Angika language

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Angika
अंगिका
Native to India, Nepal
Region Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal
Native speakers
745,000  (1997–2011)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-2 anp
ISO 639-3 anp
Glottolog angi1238[2]

Angika (अंगिका) is a language spoken in Eastern Part of Bihar, Old Santhal Praganas of Jharkhand and Maldah District of West Bengal. Angika is an Indo-Aryan of the Anga region of India, a 58,000 km2 area approx. that falls within the states of Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. Besides India, Angika is also spoken in Terai region of Nepal.

History[edit]

Angika was classified by George A. Grierson as "Chhika-Chhiki ".[3] It has affinity to the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, such as Bengali, Oriya, and Assamese. It had been traditionally classified as a "Bihari language," which includes Angika, Bhojpuri, Magahi, Maithili, and Vajjika, though it has ancient history of being an independent language.[4] The name Angika first appeared in the 1961 census.[5]

Verbs in Angika are similar to those of Bengali and Maithili. For example "dangaybey" in Angika is same as "daangabay" in Bengali and "dangaybai" in Maithili; "kanay chhai" in Angika is same as "kaanchey" in Bengali and "Kaanai chhai" in Maithili etc. Angika, Maithili, Assamese, Bengali and Oriya and are sister languages. Similarity between these sister languages can be observed in the following sample sentence constructions. One common feature is that the sound ca appears at the end of a verb, for instance, hamma ja'ychhiye ("I am going") in Angika, ham ja'ychhi / ham ja'ychhiye in Maithili, ami jacchi in Bengali, mo ja'yche in Assamese, and mu ja'uchi in Oriya. Similarly, there is the sound la as the verb ending in the past tense; for example, for "I went": hamma ga'yliyay in Angika, ham ge'yliyay / ham gel raheleaiye in Maithili, a'mi gela'm in Bengali, man galo in Assamese and Mu Gali in Oriya. Similarly, in the future tense, the va sound occurs as a verb ending; for example, hamma ja'ybow in Angika, ham jaybai / ham jaayab in Maithili, a'mi ja'bo in Bengali and Mu Jibi in Oriya.

Status[edit]

Angika is not listed in the 8th schedule of the constitution of India. The demand for its inclusion in the Eighth Schedule is pending with the Government.[6]

The 1928 Linguistic Survey of India conducted under the supervision of George A. Grierson mentions Angika as "Chika-chiki boli" (Chika-chiki dialect).

Angika Academy[edit]

Angika Academy has been constituted by government of Bihar on 23 June 2015.,[7][8]

Writing System[edit]

Angika is written in Devanagari script. Anga Lipi and Kaithi scripts were used historically.[9]

Alternate Names[edit]

Various alternate names for the language are used:

  • Aangi,
  • Surjapuri,
  • Angikar,
  • Chheka-Chhiki
  • Chhai-chhow
  • Bhagalpuri
  • Chekari.
  • Gayle-gayli
  • Thethi

Demography / Current Use[edit]

Angika is spoken by around five crore (fifty million)[dubious ] people in Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.

Bihar
Araria District, Katihar District, Purnia District, Kishanganj District, Madhepura District, Saharsa District, Supoul District Bhagalpur District, Banka District, Jamui District, Munger District, Lakhisarai District, Begusarai District, Sheikhpura District and Khagaria District
Jharkhand
Sahebganj District, Godda District, Deoghar District, Pakur District, Dumka District, Giridih District and Jamtara District
West Bengal
Malda District, Uttar Dinajpur District
Elsewhere
A large number of Angika speakers have migrated to the Persian Gulf, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and other countries. Also a substantial portion of the Angika-speaking population has settled elsewhere in India, mainly in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Baroda, Surat, Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Jamshedpur and Bokaro.

People of Anga region in Bihar (mainly from Munger) prefer to go to Kolkata for jobs/higher studies or other purposes because of socio-cultural affinity with West Bengal.

Angika cinema[edit]

The first Angika language film released on 27 April 2007 in Laxmi Talkies, Khagaria, Bihar. The name of this film is "Khagaria Vali Bhouji".[1] The first ever completed feature film of Angika Language, however, is "Khissa Chando Bihula Bishari Ke", which is still to be released. A new Angika film, "Ang Putra" has been released in April 2010. Angika folk singer Sunil Chailaa Bihari plays lead role in the film.[2]

Angika literature[edit]

Suman Soorow, Ashwini (Click Here), Naresh Pandey- 'Chakore', Permanand Pandey, Vidyabhushan Venu, Amrendra, Khushilal Manjar, Vimal Vidrohi, Ram Sharma Anal, Gore Lal Manishi (or Gorelal Manishi), Abhaykant Choudhary, Shri Umesh Jee, Shri Bahadur Mishra, Kundan Amitabh, Chandraprakash Jagpriya are among prominent scholars of Angika Language who have contributed lots in Angika Literature. Hundreds of standard literary books are available in Angika language. Angika is taught at Post Graduation level at Angika Vibhag at Tilkamanjhi Bhagalpur University at Bhagalpur.

Grammatical comparison with other languages[edit]

  • Angika shows a regular contrast for animates.[10]

Comparison of common words with related languages and dialects[edit]

Angika Hindi Bhojpuri (Purvi) Maithili Magahi Bajjika
हम्मॆ मैं/हम हम/मय हम हम हम
आपनॆ आप रउआ/आप अहाँ / अपने अपने अपने
हमरॊ मेरा/हमारा हमार/मोर हम्मर हमर हम्मर

Vote for Angika Wikipedia[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angika at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Angika". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Masica, C.P. (1993). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 196. ISBN 9780521299442. Retrieved 2014-11-26. 
  4. ^ Masica, C.P. (1993). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780521299442. Retrieved 2014-11-26. 
  5. ^ Masica, C.P. (1993). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 241. ISBN 9780521299442. Retrieved 2014-11-26. 
  6. ^ "Languages in the Eighth Schedule". Ministry of Home Affairs. 2004-12-22. Retrieved 2011-05-05. 
  7. ^ "अंगिका अकादमी का गठन". Prabhat Khabar. 2015-06-24. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  8. ^ "बिहार सरकार करलकै अंगिका अकादमी केरॊ गठन – अंगिका भाषा कॆ संविधान केरॊ अष्टम सूची मॆं शामिल करै के दिशा मॆं महत्वपूर्ण कदम". angika.com. 2015-06-24. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  9. ^ "Angika.com". 
  10. ^ The Indo-Aryan Languages - Colin P. Masica - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 

Linguistic features a) Style & Register- A great difference can be seen in the style & register of language spoken by our generation and a generation of our grandparents. The difference is so vast that at times for children it becomes difficult to understand the very same language spoken by a person in the same family but of generation before them. e.g. the word cloth is kappa for a 90 year old person; on the other hand it is kapda for a child of 17 year. b) Language variation- There is great variation within the language as one move from one place to another, i.e, regional variation. e.g. Angika spoken in Bhagalpur is different from Angika of Purnea. Angika spoken in Purnea is very much similar to Maithili: on the other hand Angika spoken in Bhagalpur is very similar to chikka- chhiki. This is because of the geographical location of both the places, Purnea being near to Darbhanga. Therefore Angika of Purnea sounds similar to Maithili. e.g. “you have come?” in Bhagalpuri (Angika spoken in Bhagalpur) is “aabi galain?” on the other hand in Purnea it is spoken as “aeb gaeli?” Social variation is another interesting feature of Angika. e.g. - I am fine. Is spoken by a servant is “thikkai chi” on the other hand it is “thik chiye” for his/her master. c) Morphological borrowing- It has lexical borrowing from Darbhanga Maithili, Brahmin Maithili & Bengali. e.g. nai for no is an example of lexical borrowing from Brahmin Maithili, afternoon is dupharia in Angika is derived from dupur vaila of Bengali. Language loyalty & attitude According to behaviorism attitudes are dependent variable that can be statistically determined by observing actual behavior in social situations. This also causes problems: it can be questioned whether attitudes can be defined entirely in terms of the observable data (Dittmar 1976:181). Fasold suggests that attitudes towards a language are often the reflection of attitudes towards members of various ethnic groups (Fasold 1984:148); people’s reaction to language varieties reveal much of their perception of the speakers of these varieties (Edwards 1982:20). Many studies have demonstrated that judgments of the quality and prestige of language varieties depend on knowledge of the social connotations which they possess. Thus for instance the use of dialects and accents would be expressions of social preference, which reflects an awareness of the status and prestige accorded to the speakers of these varieties. A prestige standard form of a language has no inherent aesthetic or linguistic advantage over nonstandard varieties. The prestige is usually the product of culture- bound stereotypes passed on from one generation to other (ibid. 21). People, mostly youngsters living in metropolitan cities having Angika as their mother tongue finds it awkward talking in Angika publically, which is quite different when compared with speakers of Maithili, Marathi, Bengali or Kashmiri. This is because of the stereotype notion, Angika as language of uncivilized & economically backward. Which has resulted to an negative attitude towards Angika. Le Page and Tabouret- Keller (1985) stress the importance of the nature of intergroup relations in the discussions of language attitudes and uses: they vary as the nature of intergroup relation changes. When relations change, status relationships and therefore perceptions, attitudes and uses, change. Speakers select their code from a variety of socially marked models. Changes takes place when the social values of the models change and the behavior of the speech community also changes (ibid, 172). Attitudes are crucial in language growth or decay, restoration or destruction. Inspite of ancient dialect Angika is facing a difficult situation. It can be termed as sub-stratal language. Language politics play an important role in development of such situation because if a language has political support it leads to social acceptance. Therefore I personally believe that politics plays an important role in development of a language. Economic activity is another thing that influences because economic migration leads to spread of language. Such phenomenon is called language contact. Language contact is another factor that determines the status of language as sub- stratal or super-stratal language. Globalization is also leading to the negative attitude, as people are striving for English or foreign language. Such things clearly show the role of politics & economy in determining the attitude towards a language.

Bibliography 1. Fishman, A.Joshua: language loyalty, language planning & language revitalization. 2. Hohenthal, Annika: English in India-loyalty & attitude 3. Waradaugh, Ronald: introduction to sociolinguistcs, Blackwell publishing 4. http:www//journals Cambridge.org/action/displayabstract 5. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/jour…/119013039/abstract…& SRETRY=0 6. http:/www.Angdesh.com/ang_desh_modern