Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2

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Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2
Protein ACE2 PDB 1r42.png
PDB rendering based on 1r42.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols ACE2 ; ACEH
External IDs OMIM300335 MGI1917258 HomoloGene41448 ChEMBL: 3736 GeneCards: ACE2 Gene
EC number
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ACE2 219962 at tn.png
PBB GE ACE2 222257 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 59272 70008
Ensembl ENSG00000130234 ENSMUSG00000015405
UniProt Q9BYF1 Q8R0I0
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_021804 NM_001130513
RefSeq (protein) NP_068576 NP_001123985
Location (UCSC) Chr X:
15.56 – 15.6 Mb
Chr X:
164.14 – 164.19 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) is an exopeptidase that catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the nonapeptide angiotensin[1-9],[1] or the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7.[2] ACE 2 has direct effects on cardiac functiona, and is expressed predominantly in vascular endothelial cells of the heart and the kidneys.[3]

ACE 2 is the receptor for SARS virus.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, Stagliano N et al. (Sep 2000). "A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9". Circulation Research 87 (5): E1–9. PMID 10969042. 
  2. ^ Keidar S, Kaplan M, Gamliel-Lazarovich A (Feb 2007). [_ "ACE2 of the heart: From angiotensin I to angiotensin (1-7)"]. Cardiovascular Research 73 (3): 463–9. doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2006.09.006. PMID 17049503. 
  3. ^ Boehm M, Nabel EG (Nov 2002). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2--a new cardiac regulator". The New England Journal of Medicine 347 (22): 1795–7. doi:10.1056/NEJMcibr022472. PMID 12456857. 
  4. ^ Kuba K, Imai Y, Rao S, Gao H, Guo F, Guan B et al. (Aug 2005). "A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus-induced lung injury". Nature Medicine 11 (8): 875–9. doi:10.1038/nm1267. PMID 16007097. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Turner AJ, Tipnis SR, Guy JL, Rice G, Hooper NM (Apr 2002). "ACEH/ACE2 is a novel mammalian metallocarboxypeptidase and a homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme insensitive to ACE inhibitors". Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 80 (4): 346–53. doi:10.1139/y02-021. PMID 12025971. 
  • Turner AJ, Hiscox JA, Hooper NM (Jun 2004). "ACE2: from vasopeptidase to SARS virus receptor". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 25 (6): 291–4. doi:10.1016/ PMID 15165741. 
  • Katovich MJ, Grobe JL, Huentelman M, Raizada MK (May 2005). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a novel target for gene therapy for hypertension". Experimental Physiology 90 (3): 299–305. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2004.028522. PMID 15640278. 
  • Ferrario CM, Trask AJ, Jessup JA (Dec 2005). "Advances in biochemical and functional roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and angiotensin-(1-7) in regulation of cardiovascular function". American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology 289 (6): H2281–90. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00618.2005. PMID 16055515. 
  • Jia HP, Look DC, Hickey M, Shi L, Pewe L, Netland J et al. (2006). "Infection of human airway epithelia by SARS coronavirus is associated with ACE2 expression and localization". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 581: 479–84. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-33012-9_85. ISBN 978-0-387-26202-4. PMID 17037581. 
  • Lazartigues E, Feng Y, Lavoie JL (2007). "The two fACEs of the tissue renin-angiotensin systems: implication in cardiovascular diseases". Current Pharmaceutical Design 13 (12): 1231–45. doi:10.2174/138161207780618911. PMID 17504232. 
  • Raizada MK, Ferreira AJ (Aug 2007). "ACE2: a new target for cardiovascular disease therapeutics". Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 50 (2): 112–9. doi:10.1097/FJC.0b013e3180986219. PMID 17703127. 
  • Dean RG, Burrell LM (2007). "ACE2 and diabetic complications". Current Pharmaceutical Design 13 (26): 2730–5. doi:10.2174/138161207781662876. PMID 17897017. 
  • Tipnis SR, Hooper NM, Hyde R, Karran E, Christie G, Turner AJ (Oct 2000). "A human homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Cloning and functional expression as a captopril-insensitive carboxypeptidase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 275 (43): 33238–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002615200. PMID 10924499. 
  • Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, Stagliano N et al. (Sep 2000). "A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9". Circulation Research 87 (5): E1–9. PMID 10969042. 
  • Vickers C, Hales P, Kaushik V, Dick L, Gavin J, Tang J et al. (Apr 2002). "Hydrolysis of biological peptides by human angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (17): 14838–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200581200. PMID 11815627. 
  • Crackower MA, Sarao R, Oudit GY, Yagil C, Kozieradzki I, Scanga SE et al. (Jun 2002). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is an essential regulator of heart function". Nature 417 (6891): 822–8. doi:10.1038/nature00786. PMID 12075344. 
  • Harmer D, Gilbert M, Borman R, Clark KL (Dec 2002). "Quantitative mRNA expression profiling of ACE 2, a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme". FEBS Letters 532 (1-2): 107–10. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03640-2. PMID 12459472. 
  • Donoghue M, Wakimoto H, Maguire CT, Acton S, Hales P, Stagliano N et al. (Sep 2003). "Heart block, ventricular tachycardia, and sudden death in ACE2 transgenic mice with downregulated connexins". Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 35 (9): 1043–53. doi:10.1016/S0022-2828(03)00177-9. PMID 12967627. 
  • Clark HF, Gurney AL, Abaya E, Baker K, Baldwin D, Brush J et al. (Oct 2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment". Genome Research 13 (10): 2265–70. doi:10.1101/gr.1293003. PMC 403697. PMID 12975309. 
  • Li W, Moore MJ, Vasilieva N, Sui J, Wong SK, Berne MA et al. (Nov 2003). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus". Nature 426 (6965): 450–4. doi:10.1038/nature02145. PMID 14647384. 
  • Wong SK, Li W, Moore MJ, Choe H, Farzan M (Jan 2004). "A 193-amino acid fragment of the SARS coronavirus S protein efficiently binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 279 (5): 3197–201. doi:10.1074/jbc.C300520200. PMID 14670965. 
  • Towler P, Staker B, Prasad SG, Menon S, Tang J, Parsons T et al. (Apr 2004). "ACE2 X-ray structures reveal a large hinge-bending motion important for inhibitor binding and catalysis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 279 (17): 17996–8007. doi:10.1074/jbc.M311191200. PMID 14754895.