Angelica

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Angelica
Wild angelica (Angelica sylvestris)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Subfamily: Apioideae
Tribe: Selineae
Genus: Angelica
L.
Species

About 90 species; see text.

Synonyms[1]
  • Agathorhiza Raf.
  • Angelocarpa Rupr.
  • Angelophyllum Rupr.
  • Archangelica Wolf
  • Callisace Fisch. ex Hoffm.
  • Coelopleurum Ledeb.
  • Czernaevia Turcz. ex Ledeb.
  • Gomphopetalum Turcz.
  • Halosciastrum Koidz.
  • Homopteryx Kitag.
  • Physolophium Turcz.
  • Porphyroscias Miq.
  • Razulia Raf.
  • Rompelia Koso-Pol.
  • Sphenosciadium A.Gray
Wild angelica (Angelica sylvestris) from Thomé, Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885

Angelica is a genus of about 90 species of tall biennial and perennial herbs in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, reaching as far north as Iceland, Lapland, and Greenland.[2] They grow to 1–3 m (3 ft 3 in – 9 ft 10 in) tall, with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels of white or greenish-white flowers. Found mainly in China, its main use was for medicine. It shows variations in fruit anatomy, leaf morphology, and subterranean structures. The genes are extremely polymorphic.

Some species can be found in purple moor and rush pastures.

Purple-stemmed Angelica (Angelica atropurpurea) found near Winona, MN, USA. The plant is seen here where it was growing near a creek.

Characteristics[edit]

Angelica species grow to 1–3 m (3 ft 3 in – 9 ft 10 in) tall, with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels of white or greenish-white flowers. Their large, sparkling, starburst flowers[3] are pollinated by a great variety of insects (the generalist pollination syndrome),[4] the floral scents are species-specific, and even specific to particular subspecies.[5] The active ingredients of angelica are found in the roots and rhizomes[6] and contains furocoumarins in its tissues, which make the skin sensitive to light.[7]

Species[edit]

List of species accepted by Plants of the World Online as of December 2022:[1]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Some species are grown as flavouring agents or for their medicinal properties.[11] The most notable of these is garden angelica (A. archangelica), which is commonly known simply as angelica. Natives of Lapland use the fleshy roots as food and the stalks as medicine. Crystallized strips of young angelica stems and midribs are green in colour and are sold as decorative and flavoursome cake decoration material, but may also be enjoyed on their own. The roots and seeds are commonly used to flavour gin. Its presence accounts for the distinct flavour of many liqueurs, such as Chartreuse.

Among the Sami people of Lapland, the plant is used to make a traditional musical instrument the fadno.

Seacoast angelica (A. lucida) has been eaten as a wild version of celery.

In parts of Japan, especially the Izu Islands, the shoots and leaves of ashitaba (A. keiskei) are eaten as tempura, particularly in the spring.

A. sylvestris and some other species are eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including bordered pug, grey pug, lime-speck pug and the V-pug.

A. dawsonii was used by several first nations in North America for ritual purposes.

A. atropurpurea is found in North America from Newfoundland west to Wisconsin and south to Maryland, and was smoked by Missouri tribes for colds and respiratory ailments.[medical citation needed] This species is very similar in appearance to the poisonous water hemlock.

The boiled roots of angelica were applied internally and externally to wounds by the Aleut people in Alaska to speed healing.[medical citation needed]

The herb, also known by the Chinese name, bai zhi, and Latin name, radix angelicae dahurica, is used medicinally in traditional Chinese medicine.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Accepted by PoWO, but considered a synonym of Angelica major by GBIF.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Angelica L." Retrieved 20 December 2022.
  2. ^ Johannes Gröntved. "Kvanen -. Dens Udbredelse Og Anvendelse" (PDF).
  3. ^ "Angelica grayi (Angelica)". Southern Colorado Wildflowers. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  4. ^ Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M. (2015). "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers". Plant Biology. 18 (1): 56–62. doi:10.1111/plb.12328. PMID 25754608.
  5. ^ Tollsten, L.; Knudsen, J. T.; Bergström, L. G. (1994). "Floral Scent in Generalistic Angelica (Apiaceae) — An Adaptive Character?". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 22 (2): 161–169. doi:10.1016/0305-1978(94)90006-X.
  6. ^ "Comprehensive Guide to Angelica Species". Meschino Health. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  7. ^ "Angelica - A Plant of the Family Apiaceae". Scienceray. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  8. ^ Angelica
  9. ^ Acta botanica Gallica 144: 186 (1997)
  10. ^ a b English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 354. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
  11. ^ "Spices and Herbs". www.fs.fed.us. Retrieved 25 May 2022.

External links[edit]