The landscape is characterized by Rut plateau terrain with intersecting valley routes and altitudes between, some in the form of long rock drumlins. The bottom of the valley is on 200 and the heights on 300 m asl or higher. In a central way Svartån flows from south to north and forms between Aneby Lake and Lake Ralången the 19 m high waterfall Stalpet. Moraine soils dominate, but the glacial lake sediments and glacier valleys occurs. Quaternary scientifically interesting formations are beach terraces, sandspit and a series of small transverse ridges, which runs perpendicular to the main esker in Bredestad Valley. Aneby is 70% covered by forests, mainly coniferous forest. Where deciduous forest and pastures occurs the landscape becomes brighter.
The agricultural landscape is characterized by the way of height buildings. The farms lie singly or in tandem on the crest or slope positions, with field closest to the farm and pasture and forest further down the slope. Higher up the frost risk is less and the soil finer than the boulder-strewn soil in the bottom of the valleys.
Aneby can be counted as agriculture and forestry municipality (7% of the working population is employed in agriculture and forestry). The transport geographically favorable location and the availability raw wood material and labor have favored industrialization. About 33% of the workforce are linked to industrial activity, concentrated in the central town. The previously dominant timber industry in recent years has declined in importance, and the economy is now more diversified and dominated by small and medium enterprises. Among the larger companies include Attends Healthcare AB (dressings and medical supplies), Hags AB (park and play equipment for the outdoor environment), Anebyhus AB (house production) and Fläkt Woods AB (vents), all in the main town. Approximately 1/3 of the workforce is employed in the public sector.