|Wild angelica (Angelica sylvestris)|
About 50 species; see text
Angelica is a genus of about 60 species of tall biennial and perennial herbs in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, reaching as far north as Iceland, Lapland and Greenland. They grow to 1–3 m (3 ft 3 in–9 ft 10 in) tall, with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels of white or greenish-white flowers. Found mainly in China, its main use was for medicine. It shows variations in fruit anatomy, leaf morphology and subterranean structures. The genes are extremely polymorphic.
Some species can be found in purple moor and rush pastures.
Angelica species grow to 1–3 m (3 ft 3 in–9 ft 10 in) tall, with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels of white or greenish-white flowers. Their large, sparkling, starburst flowers are pollinated by a great variety of insects (the generalist pollination syndrome), the floral scents are species-specific, and even specific to particular subspecies. The active ingredients of angelica are found in the roots and rhizomes and contains furocoumarins in its tissues which make the skin sensitive to light.
- Angelica acutiloba – dang-gui in Chinese
- Angelica adzharica – Adjarian angelica
- Angelica ampla – giant angelica
- Angelica archangelica – garden angelica, archangel, angelique
- Angelica arguta – Lyall's angelica
- Angelica atropurpurea – purplestem angelica, alexanders
- Angelica breweri – Brewer's angelica
- Angelica californica – California angelica
- Angelica callii – Call's angelica
- Angelica canbyi – Canby's angelica
- Angelica cartilaginomarginata
- Angelica dahurica – bai zhi in Chinese
- Angelica dawsonii – Dawson's angelica
- Angelica dentata – coastalplain angelica
- Angelica genuflexa – kneeling angelica
- Angelica gigas – cham dangwi in Korean
- Angelica glabra – synonym for Angelica dahurica
- Angelica glauca – gandhrain (Kumaoni language), chippe /chouru' in Uttarakhandi languages (India)
- Angelica grayi – Gray's angelica
- Angelica harae
- Angelica hendersonii – Henderson's angelica
- Angelica japonica
- Angelica keiskei – ashitaba in Japanese
- Angelica kingii – King's angelica
- Angelica lignescens 
- Angelica lineariloba – poison angelica
- Angelica lucida – seacoast angelica
- Angelica pachycarpa
- Angelica palustris – marsh angelica
- Angelica pancicii
- Angelica pinnata – small-leaf angelica
- Angelica polymorpha
- Angelica pubescens – shishiudo in Japanese, du huo in Chinese
- Angelica roseana – rose angelica
- Angelica sikkimensis
- Angelica sinensis – dong quai
- Angelica scabrida – Charleston Mountain angelica, rough angelica
- Angelica sylvestris – wild angelica
- Angelica tenuissima – Korean gobon, slender angelica
- Angelica tomentosa – woolly angelica
- Angelica triquinata – filmy angelica
- Angelica ubatakensis
- Angelica ursina
- Angelica venenosa – hairy angelica
- Angelica wheeleri – Utah angelica
Cultivation and uses
Some species are grown as flavouring agents or for their medicinal properties. The most notable of these is garden angelica (A. archangelica), which is commonly known simply as angelica. Natives of Lapland use the fleshy roots as food and the stalks as medicine. Crystallized strips of young angelica stems and midribs are green in colour and are sold as decorative and flavoursome cake decoration material, but may also be enjoyed on their own. The roots and seeds are commonly used to flavour gin. Its presence accounts for the distinct flavour of many liqueurs, such as Chartreuse.
A. dawsonii was used by several first nations in North America for ritual purposes.
A. atropurpurea is found in North America from Newfoundland west to Wisconsin and south to Maryland, and was smoked by Missouri tribes for colds and respiratory ailments.[medical citation needed] This species is very similar in appearance to the poisonous water hemlock.
- Johannes Gröntved. "Kvanen -. Dens Udbredelse Og Anvendelse" (PDF).
- "Angelica grayi (Angelica)". Southern Colorado Wildflowers. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M. (2015). "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers". Plant Biology. 18 (1): 56–62. doi:10.1111/plb.12328. PMID 25754608.
- Tollsten, L.; Knudsen, J. T.; Bergström, L. G. (1994). "Floral Scent in Generalistic Angelica (Apiaceae) — An Adaptive Character?". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 22 (2): 161–169. doi:10.1016/0305-1978(94)90006-X.
- "Comprehensive Guide to Angelica Species". Meschino Health. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "Angelica - A Plant of the Family Apiaceae". Scienceray. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- Pimenov, M. G.; Leonov, M. V. (2004). "The Asian Umbelliferae Biodiversity Database (ASIUM) with Particular Reference to South-West Asian Taxa" (PDF). Turkish Journal of Botany. 28: 139–145. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2006.
- Acta botanica Gallica 144: 186 (1997)
- English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 354. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Angelica.|
- "Angelica". UVSC Herbarium.
- "History of Angelica". Our Herb Garden.
- "Plants Profile Angelica L." Plants Database. USDA - NRCS.
- "How to Take Care of Ashitaba Plant (Longevity Herb) Angelica". Rochkirstin Santos.
- Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (9th ed.). 1878. p. 28. .
- Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 6. .
- Traditional and Modern Use of Wild Angelica