Angika language

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Angika
अंगिका
Native to India, Nepal
Region Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal
Native speakers
743,600 (date missing)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-2 anp
ISO 639-3 anp
Glottolog angi1238[2]

Angika (अंगिका), or Chhika-Chhiki, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in eastern Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, and the Terai region of Nepal. It belongs to the Eastern Indo-Aryan subgroup, which also includes Bengali, Assamese and Odia. Angika is written in the Devanagari script; although the Anga Lipi and Kaithi scripts were used historically.[3]

Classification[edit]

Angika is a Bihari language of the Eastern Indo-Aryan language family, closely related to languages such as Bhojpuri, Bajjika, Maithili and Magahi. It was erroneously classified as a dialect of Maithili by George A. Grierson in the Linguistic Survey of India.[4]

Angika is not listed in the 8th schedule of the constitution of India. Nevertheless, Angika language movements have advocated it's inclusion, and a submitted request is currently pending with the Government.[5]

Geographical distribution[edit]

Angika is primarily spoken in the Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal states of India.

In Bihar, Angika is spoken in the Araria District, Katihar District, Purnia District, Kishanganj District, Madhepura District, Saharsa District, Supaul District, Bhagalpur District, Banka District, Jamui District, Munger District, Lakhisarai District, Begusarai District, Sheikhpura District and the Khagaria District.

In Jharkhand, Angika is spoken in the Sahebganj District, Godda District, Deoghar District, Pakur District, Dumka District, Giridih District and the Jamtara District.

In West Bengal, Angika is spoken in the Malda District and the Uttar Dinajpur District.

Moreover, many Angika speakers have emigrated to the Persian Gulf, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and other countries. Furthermore, substantial numbers of the Angika-speaking population have settled elsewhere in India, mainly in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Baroda, Surat, Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Jamshedpur and Bokaro.

Popular culture[edit]

Khagaria Vali Bhouji, the first ever Angika film, was released on 27 April 2007 in Laxmi Talkies, Khagaria, Bihar.[6] Ang Putra, starring folk-singer Sunil Chailaa Bihari, was released in April 2010.[7]

Suman Soorow, Ashwini, Naresh Pandey, Chakore, Permanand Pandey, Vidyabhushan Venu, Amrendra, Khushilal Manjar, Vimal Vidrohi, Ram Sharma Anal, Gorelal Manishi, Abhaykant Choudhary, Umesh Jee, Bahadur Mishra, Kundan Amitabh, Chandraprakash Jagpriya are among the notaries who have contributed towards Angika literature. Hundreds of standard literary books are also available in Angika language. Furthermore, Angika is taught at post-graduation level at Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University.

Grammar[edit]

  • Angika shows a regular contrast for animates.[8]
Angika Hindi Bhojpuri Maithili Magahi Bajjika
हम्म॑ मैं/हम हम/मय हम हम हम
आपन॑ आप रउआ/आप अहाँ / अपने अपने अपने
हमरऽ मेरा/हमारा हमार/मोर हम्मर हमर हम्मर
English sentence Angika translation
What is your name? तोरऽ नाम की छौं / छेकौं ? Toro naam kii chhown / chhekown?
Come here. हिन्न॑ (इहाँ) आबऽ Hinne / Iihan aabow
What are you doing? की करी रहलऽ छहो ?
That man is going. वू (आदमी) जाय रहलऽ छै
How are you? (तोंय) कैन्हऽ छो / छहो ?
I'm fine. हम्मं॑ ठीक छियै
I don't know. हम्मं॑ नै जानै छियै / छौं
He is my son. वू हमरऽ बेटा छेकै.
She is my daughter. वू हमरऽ बेटी छेकै
What should i do? हम्मं॑ की करंऽ / हमरा की करना चाही
What did they do? वू की करै छै?
Did you all eat? तोंय सभ खैल्हो ?
He is eating a Guava. वू एगो साफली खाय रहलऽ छै.
Where were you, I was waiting for you? कहाँ छेलो तोंय, तोरऽ बाट जोहै रहियौं ?
I saw the film last week. हम्मं॑ पिछला हफ़्ता सनीमा देखलिये
They went to the mosque. वू लोग सब मसजिद गेलऽ छै.
She slept the whole night. वू भर रात सुतली.
I go. हम्मं॑ जाय छियै.
He will go. वू जैतै.
He will eat. वू खैतै.
He has eaten. वू खाय लेलकै.
Why did you tell him to go? तोंय ओकरा जाय लेली कथी ल॑ कहलैं ?
Why is it crowded here? ऐंजां एत्त॑ भीड़ कैन्हें छै ?
I have to leave for Bhagalpur early tomorrow morning. हमरा कल भोरे भागलपुर लेली निकलना छै.
Which is the best Hindi newspaper? सबसं॑ बढ़िया हिंदी अखबार कोन छेकै ?
Where should i go? हम्मं॑ कन्न॑ जाँव ?
It is a book. ई एगो किताब छेकै.
Will you give me your pen? तोंय हमरा अपनऽ पेन देभो ?
Yes, of course./ Why not. हाँ हो, कैन्हें नै.
Which village do you hail from? तोंय कोन गामऽ सं॑ ताल्लुक रखै छहो ?
Did he call you? की हुनी तोरा बुलाबै छौ ?
This is our area. इ आपनऽ क्षेत्र छेकै.
What's going on? की चली रहलऽ छै ?
Please say that again. तनी फेरू सं॑ कहऽ.
Pleased to meet you. तोरा सं॑ मिली क॑ बढ़िया लगलै.
Is everything all right? सब खैरियत त॑ छै नै हो ?
How was your exam? तोरऽ परीक्षा कैन्हऽ रहलौं  ?
Are you married? तोंय शादीशुदा छो  ?
She doesn't understand anything. ओकरा कुछ्छू समझ नै आबै छै.
Please speak more slowly तनी कल॑-कल॑ बोलऽ.
You are very beautiful. तोंय बड़ी सुन्नर छहो.
He is looking at you. वू तोरा ताकी रहलऽ छौं .
My life is full of problems. हमरऽ जिनगी छुछ्छे परेशानी सं॑ भरलऽ छै.
Come with me. हमरा साथं॑ आबऽ.
One language is never enough. एगो भाषा काफी नै छै .
I'll come after you. हम्में तोरऽ पीछू-पीछू ऐभौं.
Go there वैंजां जा.
I can do anything for you. हम्मं॑ तोरा वास्ते कूछ्छू कर॑ सकै छियै.

Evidence is abundant for Angika's relationship to other members of the Indo-Aryan language family. For instance, the Gujarati kem-chho ('how are you?') is ostensibly cognate with the Angika equivalent: kahino-chho.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angika at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Angika". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ "Angika.com". 
  4. ^ http://dsal.uchicago.edu/books/lsi/lsi.php?volume=5-2&pages=466#page/110/mode/1up
  5. ^ "Languages in the Eighth Schedule". Ministry of Home Affairs. 2004-12-22. Retrieved 2011-05-05. 
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ The Indo-Aryan Languages - Colin P. Masica - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13.