and Irvine himself, who played a second mandolin on two of the tracks.[27]

Patrick Street – Made in Cork[edit]

Patrick Street's sixth album, Made in Cork, was released in 1997,[128] to which Irvine contributed four songs.

  • Irvine learnt the words of "Her Mantle So Green" from a recording of Jim O'Neill from Markethill, County Armagh.[129] It is also listed as entry H76[31]:314 in Sam Henry's collection, Songs of the People.[129] In the sleeve notes, Irvine added: "The motif of this song is as old as time: a soldier returning from a long campaign is not recognized by his sweetheart, whose loyalty he briefly tests by pretending to be someone else."[129]
  • "Rainbow 'Mid The Willows" is a song collected by Alan Lomax in the Ozark Mountains, set by Irvine to a tune adapted from a Hungarian Csángó song previously recorded by Hungarian folk group Muzsikás.[129]
  • "Spanking Maggie from the Ross" is a song about the sport of harness racing and was learned from Arthur Coulter.[129]
  • "When Adam Was in Paradise" is another song Irvine learned from Eddie Butcher.[129]

Patrick Street – Live from Patrick Street[edit]

Live from Patrick Street, released in 1999,[130] was Patrick Street's seventh album, recorded during a tour of Ireland and Britain in November 1998. It features five of Irvine's songs.

  • "Braes of Moneymore" is a poignant song of emigration, which the band had previously recorded on their second album: No. 2 Patrick Street. Irvine first learnt it from an old 78 rpm recording, made in 1952 by Sean O'Boyle and Peter Kennedy, of Terry Devlin, a shoemaker local to the little town of Moneymore in County Londonderry.[131] Irvine changed the tune and added a verse.[132]
  • Although "My Son in Amerikay" was written by Alf Mcloughlin, one-time Chief Librarian at the National Library in Dublin, Irvine learnt it from the repertoire of Eddie Butcher.[132]
  • "Wild Rover No More" was learnt from Sean Corcoran, who collected it from the singing of a Mrs Carolan of Drogheda.[132]
  • "Stewball and the Monaghan Grey Mare" was first recorded by Irvine on the 1976 album: Andy Irvine/Paul Brady, under the title of "The Plains of Kildare". At the time, Irvine wrote this version to new music, based on earlier versions from Eddie Butcher and A.L. Lloyd, while also using additional sources supplied by Frank Harte.[132]
  • "The Holy Ground" was written by former Patrick Street guitarist Gerry O'Beirne; Irvine had previously recorded this song on the band's first album: Patrick Street.[132]

2000s: Solo album, Mozaik, Patrick Street, Planxty, Marianne Green[edit]

Way Out Yonder[edit]

In 2000, Irvine released his fourth solo album, Way Out Yonder,[133] recorded between July and December 1999 and co-produced with Steve Cooney.[134]

Irvine was joined by Rens van der Zalm (guitar, fiddle, mandolin, Bulgarian tambura and bass guitar), Lindsey Horner (double bass), Máire Breatnach (viola), Cormac Breatnach (low whistle), Steve Cooney (Spanish guitar, percussion and kalimba), Declan Masterson (uilleann pipes and low whistle), Liam O'Flynn (uilleann pipes and tin whistle), Nikola Parov (gadulka), plus Lynn Kavanagh, Mandy Murphy and Phil Callery (backing vocals).[134]

Mozaik – Live from the Powerhouse[edit]

On 1 March 2002 the seaside town of Rye, Victoria in Australia witnessed the formation and six-day marathon rehearsals of multicultural group Mozaik[135]—not to be confused with his earlier, similarly named group Mosaic—featuring Irvine, Dónal Lunny, Bruce Molsky, Nikola Parov and Rens van der Zalm.

The Australian tour that followed culminated in two gigs recorded at the Brisbane Powerhouse on 30/31 March and released on the album Live from the Powerhouse in 2004, under license to Compass Records.[136]

Patrick Street – Street Life[edit]

Patrick Street's eighth album, Street Life, was released in 2002.[137] Irvine contributed four pieces:[138]

Planxty ("The Third Coming") – Live 2004[edit]

In late 2002, broadcaster and journalist Leagues O'Toole was working as presenter and researcher for the RTÉ television show No Disco and persuaded the programme editor, Rory Cobbe, to develop a one-off documentary about Planxty.[5]:309

O'Toole proceeded with interviewing Moore, Irvine and O'Flynn but Lunny, who was living in Japan, was unavailable. After also shooting links at key landmarks from the Planxty history,[5]:310–314 the programme aired on 3 March 2003, receiving a phenomenal response from the public and some very positive feedback from the Planxty members themselves. In a final comment about the constant speculation of the original line-up regrouping, Moore had stated, on camera: "There's nobody longs for it more than myself and the other three guys. Definitely the time is right. Let's go for it".[5]:314

A few months later, Paddy Doherty, owner of the Royal Spa Hotel in Lisdoonvarna (and co-founder of the Lisdoonvarna Festival), arranged for the band's use of the hotel's old dining room for rehearsals, which led to a one-off concert there in front of 200 people on 11 October 2003.[5]:316 The Planxty magic had been rekindled and it was a night of high emotion, hilarious banter and soaring music during which Moore, on stage, credited the No Disco documentary with inspiring the reunion.[5]:316

Pleased with the results and the experience of playing together again, the original Planxty quartet agreed to the longed-for reunion (dubbed "The Third Coming"[5]:xii) and would perform together again, on and off, for a period of just over a year.

Planxty first played a series of concerts at the Glór Theatre in Ennis, County Clare (on 23 & 24 January 2004) and at Vicar Street in Dublin (on 30 & 31 January and on 4 & 5, 11 & 12 February 2004),[5]:317 which were recorded and from which selected material was released on the CD Live 2004 and its associated DVD.

In late 2004 and early 2005,[5]:322–326 another round of concerts took place at the following venues:

Since then, the original Planxty quartet have neither performed live nor recorded new material together.

In May 2005, Irvine wrote in his website 'Journal': "Also premiered "As I Roved Out" with my own accompaniment. It's always been a Planxty number till now with Dónal playing Baritone Guitar and me just singing it."[139] A recording of this version of "As I Roved Out"[60]:6–7 was eventually released on Peter Ratzenbeck's album Resonances in 2007,[140] where Irvine appeared as a guest and played it solo on his "Stefan Sobell mandola, tuned CGDG (Capo 0)".[141]

Mozaik – Changing Trains[edit]

In January and April 2005, Mozaik rehearsed new material for Changing Trains,[101] their first studio album recorded in Budapest during November of the same year.[34]

This album was initially released by the band in Australia in 2006 and, after additional re-mixing by Lunny at Longbeard Studios in Dublin, was re-released in the autumn of 2007 under license to Compass Records.[34]

Patrick Street – On the Fly[edit]

Patrick Street's ninth album, On the Fly, was released in 2007.[108] Irvine provided three songs:[109]

  • "Sergeant Small" is an Australian song which tells the story of an unemployed man who rides freight trains in his search for work during the Great Depression in the 1930s but gets trapped by Sergeant Small, a policeman masquerading as a hobo. This song is an amalgamation from two sources put together by Brad Tate: the recording made by Tex Morton in the 1940s and the poem written by Terry Boylan in the 1970s. Irvine first heard it sung by Seamus Gill of Canberra, a Donegal man who has lived most of his life in Australia.[109]
  • Irvine learnt "The Rich Irish Lady" from an album Peggy Seeger recorded in the late 1950s.[109]
  • "Erin Go Bragh" is a Scottish song about the experience of Irish people in Britain. Although it is mainly associated with Dick Gaughan, Irvine first heard it sung by Ian 'Jock' Manuel in the Bluebell pub in Hull about 1964.[109]

Marianne Green – Dear Irish Boy[edit]

Irvine arranged and produced Marianne Green's[142] debut album, Dear Irish Boy, released in 2009.[143][144] Personnel included: Marianne Green (vocals), Irvine (bouzouki, mandolin, mandola, bass-bouzouki, harmonica), Colum Sands (double bass, concertina) and Gerry O'Conner (violin).[145]

The tracks are: "The Banks of the Bann" (trad.), "You Make Me Fly" (M. Green), "Tá Mé 'Mo Shuí" (trad.), "The Doffin Mistress" (trad.), "Bonny Portmore" (trad.), "Ar A Ghabháil Go Baile Átha Cliath Damh" (trad.), "Cian's Song" (M. O'Hare), "The Dear Irish Boy" (trad.), "The Wife's Lamentation" (M. Green), "The Road To Dundee" (trad.), "The Wreck of the Newcastle Fishermen" (trad.) and "Carrickmannon Lake" (trad.).[145]

2010s: Solo albums, LAPD, Rens van der Zalm, Usher's Island[edit]

Abocurragh[edit]

In August 2010, Irvine released his fifth solo album: Abocurragh,[146][147][148] recorded in Dublin, Norway, Australia, Hungary and Brittany between February 2009 and April 2010 and produced by Dónal Lunny, who also plays on all but one of the tracks.[149]

They were joined by Liam O'Flynn (uilleann pipes, tin whistle), Nikola Parov (kaval, nyckelharpa), Máirtín O'Connor (accordion), Bruce Molsky (fiddle), Rens van der Zalm (fiddle), Rick Epping (harmonica), Paul Moore (double bass), Graham Henderson (keyboards), Liam Bradley (percussion), Jacky Molard (violas, violins and string arrangement), Annebjørg Lien (hardanger fiddles), Lillebjørn Nilsen (guitar), plus Kate Burke and Ruth Hazleton (backing vocals).[149]

LAPD (Liam/Andy/Paddy/Dónal)[edit]

Friday, 20 January 2012[150] ushered in the inaugural gig, at Dublin's Vicar Street, of a quartet named 'LAPD'[151] for the initials of its members' first names: Liam O'Flynn, Andy Irvine, Paddy Glackin, and Dónal Lunny.[56]

Dónal Lunny, Andy Irvine, Liam O'Flynn and Paddy Glackin as 'LAPD', March 2012.

They played a set combining tunes and songs from the repertoires of:

  • Planxty: "Jenny's Wedding/The Virginia/Garrett Barry's", "Paddy Canny's" ("The Starting Gate"), "The Jolly Beggar/The Wise Maid", "Arthur MacBride", "As I Roved Out (Andy)", "The Blacksmith/Blacksmithereens" and "West Coast of Clare"
  • Irvine & Lunny: "My Heart's tonight in Ireland/West Clare Reel", "Braes of Moneymore", "Suleiman's Kopanitsa", "The Dream/Indiana", "O'Donoghue's" and "Siún Ni Dhuibhir"
  • O'Flynn & Glackin: "Kitty's Rambles/Humours of Ennistymon", "The Green Island/Bantry Hornpipe", "Young Tom Ennis/Nora Crean", "A Rainy Day/The Shaskeen", "Two Flings", "Speed the Plough/Colonel Fraser" and "The Gold Ring".

LAPD performed only occasionally,[152][153] to rave reviews,[33][154] but never recorded before disbanding; their last performance took place at Sligo Live, on Saturday, 26 October 2013.[155]

70th Birthday Concert At Vicar St 2012[edit]

On 16 and 17 June 2012, Irvine's 70th birthday was celebrated at Dublin's Vicar Street venue in a pair of concerts.[64] He was joined onstage by Paul Brady and various combinations of members of Sweeney's Men, Planxty, Mozaik and LAPD, plus brothers George and Manoli Galiatsos who came unexpectedly all the way from Athens for the concerts,[156] which were recorded and released on the CD Andy Irvine/70th Birthday Concert at Vicar St 2012[157] and its associated DVD.

Playing Woody Guthrie again[edit]

A week later, Irvine was invited to participate with Billy Bragg in the Woody 100 Legacy Show scheduled at Dublin's Vicar Street on Monday, 17 September 2012, to celebrate Woody Guthrie's Centenary.[158]

In his web journal, Irvine wrote at the time: "I recently located my old Gibson L0 guitar. It was in the shed where it has been languishing for some years. I used to be able to do a pretty good impression of Woody's 'Church lick' guitar playing. Hope I can get it all back! [...] I'd better get practising!..."[159]

Parachilna with Rens van der Zalm[edit]

On 13 November 2013, Irvine released his first duo album with Rens van der Zalm: Parachilna,[160][161] an album of Irish and Australian songs recorded live in July 2012 while camping in South Australia and New South Wales.

It was co-produced by Irvine (vocals, bouzouki, mandola and harmonica) and van der Zalm (backing vocals, guitar, mandolin, fiddle and viola), and recorded by Cian Burke in disused buildings using top-quality microphones, a laptop and Pro Tools.[131][161] Most of the time, there are only two instruments playing–three when Irvine also plays harmonica–and the resulting sound is bright and pristine.

Usher's Island[edit]

On Tuesday, 27 January 2015, Irvine launched his latest musical association at Celtic Connections 2015 in Glasgow: a band called 'Usher's Island' (a reference to the Dublin quay), with Dónal Lunny (guitar, bouzouki, bodhrán), Paddy Glackin (fiddle), Michael McGoldrick (uilleann pipes, flute and whistle), and John Doyle (guitar).[162][163]

Commitment to social justice[edit]

Andy Irvine is a card-carrying member of the Industrial Workers of the World (the 'Wobblies'),[23] with a lifelong commitment to social justice.

For example, by championing the life, social activism and energetic organising leadership of Mary Harris Jones ('Mother Jones') about whom he wrote a song, "The Spirit of Mother Jones", which he recorded and released on his 2010 album Abocurragh.[148] On 1 August 2012, Irvine performed in Shandon, County Cork, for the inaugural Mother Jones Festival which celebrated the 175th Anniversary of the birth of Mary Harris nearby; he performed at the Festival again on 1 August 2013.[164]

Like other artists contracted to perform at Féile Iorrais (a community festival in Erris) in August 2007, Irvine was disgusted to learn that Royal Dutch Shell were partly sponsoring the events. Shell's plans for the Corrib gas project have been the subject of controversy in County Mayo. Irvine pledged to donate part of his fee to the Shell to Sea campaign.[165]

Selected discography[edit]

Summary of recordings[edit]

Chronology of Andy Irvine's album recordings[edit]

Table 1. below lists 55 of Irvine's album recordings, by release date.[166] This list is not intended to be exhaustive, however, since he has appeared on an even greater number of albums, either to supply one or more of his well-known songs such as "The Blacksmith" or "My Heart's Tonight in Ireland", for example, or simply to sit in and contribute vocal and/or instrumental support to other artists.

The songs and tunes of Andy Irvine[edit]

Table 2. below identifies the songs and tunes that Irvine originated and recorded on some of the albums listed in the previous table; "originated" meaning that he either composed or adapted the selected pieces for his own singing and/or lead playing.

Therefore, songs like "The Good Ship Kangaroo", "The Pursuit of Farmer Michael Hayes" and "Little Musgrave", for example, are excluded because they were sung by Christy Moore, even though Irvine had a big hand in putting the music together and in playing it with Planxty. Songs recorded by Patrick Street with Gerry O'Beirne or Ged Foley on lead vocals are similarly excluded from the list, although O'Beirne's "The Holy Ground" is included because Irvine sang it during the recording and in performance.

All the Balkan material is considered his own choice and is therefore included in the list below, even when sung by others.

Filmography[edit]

  • Planxty Live 2004 (2004), DVD
  • Come West Along The Road/Irish Traditional Music Treasures From RTÉ Archives 1960s - 1980s (2005), DVD
  • Come West Along The Road 2/Irish Traditional Music Treasures From RTÉ Archives 1960s - 1980s (2007), DVD
  • Come West Along The Road 3/Irish Traditional Music Treasures From RTÉ Archives 1960s - 1980s (2010), DVD
  • Come West Along The Road/The Collection (2014), DVD (Volumes 1-4 Boxset)
  • The Transatlantic Sessions Series 6 (2014), DVD
  • Andy Irvine 70th Birthday Concert at Vicar St 2012 (2014), DVD
  • Mozaik on Tour 2014 (2014), YouTube video clip

Selected early acting performances[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Harper, Colin (2006) [First published 2000]. Dazzling Stranger: Bert Jansch and the British Folk and Blues Revival (2nd revised ed.). London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 07-4758-725-6. 
  • Huntington, Gale; Herrmann, Lani; Dr Moulden, John, eds. (2010). Sam Henry's Songs of the People. Athens, GA and London: The University of Georgia Press. ISBN 08-2033-625-4. 
  • Irvine, Andy (1988). Aiming for the Heart (1st ed.). Germany: Heupferd Musik Verlag GmbH. ISBN 39-2344-501-6. 
  • Irvine, Andy (2008) [First published 1988]. Aiming for the Heart: Irish Song Affairs (2nd expanded ed.). Germany: Heupferd Musik Verlag GmbH. ISBN 978-3-92-344505-9. 
  • Irwin, Colin (2003). In Search of the Craíc. London: André Deutsch. ISBN 02-3300-004-6. 
  • Kaufman, Will (2011). Woody Guthrie, American Radical. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield: The University of Illinois Press. ISBN 02-5203-602-6. 
  • Moore, Christy (2000). One Voice: My Life In Song. London: Lir/Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 03-4076-839-8. 
  • Moore, Christy (2003) [First published 2000]. One Voice (2nd revised ed.). London: Lir/Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-83073-4. 
  • Ó Callanain, Niall; Walsh, Tommy (1989). The Irish Bouzouki. Ireland: Waltons. ISBN 07-8661-595-8. 
  • O'Toole, Leagues (2006). The Humours of Planxty. Ireland: Hodder Headline. ISBN 03-4083-796-9. 
  • Planxty (Songbook) (1973). London: Mews Music.
  • Wearing, J. P. (2014). The London Stage 1950-1959: A Calendar of Productions, Performers, and Personnel. USA: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 08-1089-308-8. 

See also[edit]

List of Irish theatres and theatre companies

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Andy Irvine, by Chris Hardwick in Folk Roots No.46, April 1987.
  2. ^ a b Andy Irvine – Celtic Roots... Dustbowl Inspiration, by Joe Vanderford in Frets Issue No. 73, March 1985.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Ó Callanain, Niall; Walsh, Tommy (1989). The Irish Bouzouki. Ireland: Waltons. ISBN 07-8661-595-8. 
  4. ^ a b About Andy – Andy's Instruments. Page at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 26 July 2013
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs O'Toole, Leagues (2006). The Humours of Planxty. Ireland: Hodder Headline. ISBN 03-4083-796-9. 
  6. ^ Calendar Page at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 2 January 2014
  7. ^ Andrew Irvine "Filmography" page at the BFI ~ Film Forever website. Retrieved on 6 May 2015
  8. ^ Andrew Irvine "Filmography" page at the IMDb (Internet Movie Database) website. Retrieved on 3 June 2015
  9. ^ A Tale of Five Cities. Page in IMDb (Internet Movie Database). Retrieved on 27 August 2013
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Andy's History – Chapter 1. Autobiography at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 29 July 2013
  11. ^ Round at the Redways. Page in IMDb (Internet Movie Database). Retrieved on 14 December 2013
  12. ^ The Magpies. Listed in Season 2 (1956-57) at the ITV Television Playhouse website. Retrieved on 14 May 2015
  13. ^ A Voice in Vision. Page in IMDb (Internet Movie Database). Retrieved on 15 May 2015
  14. ^ Brouhaha. Page at the BBC GenomeFeedback website. Retrieved on 3 June 2015
  15. ^ Room at the Top. Page in IMDb (Internet Movie Database). Retrieved on 27 August 2013
  16. ^ The Radio Drama Company. Homepage at the BBC website. Retrieved on 9 October 2013.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Harper, Colin (2006) [First published 2000]. Dazzling Stranger: Bert Jansch and the British Folk and Blues Revival (2nd revised ed.). London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 07-4758-725-6. 
  18. ^ "Backstairs Session (1956)".  Page at the 45cat website. Retrieved on 21 June 2015.
  19. ^ "Skiffle Session (1956)".  Page at the discogs website. Retrieved on 21 June 2015.
  20. ^ More Songs By Woody Guthrie And Cisco Houston, Melodisc Records Ltd MLP12-106, 1955.
  21. ^ "I saw this yellow 12" LP in the window of Melodisc Records in Earlham Street off Shaftesbury Avenue." Rocket Launcher, an interview with Irvine in Folk Roots No.340, October 2011.
  22. ^ Kearney, Jeremy. "Review: The People's Music (3 June 2014)".  Page at the Dublin Review of Books website. Retrieved on 16 June 2015.
  23. ^ a b Andy Irvine at 60 By Susanne Kalweit, in FolkWorld. Retrieved on 28 December 2013.
  24. ^ Way Out There, by Colin Harper in Folk Roots No.208, October 2000.
  25. ^ Irvine's letters to Guthrie are catalogued (alphabetical order) in "S2 Box 2 – Folder(s) 01/-02/-03 (1959-June 1960)" among the Series 2 (Correspondence-2): Woody Guthrie – Incoming Correspondence of the Correspondence Collection in the Woody Guthrie Archives at the Woody Guthrie Center. Retrieved on 6 June 2015
  26. ^ a b c Sleeve notes from Andy Irvine – Rude Awakening, Green Linnet GLCD 1114, 1991.
  27. ^ a b c Sleeve notes from Andy Irvine – Rain on the Roof, Andy Irvine AK-1, 1996.
  28. ^ Moytura, by Padraic Colum. Review at the Dublin Theatre Festival Archives (24 September–6 October), published at the Dublin Theatre Festival website. Retrieved on 22 June 2015.
  29. ^ Andy Irvine and Dónal Lunny (Interview) (20 December 2014). The Business, with Richard Curran. (Podcast). Dublin: RTÉ Radio 1.  Retrieved on 1 June 2015.
  30. ^ Sir Buccaneer. Page in Playography Ireland database at the Irish Theatre Institute website. Retrieved on 3 June 2015
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i Huntington, Gale; Herrmann, Lani; Dr Moulden, John, eds. (2010). Sam Henry's Songs of the People. Athens, GA and London: The University of Georgia Press. ISBN 08-2033-625-4. 
  32. ^ Williams, R. Vaughan; Lloyd, Albert Lancaster, eds. (1959). Penguin Book of English Folk Songs. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 08-5418-188-1. 
  33. ^ a b Andy Irvine and Friends. Review (unsigned) of a performance by LAPD, published at the Culture Northern Ireland website. Retrieved on 24 July 2013
  34. ^ a b c Sleeve notes from Mozaik – Changing Trains, Compass Records 744682, 2007.
  35. ^ a b Sweeney's Men (Interview) (28 October 2013). The John Murray Show with Miriam / Music & Chat with Sweeney's Men. (Podcast). Dublin: RTÉ Radio 1.  Retrieved on 15 December 2013.
  36. ^ Liam O'Flynn & Andy Irvine in conversation with Paul Magnussen, Published at Andy Irvine's website.  Interview by Paul Magnussen (London, November 1982). Retrieved on 1 March 2014.
  37. ^ a b c Irwin, Colin (2003). In Search of the Craíc. London: André Deutsch. ISBN 02-3300-004-6. 
  38. ^ Singing The Fishing – Various Artists, Topic Records TSCD803, 1960.
  39. ^ Sleeve notes from Sweeney's Men Two-in-One compilation CD, Castle Communications Plc, ESM CD 435, 1996.
  40. ^ Andy's History – Chapter 3. Autobiography at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 2 July 2015
  41. ^ a b Moist, Kevin. "Sweet Combinations of Sound - Irish Folk Legend Andy Irvine".  Page at Deep Water Acres website. Retrieved on 2 April 2015.
  42. ^ a b c Moore, Christy (2003) [First published 2000]. One Voice (2nd revised ed.). London: Lir/Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-83073-4. 
  43. ^ Sweeney's Men LP, Transatlantic Records Ltd, TRA SAM 37, 1968.
  44. ^ a b c d e Sleeve notes from Sweeney's Men LP, Transatlantic Records Ltd, TRA SAM 37, 1968.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Irvine, Andy (1988). Aiming for the Heart. Germany: Heupferd Musik Verlag GmbH. ISBN 39-2344-501-6. 
  46. ^ a b Planxty - The Well Below The Valley, Polydor 2383 232, 1973.
  47. ^ a b Planxty – Cold Blow and the Rainy Night, Polydor 2442 130, 1974.
  48. ^ Andy Irvine/Paul Brady, Mulligan LUN 008, 1976.
  49. ^ a b Andy Irvine – Rainy Sundays... Windy Dreams LP, Tara Records TARA 3002, 1980.
  50. ^ a b c Eastern Promise, by Colin Irwin in Folk Roots No.110, August 1992.
  51. ^ a b c Ritchie, Fiona. "Andy Irvine Interview: Life on the road, Balkan music, East Wind, Riverdance, Mosaic and Mozaik. (Perthshire, 2005)".  Page at the thistleradio.com website. Retrieved on 20 November 2014.
  52. ^ a b O'Cinnéide, Barra (2002). Riverdance: The Phenomenon. Ireland: Blackhall Publishing. ISBN 19-0165-790-6. 
  53. ^ Heading East, by Colin Irwin in Folk Roots No.153, March 1996.
  54. ^ Rens van der Zalm. Biography at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 3 April 2015.
  55. ^ a b Transnational..., by Geoff Wallis in Folk Roots No.295/296, Jan/Feb 2008.
  56. ^ a b L. O'Flynn, A. Irvine, P. Glackin, D. Lunny (Interview) (9 December 2012). Miriam O'Callaghan meets... LAPD Liam O'Flynn, Andy Irvine, Paddy Glackin, Dónal Lunny. (Podcast). Dublin: RTÉ Radio 1.  Retrieved on 11 October 2013.
  57. ^ Sleeve notes from Andy Irvine 70th Birthday Concert at Vicar St 2012, Andy Irvine AK-5, 2014.
  58. ^ Planxty, Polydor 2383 186, 1973.
  59. ^ a b c Sleeve notes from Planxty, Polydor 2383 186, 1973.
  60. ^ a b c d e f Planxty (Songbook). London: Mews Music. 1973. 
  61. ^ a b c Sleeve notes from Planxty - The Well Below The Valley, Polydor 2383 232, 1973.
  62. ^ a b c d Sleeve notes from Planxty - Cold Blow and the Rainy Night, Polydor 2442 130, 1974.
  63. ^ Mominsko Horo, Published at Mandolin Tab website.  Retrieved on 19 May 2015.
  64. ^ a b Andy Irvine and Paul Brady (Interview) (20 April 2012). Miriam O'Callaghan meets... Paul Brady and Andy Irvine. (Podcast). Dublin: RTÉ Radio 1.  Retrieved on 11 October 2013.
  65. ^ a b c d Andy's History – Chapter 5. Autobiography at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 30 July 2013
  66. ^ Sleeve notes from The 3rd Irish Folk Festival in Concert, InterCord INT 181.008, 1976.
  67. ^ The 3rd Irish Folk Festival in Concert, InterCord INT 181.008, 1976.
  68. ^ Sleeve notes from Andy Irvine/Paul Brady LP, Mulligan LUN 008, 1976.
  69. ^ Sleeve notes from The 4th Irish Folk Festival on the Road, InterCord INT 180.038, 1977.
  70. ^ Andy Irvine – Rainy Sundays... Windy Dreams CD, Wundertüte TÜT 72.141, 1989.
  71. ^ The 4th Irish Folk Festival on the Road, InterCord INT 180.038, 1977.
  72. ^ Sleeve notes from The 5th Irish Folk Festival, InterCord INT 180.046, 1978.
  73. ^ The 5th Irish Folk Festival, InterCord INT 180.046, 1978.
  74. ^ Mick Hanly – As I Went Over Blackwater, Mulligan LUN 040, 1980.
  75. ^ Sleeve notes from Mick Hanly – As I Went Over Blackwater, Mulligan LUN 040, 1980.
  76. ^ The Gathering, Greenhays Recordings GR 705, 1981. Marketed by Flying Fish Inc., Chicago, Ill.
  77. ^ a b c Sleeve notes from The Gathering, Greenhays Recordings GR 705, 1981.
  78. ^ Paul Brady – Welcome Here Kind Stranger, Mulligan LUN 024, 1978.
  79. ^ a b c Sleeve notes from Paul Brady – The Missing Liberty Tapes, Abirgreen/Compass Records, 2002.
  80. ^ A photo of this instrument is shown on page 4 of Ó Callanain, Niall; Walsh, Tommy (1989). The Irish Bouzouki. Ireland: Waltons. ISBN 07-8661-595-8. 
  81. ^ Planxty - After The Break LP, Tara Records, TARA 3001, 1979.
  82. ^ a b c Sleeve notes from Planxty - After The Break LP, Tara Records, TARA 3001, 1979.
  83. ^ a b c d Andy's History – Chapter 6. Autobiography at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 7 March 2015
  84. ^ Sleeve notes from Andy Irvine – Rainy Sundays... Windy Dreams LP, Tara Records TARA 3002, 1980.
  85. ^ High Kings of Tara, Tara Records TARA 3003, 1980.
  86. ^ Sleeve notes from High Kings of Tara, Tara Records TARA 3003, 1980.
  87. ^ Planxty – After The Break CD, Tara Records Ltd, TARACD 3001, 1992.
  88. ^ Planxty - The Woman I Loved So Well LP, Tara Records, TARA 3005, 1980.
  89. ^ a b c d e f Sleeve notes from Planxty - The Woman I Loved So Well LP, Tara Records, TARA 3005, 1980.
  90. ^ Folk Friends 2, Wundertüte CD TÜT 72.150, 1990.
  91. ^ a b Folk Friends 2. 'CD Review' Page at discogs website. Retrieved on 7 March 2015.
  92. ^ Dick Gaughan & Andy Irvine – Parallel Lines, FolkFreak (FF4007), 1982.
  93. ^ a b Sleeve notes from Dick Gaughan & Andy Irvine – Parallel Lines, FolkFreak FF4007, 1982.
  94. ^ Dick Gaughan & Andy Irvine (Wednesday 2 February 2011). Schedule from Whelan's website. Retrieved on 7 June 2015
  95. ^ Sleeve notes from The Brendan Voyage CD, Tara Records, TARA CD 3006, 1980.
  96. ^ Planxty - Words & Music LP, WEA Ireland, 2401011, 1983.
  97. ^ a b Sleeve notes from Planxty - Words & Music LP, WEA Ireland, 2401011, 1983.
  98. ^ Aragon Mill, Published at Si Kahn's website.  Retrieved on 4 May 2015.
  99. ^ Biography of Ágnes Zsigmondi McCraven. Retrieved on 20 March 2015
  100. ^ a b Andy's History – Chapter 7. Autobiography at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 25 August 2013
  101. ^ a b Mozaik – Changing Trains, Compass Records 744682, 2007.
  102. ^ a b The Euro-group: Mosaic, by Ian Anderson in Folk Roots No.29, November 1985.
  103. ^ a b Live Reviews: Mosaic at Southport Arts Centre, by Chris Hardwick in Folk Roots No.28, October 1985.
  104. ^ a b Street Cred, by Colin Irwin in Folk Roots No.66, December 1988.
  105. ^ Andy's History – Chapter 8. Autobiography at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 25 August 2013
  106. ^ a b Sleeve notes from Patrick Street, Green Linnet SIF 1071, 1986.
  107. ^ Sleeve notes from The Best of Patrick Street, NECTAR NTMCD503, 1995.
  108. ^ a b Patrick Street – On The Fly, Loftus Music LM002, 2007.
  109. ^ a b c d e Sleeve notes from Patrick Street – On The Fly, Loftus Music LM002, 2007.
  110. ^ Patrick Street, Green Linnet SIF 1071, 1986.
  111. ^ No. 2 Patrick Street, Green Linnet SIF 1088, 1988.
  112. ^ Sleeve notes from No. 2 Patrick Street, Green Linnet SIF 1088, 1988.
  113. ^ Patrick Street – Irish Times, Green Linnet/Special Delivery Records (a division of Topics Records) SPD 1033, 1990.
  114. ^ Sleeve notes from Patrick Street – Irish Times, Green Linnet SPD 1033, 1990.
  115. ^ Andy Irvine – Rude Awakening, Green Linnet GLCD 1114, 1991.
  116. ^ Andy's History – Chapter 9. Autobiography at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 28 July 2013
  117. ^ Review of East Wind By Richard Foss (Allmusic). Retrieved on 24 April 2012
  118. ^ a b Sleeve notes from East Wind, Tara CD 3027, 1992.
  119. ^ Reviews: Andy Irvine & Davy Spillane - East Wind, by Ian Anderson in Folk Roots No.108, June 1992.
  120. ^ Gurr, Julian. "Andy Irvine - 'Supergrouper'".  Retrieved on 6 April 2015.
  121. ^ Patrick Street – All in Good Time, Green Linnet GLCD 1125, 1993.
  122. ^ a b c d e f Sleeve notes from Patrick Street – All in Good Time, Green Linnet GLCD 1125, 1993.
  123. ^ The Story of Belfast by Mary Lowry, circa 1913. From the 'Library Ireland' website. Retrieved on 6 November 2013
  124. ^ Goodbye, Monday Blues, Published at Si Kahn's website.  Retrieved on 5 May 2015.
  125. ^ Patrick Street – Cornerboys, Green Linnet GLCD 1160, 1996.
  126. ^ a b Sleeve notes from Patrick Street – Cornerboys, Green Linnet GLCD 1160, 1996.
  127. ^ Andy Irvine – Rain on the Roof, Andy Irvine AK-1, 1996.
  128. ^ Patrick Street – Made in Cork, Green Linnet GLCD 1184, 1997
  129. ^ a b c d e f Sleeve notes from Patrick Street – Made in Cork, Green Linnet GLCD 1184, 1997.
  130. ^ Live From Patrick Street, Green Linnet GLCD 1194, 1999.
  131. ^ a b Sleeve notes from Parachilna - Andy Irvine with Rens van der Zalm, Andy Irvine AK-4, 2013.
  132. ^ a b c d e Sleeve notes from Live From Patrick Street, Green Linnet GLCD 1194, 1999.
  133. ^ Andy Irvine – Way Out Yonder, Andy Irvine AK-2, 2000.
  134. ^ a b Sleeve notes from Andy Irvine – Way Out Yonder, Andy Irvine AK-2, 2000.
  135. ^ Mozaik. 'About' Page at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 24 July 2013
  136. ^ Sleeve notes from Mozaik – Live from the Powerhouse, Compass Records 743782, 2004.
  137. ^ Patrick Street – Street Life, Green Linnet GLCD 1222, 2002.
  138. ^ a b c d Sleeve notes from Patrick Street – Street Life, Green Linnet GLCD 1222, 2002.
  139. ^ Andy's journal: April-May 2005 (May 4th 2005 entry). Page at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 28 July 2013
  140. ^ Peter Ratzenbeck – Resonances, Woodcraft Productions WP-963, 2007.
  141. ^ Sleeve notes from Peter Ratzenbeck – Resonances, Woodcraft Productions WP-963, 2007.
  142. ^ Marianne Green. Biography from Performing Acts. Retrieved on 28 December 2013.
  143. ^ Dear Irish Boy – Marianne Green with Andy Irvine, Glas Records MEGCD02, 2009.
  144. ^ Marianne Green - Dear Irish Boy Review by Tony Hendry for Living Tradition Magazine. Retrieved on 28 December 2013.
  145. ^ a b Sleeve notes from Dear Irish Boy – Marianne Green with Andy Irvine, Glas Records MEGCD02, 2009.
  146. ^ Andy Irvine – Abocurragh, Andy Irvine AK-3, 2010.
  147. ^ Andy Irvine launches new album in barn. Review of the launch of Abocurragh by Julian Fowler for BBC News Northern Ireland, 18 September 2010. Retrieved on 8 September 2013.
  148. ^ a b Andy Irvine: Abocurragh. Review by Robin Denselow in The Guardian (23 December 2010). Retrieved on 27 July 2013
  149. ^ a b Sleeve notes from Andy Irvine – Abocurragh, Andy Irvine AK-3, 2010.
  150. ^ Reviews of LAPD at Vicar St. (Friday 20 January 2012). 'Review' Page at the Ticketmaster website. Retrieved on 2 January 2014
  151. ^ About LAPD. 'About' Page at the LAPD Ireland website. Retrieved on 2 January 2014
  152. ^ Harmonic Presents: LAPD (Sunday, 16 December 2012). 'Schedule' Page at Vicar Street website. Retrieved on 2 January 2014
  153. ^ LAPD Schedule. 'Schedule' Page at the LAPD Ireland website. Retrieved on 2 January 2014
  154. ^ Meet trad’s new supergroup. Review of LAPD by Jim Carroll in the Irish Times (March 2013), published at the LAPD Ireland website. Retrieved on 27 September 2013.
  155. ^ Andy Irvine is still going strong in his seventies. Interview by Gerry Quinn in the Irish Examiner, 5 February 2015. Retrieved on 13 February 2015.
  156. ^ Andy's 70th Birthday Concerts – 16 & 17 June 2012. Review & photos. Published at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 5 September 2013
  157. ^ Andy Irvine 70th Birthday Concert At Vicar St 2012. 'CD & DVD Announcement' Page at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 3 October 2014
  158. ^ Billy Bragg & Andy Irvine Celebrate Woody Guthrie's Centenary (Monday, 17 September 2012). 'Schedule' Page at the Vicar Street website. Retrieved on 2 January 2014
  159. ^ The Woody 100 Legacy Show (Monday, 17 September 2012). Announcement. Published at Andy Irvine's website on 22 June 2012. Retrieved on 26 July 2013
  160. ^ Parachilna, by Andy Irvine & Rens van der Zalm. 'CD Announcement' Page at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 7 November 2013
  161. ^ a b Andy Irvine talks to Peter Browne about his album Parachilna (20 April 2014). The Rolling Wave (Podcast). Dublin: RTÉ Radio 1.  Retrieved on 21 April 2014.
  162. ^ News: Usher's Island (December 2014). 'Announcement' Page at Andy Irvine's website. Retrieved on 24 December 2014
  163. ^ Celtic Connections: Usher's Island at Old Fruitmarket, Glasgow. Live Review by Rob Adams in The Herald Scotland, Wednesday 28 January 2015. Retrieved on 11 May 2015
  164. ^ Cork City declares August 1st as Mother Jones Day. 'Announcement' Page at the Cork Mother Jones Festival website (24 April 2013). Retrieved on 27 July 2013
  165. ^ "Andy Irvine has pledged to donate some of his fee to Shell to Sea, a massive gesture for which we are hugely grateful." Changed perspectives By Fearbolg – S2S, in indymedia Ireland, 31 July 2007, at 22:45. Retrieved on 28 December 2013.
  166. ^ Andy Irvine's Discography. Retrieved on 4 August 2013.
  167. ^ Re-released on Sweeney's Men Two-in-One compilation CD, Castle Communications Plc, ESM CD 435, 1996.

External links[edit]