Exposure of males to lifestyle, environmental and/or occupational hazards may increase the risk of spermatozoa aneuploidy. Tobacco smoke contains chemicals that cause DNA damage. (See Tobacco smoking#Health.) Smoking also can induce aneuploidy. For instance, smoking increases chromosome 13 disomy in spermatozoa by 3-fold and YY disomy by 2-fold.
Pesticides are released to the environment in large quantities so that most individuals have some degree of exposure. The insecticides fenvalerate and carbaryl have been reported to increase spermatozoa aneuploidy. Occupational exposure of pesticide factory workers to fenvalerate is associated with increased spermatozoa DNA damage. Exposure to fenvalerate raised sex chromosome disomy 1.9-fold and disomy of chromosome 18 by 2.6-fold (Xia et al., 2004). Exposure of male workers to carbaryl increased DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa, and also increased sex chromosome disomy by 1.7-fold and chromosome 18 disomy by 2.2-fold.
Humans are exposed to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in many commercial products. Men contaminated with PFCs in whole blood or seminal plasma have spermatozoa with increased levels of DNA fragmentation and chromosomal aneuploidies.
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