|19th-century botanical illustration|
Dill (Anethum graveolens) is an annual herb in the celery family Apiaceae. It is the only species in the genus Anethum. Dill is grown widely in Eurasia, where its leaves and seeds are used as a herb or spice for flavouring food.
Dill grows up to 40–60 cm (16–24 in), with slender hollow stems and alternate, finely divided, softly delicate leaves 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long. The ultimate leaf divisions are 1–2 mm (1⁄32–3⁄32 in) broad, slightly broader than the similar leaves of fennel, which are threadlike, less than 1 mm (1⁄16 in) broad, but harder in texture. The flowers are white to yellow, in small umbels 2–9 cm (1–3+1⁄2 in) diameter. The seeds are 4–5 mm (3⁄16–3⁄16 in) long and 1 mm (1⁄16 in) thick, and straight to slightly curved with a longitudinally ridged surface.
The word dill and its close relatives are found in most of the Germanic languages; its ultimate origin is unknown. The generic name Anethum is the Latin form of Greek ἄνῑσον / ἄνησον / ἄνηθον / ἄνητον, which meant both 'dill' and 'anise'. The form anīsum came to be used for anise, and anēthum for dill. The Latin word is the origin of dill's names in the Western Romance languages (anet, aneldo, etc.), and also of the obsolete English anet. Most Slavic language names come from Proto-Slavic *koprъ, which developed from the PIE root *ku̯ə1po- 'aroma, odor'.
Dill has been found in the tomb of Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II, dating to around 1400 BC. It was also later found in the Greek city of Samos, around the 7th century BC, and mentioned in the writings of Theophrastus (371–287 BC).
This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2021)
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||180 kJ (43 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||2.1 g|
|Vitamin A||7717 (154%) IU|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)|
|Copper 667||0.14 mg (7%)|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Fresh and dried dill leaves (sometimes called "dill weed" or "dillweed" to distinguish it from dill seed) are widely used as herbs in Europe and central Asia.
Like caraway, the fern-like leaves of dill are aromatic and are used to flavour many foods such as gravlax (cured salmon) and other fish dishes, borscht, and other soups, as well as pickles (where the dill flower is sometimes used). Dill is best when used fresh, as it loses its flavor rapidly if dried. However, freeze-dried dill leaves retain their flavour relatively well for a few months.
In central and eastern Europe, Scandinavia, the Baltic states, Ukraine, and Russia, dill is a staple culinary herb along with chives and parsley. Fresh, finely cut dill leaves are used as a topping in soups, especially the hot red borsht and the cold borsht mixed with curds, kefir, yogurt, or sour cream, which is served during hot summer weather and is called okroshka. It also is popular in summer to drink fermented milk (curds, kefir, yogurt, or buttermilk) mixed with dill (and sometimes other herbs).
In the same way, dill is used as a topping for boiled potatoes covered with fresh butter – especially in summer when there are so-called "new", or young, potatoes. The dill leaves may be mixed with butter, making a dill butter, to serve the same purpose. Dill leaves mixed with tvorog form one of the traditional cheese spreads used for sandwiches. Fresh dill leaves are used throughout the year as an ingredient in salads, e.g., one made of lettuce, fresh cucumbers, and tomatoes, as basil leaves are used in Italy and Greece.
Russian cuisine is noted for liberal use of dill, where it is known as укроп. Its supposed antiflatulent activity caused some Russian cosmonauts to recommend its use in human spaceflight due to the confined quarters and closed air supply.
In Polish cuisine, fresh dill leaves mixed with sour cream are the basis for dressings. It is especially popular to use this kind of sauce with freshly cut cucumbers, which are almost wholly immersed in the sauce, making a salad called mizeria. Dill sauce is used hot for baked freshwater fish and for chicken or turkey breast, or used hot or cold for hard-boiled eggs. A dill-based soup, (zupa koperkowa), served with potatoes and hard-boiled eggs, is popular in Poland. Whole stems including roots and flower buds are used traditionally to prepare Polish-style pickled cucumbers (ogórki kiszone), especially the so-called low-salt cucumbers (ogórki małosolne). Whole stems of dill (often including the roots) also are cooked with potatoes, especially the potatoes of autumn and winter, so they resemble the flavour of the newer potatoes found in summer. Some kinds of fish, especially trout and salmon, traditionally are baked with the stems and leaves of dill.
In the Czech Republic, white dill sauce made of cream (or milk), butter, flour, vinegar, and dill is called koprová omáčka (also koprovka or kopračka) and is served either with boiled eggs and potatoes, or with dumplings and boiled beef. Another Czech dish with dill is a soup called kulajda that contains mushrooms (traditionally wild ones).
In Germany, dill is popular as a seasoning for fish and many other dishes, chopped as a garnish on potatoes, and as a flavouring in pickles.
In the UK, dill may be used in fish pie.
In Bulgaria dill is widely used in traditional vegetable salads, and most notably the yogurt-based cold soup Tarator. It is also used in the preparation of sour pickles, cabbage, and other dishes.
In Romania dill (mărar) is widely used as an ingredient for soups such as borş (pronounced "borsh"), pickles, and other dishes, especially those based on peas, beans, and cabbage. It is popular for dishes based on potatoes and mushrooms and may be found in many summer salads (especially cucumber salad, cabbage salad and lettuce salad). During springtime, it is used in omelets with spring onions. It often complements sauces based on sour cream or yogurt and is mixed with salted cheese and used as a filling. Another popular dish with dill as a main ingredient is dill sauce, which is served with eggs and fried sausages.
In Hungary, dill is very widely used. It is popular as a sauce or filling, and mixed with a type of cottage cheese. Dill is also used for pickling and in salads. The Hungarian name for dill is kapor.
In Serbia, dill is known as mirodjija and is used as an addition to soups, potato and cucumber salads, and French fries. It features in the Serbian proverb, "бити мирођија у свакој чорби" /biti mirodjija u svakoj čorbi/ (to be a dill in every soup), which corresponds to the English proverb "to have a finger in every pie".
In Greece, dill is known as άνηθος (anithos). In antiquity it was used as an ingredient in wines that were called "anithites oinos" (wine with anithos-dill). In modern days, dill is used in salads, soups, sauces, and fish and vegetable dishes.
In Santa Maria, Azores, dill (endro) is the most important ingredient of the traditional Holy Ghost soup (sopa do Espírito Santo). Dill is found ubiquitously in Santa Maria, yet, is rare in the other Azorean Islands.
In Sweden, dill is a common spice or herb. The top of fully grown dill is called krondill (crown dill); this is used when cooking crayfish. The krondill is put into the water after the crayfish is boiled, but still in hot and salt water. Then the entire dish is refrigerated for at least 24 hours before being served (with toasted bread and butter). Krondill also is used for pickles, vodka, not wine, sugar, and krondill. After a month or two of fermentation, the cucumber pickles are ready to eat, for instance, with pork, brown sauce, and potatoes, as a "sweetener". The thinner part of dill and young plants may be used with boiled fresh potatoes (especially the first potatoes of the year, "new potatoes", which usually are small and have a very thin skin). In salads it is used together with, or instead, of other green herbs, such as parsley, chives, and basil. It often is paired up with chives when used in food. Dill often is used to flavour fish and seafood in Sweden, for example, gravlax and various herring pickles, among them the traditional, sill i dill (literally "herring in dill"). In contrast to the various fish dishes flavoured with dill, there is also a traditional Swedish dish called, dillkött, which is a meaty stew flavoured with dill. The dish commonly contains pieces of veal or lamb that are boiled until tender and then served together with a vinegary dill sauce. Dill seeds may be used in breads or akvavit. A newer, non-traditional use of dill is to pair it with chives as a flavouring for potato chips. These are called "dillchips" and are quite popular in Sweden.
Asian and Middle Eastern cooking
|Nation/region||Language||Local name of dill||Dishes commonly used in|
|India||Marathi, Konkani||Shepu (शेपू)||Shepuchi Bhaji, Shepu Pulao, Ashe Mast|
|India||Hindi||Soa / Soya (सोआ)||Soa Sabzi (with potato). As a flavour in: Green Kheema, Kheema samosa|
|India||Kannada||sabbasige soppu (ಸಬ್ಬಸಿಗೆ ಸೊಪ್ಪು)||Curry|
|India||Telugu||Soa-Kura (శత పుష్పం)|
|India||Punjabi||Pahadi Saunf / Kaudi Saunf|
|India||Gujarati||Suva||Suvaa ni Bhaji (with potato)|
|Iran||Persian||Shevid||Aash, Baghali Polo, Shevid Polo, Mast O Khiar|
|Arab world||Arabic||شبت، شبث (shabat, shabath)||As flavouring in various dishes|
|Thailand||Thai||phak chee Lao (ผักชีลาว)||Gaeng om (แกงอ่อม)|
|Vietnam||Vietnamese||Thì là||Many fish dishes in northern Vietnam|
In Iran, dill is known as shevid and sometimes, is used with rice and called shevid-polo. It also is used in Iranian aash recipes, and similarly, is called sheved in Persian.
In India, dill is known as "Sholpa" in Bengali, shepu (शेपू) in Marathi and Konkani, savaa in Hindi, or soa in Punjabi. In Telugu, it is called Soa-kura (herb greens). It also is called sabbasige soppu (ಸಬ್ಬಸಿಗೆ ಸೊಪ್ಪು) in Kannada. In Tamil it is known as sada kuppi (சதகுப்பி). In Malayalam, it is ചതകുപ്പ (chathakuppa) or ശതകുപ്പ (sathakuppa). In Sanskrit, this herb is called shatapushpa. In Gujarati, it is known as suva (સૂવા). In India, dill is prepared in the manner of yellow moong dal, as a main-course dish. It is considered to have very good antiflatulent properties, so it is used as mukhwas, or an after-meal digestive. Traditionally, it is given to mothers immediately after childbirth. In the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, a small amount of fresh dill is cooked along with cut potatoes and fresh fenugreek leaves (Hindi आलू-मेथी-सोया).
In Manipur, dill, locally known as pakhon, is an essential ingredient of chagem pomba – a traditional Manipuri dish made with fermented soybean and rice.
In Laos and parts of northern Thailand, dill is known in English as Lao coriander (Lao: ຜັກຊີ or Thai: ผักชีลาว), and served as a side with salad yum or papaya salad. In the Lao language, it is called phak see, and in Thai, it is known as phak chee Lao. In Lao cuisine, Lao coriander is used extensively in traditional Lao dishes such as mok pa (steamed fish in banana leaf) and several coconut milk curries that contain fish or prawns.
In China dill is called colloquially, huíxiāng (茴香, perfume of Hui people), or more properly shíluó (莳萝). It is a common filling in baozi and xianbing and may be used as vegetarian with rice vermicelli, or combined with either meat or eggs. Vegetarian dill baozi are a common part of a Beijing breakfast. In baozi and xianbing, it often is interchangeable with non-bulbing fennel and the term 茴香 also may refer to fennel, similarly to caraway and coriander leaf, sharing a name in Chinese as well. Dill also may be stir fried as a potherb, often with egg, in the same manner as Chinese chives. It commonly is used in Taiwan as well. In Northern China, Beijing, Inner-Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, and Xinjiang, dill seeds commonly are called zīrán (孜然), but also kūmíng (枯茗), kūmíngzi (枯茗子), shíluózi (莳萝子), xiǎohuíxiāngzi (小茴香子) and are used with pepper for lamb meat. In the whole of China, yángchuàn (羊串) or yángròu chuàn (羊肉串), lamb brochette, a speciality from Uyghurs, uses cumin and pepper.
In Vietnam, the use of dill in cooking is regional. It is used mainly in northern Vietnamese cuisine.
Middle Eastern uses
In Arab countries, dill seed, called ain jaradeh (grasshopper's eye), is used as a spice in cold dishes such as fattoush and pickles. In Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, dill is called shibint and is used mostly in fish dishes. In Egypt, dillweed is commonly used to flavour cabbage dishes, including mahshi koronb (stuffed cabbage leaves). In Israel, dill weed is used in salads and also to flavour omelettes, often alongside parsley. It is known in Hebrew as shammir (שמיר).
Successful cultivation requires warm to hot summers with high sunshine levels; even partial shade will reduce the yield substantially. It also prefers rich, well-drained soil. The seeds are viable for three to ten years. The plants are somewhat monocarpic and quickly die after "bolting" (producing seeds). High temperatures may quicken bolting.
The seed is harvested by cutting the flower heads off the stalks when the seed is beginning to ripen. The seed heads are placed upside down in a paper bag and left in a warm, dry place for a week. The seeds then separate from the stems easily for storage in an airtight container.
These plants, like their fennel and parsley relatives, often are eaten by black swallowtail caterpillars in areas where that species occurs. For this reason, they may be included in some butterfly gardens.
When used as a companion plant, dill attracts many beneficial insects as the umbrella flower heads go to seed. It makes a good companion plant for cucumbers and broccoli.
Tomatoes will benefit from dill when they are young since it will repel harmful pests while attracting pollinators. As dill matures and flowers it will slow or stop the growth of tomatoes. Prune dill regularly so it does not flower if planted next to tomatoes.
- Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus
- Antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae
- Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz Volume 3 (1888), Gera, Germany, page 142, Gattung 477, Tafel 378, available from BioDiversity Heritage Library and BioLib.de(1885)
- "The Plant List, Anethum graveolens L."
- Oxford English Dictionary, 1896, s.v. (subscription)
- "s.v. 'anise'".
- R.H. Derksen, Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon, 2008, as quoted in 
- Snoj, Marko (2003). Slovenski etimološki slovar (2 ed.). Ljubljana: Modrijan. p. 307. ISBN 961-6465-37-6.
- Pickersgill, Barbara (2005). Prance, Ghillean; Nesbitt, Mark (eds.). The Cultural History of Plants. Routledge. p. 163. ISBN 0415927463.
- M. G. Kains (1912). American Agriculturist (ed.). Culinary Herbs: Their Cultivation Harvesting Curing and Uses (English). Orange Judd Company.
- The Cultural History of Plants (Routledge, 2005: eds. Sir Ghillean Prance & Mark Nesbitt), pp. 102–03.
- Kelly, Scott (October 2017). Endurance: A Year in Space, a Lifetime of Discovery. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-1524731595.
- Davidson, A. (2003). Seafood of South-East Asia (2nd ed.). Ten Speed Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-58008-452-9.
- "Thai names". ediblyasian.info.
- Ling, K. F. (2002). The Food of Asia. Singapore: Periplus editions (HK). p. 155. ISBN 978-0-7946-0146-1.
- "Egyptian Style Stuffed Cabbage Leaves (Mashy Crump)". Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Almanac, Old Farmer's. "Dill". Old Farmer's Almanac. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- "Healthline: Medical information and health advice you can trust". www.healthline.com. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
- "Dill: Nutrition, Benefits, and Uses". Healthline. 4 February 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
- ghorbani (1 March 2020). "Dill". ghorbani Trading Company (in American English). Retrieved 21 July 2021.
- Hall, Donald (23 October 2017). "Eastern Black Swallowtail: Papilio polyxenes asterius (Stoll) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)". edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- Albornoz, Sari (7 March 2014). "Plant Dill for You and Your Butterflies".
- "8 Varieties of Dill to Plant. Learn Which is Best for You. - Herba Medicine" (in American English). Retrieved 5 November 2021.
- Bailer, J.; Aichinger, T.; Hackl, G.; de Hueber, K.; Dachler, M. (2001). "Essential oil content and composition in commercially available dill cultivars in comparison to caraway". Industrial Crops and Products. 14 (3): 229–239. doi:10.1016/S0926-6690(01)00088-7.
- Santos, P. A. G.; Figueiredo, A. C.; Lourenço, P. M. L.; Barroso, J. G.; Pedro, L. G.; Oliveira, M. M.; Schripsema, J.; Deans, S. G.; Scheffer, J. J. C. (2002). "Hairy root cultures of Anethum graveolens (dill): establishment, growth, time-course study of their essential oil and its comparison with parent plant oils". Biotechnology Letters. 24 (12): 1031–1036. doi:10.1023/A:1015653701265. S2CID 10120732.
- Singh, G.; Maurya, S.; Lampasona, M. P.; Catalan, C. (2005). "Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobial Investigations, and Antioxidative Potentials of Anethum graveolens L. Essential Oil and Acetone Extract: Part 52". Journal of Food Science. 70 (4): M208–M215. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.tb07190.x.
- Dhalwal, K.; Shinde, V. M.; Mahadik, K. R. (2008). "Efficient and Sensitive Method for Quantitative Determination and Validation of Umbelliferone, Carvone and Myristicin in Anethum graveolens and Carum carvi Seed". Chromatographia. 67 (1–2): 163–167. doi:10.1365/s10337-007-0473-6. S2CID 96393401.
- Huopalahti, Rainer; Linko, Reino R. (March 1983). "Composition and content of aroma compounds in dill, Anethum graveolens L., at three different growth stages". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 31 (2): 331–333. doi:10.1021/jf00116a036. ISSN 0021-8561.
- Blank, I.; Grosch, W. (1991). "Evaluation of Potent Odorants in Dill Seed and Dill Herb (Anethum graveolens L.) by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis". Journal of Food Science. 56 (1): 63–67. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb07976.x.
- Delaquis, P. J.; Stanich, K.; Girard, B.; Mazza, G. (2002). "Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 74 (1–2): 101–109. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00734-6. PMID 11929164.
- Jirovetz, L.; Buchbauer, G.; Stoyanova, A. S.; Georgiev, E. V.; Damianova, S. T. (2003). "Composition, Quality Control, and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Long-Time Stored Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) Seeds from Bulgaria". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51 (13): 3854–3857. doi:10.1021/jf030004y. PMID 12797755.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anethum graveolens.|