Angelica sinensis

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Angelica sinensis
Dongquai cr.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Angelica
Species:
A. sinensis
Binomial name
Angelica sinensis
Synonyms[2]
  • Angelica omeiensis C.Q.Yuan & R.H.Shan
  • Angelica wilsonii H.Wolff

Angelica sinensis, commonly known as dong quai (simplified Chinese: 当归; traditional Chinese: 當歸) or female ginseng, is a herb belonging to the family Apiaceae, indigenous to China. Angelica sinensis grows in cool high altitude mountains in China, Japan, and Korea. The yellowish brown root of the plant is harvested in the fall and is a well-known Chinese medicine which has been used for thousands of years.[3]

Pharmacology[edit]

Growing environment[edit]

Angelica is hardy to -5 C (23 F)[4] and can be cultivated at an altitude of 1500-3000m. Seedlings need to be kept out of direct sunlight, but the mature plant can withstand it. Angelica requires deep moist fertile soil and is perennial if prevented from going to seed.[4]

Traditional Chinese medicine[edit]

The dried root of A. sinensis – commonly known as Chinese angelica (Chinese: 當歸; pinyin: dāngguī; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: tong-kui) – is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, although there is insufficient evidence that it has any medicinal effect.[5]

Adverse effects[edit]

There is evidence that A. sinensis may affect the muscles of the uterus. Women who are pregnant or planning on becoming pregnant should not use A. sinensis, because it may induce a miscarriage.[5] Taking A. sinensis can cause skin to become extra sensitive to the sun, leading to a greater risk for skin cancer.[5]

Drug interactions[edit]

A. sinensis may increase the anticoagulant effects of the drug warfarin (as it contains coumarins[6]) and consequently increase the risk of bleeding.[7]

Due to the antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects of A. sinensis, it should be taken with caution with herbs or supplements (such as ginkgo, garlic, and ginger) that may slow blood clotting to reduce the possible risk of bleeding and bruising.[5][8]

Chemistry[edit]

The plant's chemical constituents include phytosterols, polysaccharides, ligustilide, butylphthalide, cnidilide, isoenidilide, p-cymene, ferulate, and flavonoids.[9] When isolated from the plant, one of the chemicals, angelica polysaccharide sulfate, has in vitro antioxidant activity.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Angelica sinensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2012-06-30.
  2. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  3. ^ "Dong quai". University of Maryland Medical Center. Archived from the original on 2017-06-28.
  4. ^ a b "Angelica sinensis". Angelica sinensis Dang Gui - Dong Quai - Chinese Angelica PFAF Plant Database. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d "Dong Quai". MedlinePlus, US National Library of Medicine. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  6. ^ Ying, Li; Si-Wang, Wang; Hong-Hai, Tu; Wei, Cao (2013). "Simultaneous quantification of six main active constituents in Chinese Angelica by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector". Pharmacognosy Magazine. 9 (34): 114–119. doi:10.4103/0973-1296.111255. PMC 3680850. PMID 23772106.
  7. ^ Page, Robert Lee; Lawrence, Julie D. (July 1999). "Potentiation of Warfarin by Dong Quai". Pharmacotherapy. 19 (7): 870–876. doi:10.1592/phco.19.10.870.31558. PMID 10417036. S2CID 25661124.
  8. ^ Tsai, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Lu, Ying-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ling; Mahady, Gail B.; Cox, Dermot (9 May 2013). "A Review of Potential Harmful Interactions between Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Agents and Chinese Herbal Medicines". PLOS ONE. 8 (5): e64255. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...864255T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064255. PMC 3650066. PMID 23671711.
  9. ^ Zhao, Kui J.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tu, Peng F.; Song, Zong H.; Lo, Chun K.; Tsim, Karl W. K. (April 2003). "Molecular Genetic and Chemical Assessment of Radix Angelica (Danggui) in China". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51 (9): 2576–2583. doi:10.1021/jf026178h. PMID 12696940.
  10. ^ Jia, Min; Yang, Tie-hong; Yao, Xiu-juan; Meng, Jia; Meng, Jing-ru; Mei, Qi-bing (February 2007). "当归多聚糖硫酸盐的抗氧化作用" [Anti-oxidative effect of Angelica polysaccharide sulphate]. Zhong Yao Cai (in Chinese). 30 (2): 185–8. PMID 17571770.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Angelica sinensis at Wikimedia Commons