Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2

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Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2
Protein ACE2 PDB 1r42.png
PDB rendering based on 1r42.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols ACE2 ; ACEH
External IDs OMIM300335 MGI1917258 HomoloGene41448 ChEMBL: 3736 GeneCards: ACE2 Gene
EC number
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ACE2 219962 at tn.png
PBB GE ACE2 222257 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 59272 70008
Ensembl ENSG00000130234 ENSMUSG00000015405
UniProt Q9BYF1 Q8R0I0
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_021804 NM_001130513
RefSeq (protein) NP_068576 NP_001123985
Location (UCSC) Chr X:
15.56 – 15.6 Mb
Chr X:
164.14 – 164.19 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) is an exopeptidase that catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the nonapeptide angiotensin[1-9],[1] or the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7.[2] ACE 2 has direct effects on cardiac functiona, and is expressed predominantly in vascular endothelial cells of the heart and the kidneys.[3]

ACE 2 is the receptor for SARS virus.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, Stagliano N, Donovan M, Woolf B, Robison K, Jeyaseelan R, Breitbart RE, Acton S (Sep 2000). "A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9". Circulation Research 87 (5): E1–9. PMID 10969042. 
  2. ^ Keidar S, Kaplan M, Gamliel-Lazarovich A (Feb 2007). [_ "ACE2 of the heart: From angiotensin I to angiotensin (1-7)"] Check |url= scheme (help). Cardiovascular Research 73 (3): 463–9. doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2006.09.006. PMID 17049503. 
  3. ^ Boehm M, Nabel EG (Nov 2002). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2--a new cardiac regulator". The New England Journal of Medicine 347 (22): 1795–7. doi:10.1056/NEJMcibr022472. PMID 12456857. 
  4. ^ Kuba K, Imai Y, Rao S, Gao H, Guo F, Guan B, Huan Y, Yang P, Zhang Y, Deng W, Bao L, Zhang B, Liu G, Wang Z, Chappell M, Liu Y, Zheng D, Leibbrandt A, Wada T, Slutsky AS, Liu D, Qin C, Jiang C, Penninger JM (Aug 2005). "A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus-induced lung injury". Nature Medicine 11 (8): 875–9. doi:10.1038/nm1267. PMID 16007097. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Turner AJ, Tipnis SR, Guy JL, Rice G, Hooper NM (Apr 2002). "ACEH/ACE2 is a novel mammalian metallocarboxypeptidase and a homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme insensitive to ACE inhibitors". Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 80 (4): 346–53. doi:10.1139/y02-021. PMID 12025971. 
  • Turner AJ, Hiscox JA, Hooper NM (Jun 2004). "ACE2: from vasopeptidase to SARS virus receptor". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 25 (6): 291–4. doi:10.1016/ PMID 15165741. 
  • Katovich MJ, Grobe JL, Huentelman M, Raizada MK (May 2005). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a novel target for gene therapy for hypertension". Experimental Physiology 90 (3): 299–305. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2004.028522. PMID 15640278. 
  • Ferrario CM, Trask AJ, Jessup JA (Dec 2005). "Advances in biochemical and functional roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and angiotensin-(1-7) in regulation of cardiovascular function". American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology 289 (6): H2281–90. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00618.2005. PMID 16055515. 
  • Jia HP, Look DC, Hickey M, Shi L, Pewe L, Netland J, Farzan M, Wohlford-Lenane C, Perlman S, McCray PB (2006). "Infection of human airway epithelia by SARS coronavirus is associated with ACE2 expression and localization". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 581: 479–84. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-33012-9_85. ISBN 978-0-387-26202-4. PMID 17037581. 
  • Lazartigues E, Feng Y, Lavoie JL (2007). "The two fACEs of the tissue renin-angiotensin systems: implication in cardiovascular diseases". Current Pharmaceutical Design 13 (12): 1231–45. doi:10.2174/138161207780618911. PMID 17504232. 
  • Raizada MK, Ferreira AJ (Aug 2007). "ACE2: a new target for cardiovascular disease therapeutics". Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 50 (2): 112–9. doi:10.1097/FJC.0b013e3180986219. PMID 17703127. 
  • Dean RG, Burrell LM (2007). "ACE2 and diabetic complications". Current Pharmaceutical Design 13 (26): 2730–5. doi:10.2174/138161207781662876. PMID 17897017. 
  • Tipnis SR, Hooper NM, Hyde R, Karran E, Christie G, Turner AJ (Oct 2000). "A human homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Cloning and functional expression as a captopril-insensitive carboxypeptidase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 275 (43): 33238–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002615200. PMID 10924499. 
  • Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, Stagliano N, Donovan M, Woolf B, Robison K, Jeyaseelan R, Breitbart RE, Acton S (Sep 2000). "A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9". Circulation Research 87 (5): E1–9. PMID 10969042. 
  • Vickers C, Hales P, Kaushik V, Dick L, Gavin J, Tang J, Godbout K, Parsons T, Baronas E, Hsieh F, Acton S, Patane M, Nichols A, Tummino P (Apr 2002). "Hydrolysis of biological peptides by human angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (17): 14838–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200581200. PMID 11815627. 
  • Crackower MA, Sarao R, Oudit GY, Yagil C, Kozieradzki I, Scanga SE, Oliveira-dos-Santos AJ, da Costa J, Zhang L, Pei Y, Scholey J, Ferrario CM, Manoukian AS, Chappell MC, Backx PH, Yagil Y, Penninger JM (Jun 2002). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is an essential regulator of heart function". Nature 417 (6891): 822–8. doi:10.1038/nature00786. PMID 12075344. 
  • Harmer D, Gilbert M, Borman R, Clark KL (Dec 2002). "Quantitative mRNA expression profiling of ACE 2, a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme". FEBS Letters 532 (1-2): 107–10. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03640-2. PMID 12459472. 
  • Donoghue M, Wakimoto H, Maguire CT, Acton S, Hales P, Stagliano N, Fairchild-Huntress V, Xu J, Lorenz JN, Kadambi V, Berul CI, Breitbart RE (Sep 2003). "Heart block, ventricular tachycardia, and sudden death in ACE2 transgenic mice with downregulated connexins". Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 35 (9): 1043–53. doi:10.1016/S0022-2828(03)00177-9. PMID 12967627. 
  • Clark HF, Gurney AL, Abaya E, Baker K, Baldwin D, Brush J, Chen J, Chow B, Chui C, Crowley C, Currell B, Deuel B, Dowd P, Eaton D, Foster J, Grimaldi C, Gu Q, Hass PE, Heldens S, Huang A, Kim HS, Klimowski L, Jin Y, Johnson S, Lee J, Lewis L, Liao D, Mark M, Robbie E, Sanchez C, Schoenfeld J, Seshagiri S, Simmons L, Singh J, Smith V, Stinson J, Vagts A, Vandlen R, Watanabe C, Wieand D, Woods K, Xie MH, Yansura D, Yi S, Yu G, Yuan J, Zhang M, Zhang Z, Goddard A, Wood WI, Godowski P, Gray A (Oct 2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment". Genome Research 13 (10): 2265–70. doi:10.1101/gr.1293003. PMC 403697. PMID 12975309. 
  • Li W, Moore MJ, Vasilieva N, Sui J, Wong SK, Berne MA, Somasundaran M, Sullivan JL, Luzuriaga K, Greenough TC, Choe H, Farzan M (Nov 2003). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus". Nature 426 (6965): 450–4. doi:10.1038/nature02145. PMID 14647384. 
  • Wong SK, Li W, Moore MJ, Choe H, Farzan M (Jan 2004). "A 193-amino acid fragment of the SARS coronavirus S protein efficiently binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 279 (5): 3197–201. doi:10.1074/jbc.C300520200. PMID 14670965. 
  • Towler P, Staker B, Prasad SG, Menon S, Tang J, Parsons T, Ryan D, Fisher M, Williams D, Dales NA, Patane MA, Pantoliano MW (Apr 2004). "ACE2 X-ray structures reveal a large hinge-bending motion important for inhibitor binding and catalysis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 279 (17): 17996–8007. doi:10.1074/jbc.M311191200. PMID 14754895.