Anglian stage

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0.478 – 0.424 Ma
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageRegional
Time scale(s) usedBritish Isles
Used byUnited Kingdom United Kingdom
Chronological unitAge
Stratigraphic unitStage
St Andrew's Church, Hornchurch, the furthest location south reached by a Pleistocene ice sheet in Britain[1]

The Anglian Stage is the name used in the British Isles for a middle Pleistocene glaciation. It precedes the Hoxnian Stage and follows the Cromerian Stage in the British Isles. The Anglian Stage is correlated to Marine Isotope Stage 12 (MIS 12),[2][3][4] which started about 478,000 years ago and ended about 424,000 years ago.[5][6]


The Anglian stage has often been correlated to the Elsterian Stage of northern Continental Europe and the Mindel Stage in the Alps. However, there is ambiguity regarding the correlation of these two glacials to either MIS 12 or MIS 10, as described in more detail in the article 'Elster glaciation'.[7]

The Anglian was the most extreme glaciation during the last 2 million years. In Britain the ice sheet reached the Isles of Scilly and the Western Approaches, the furthest south the ice reached in any Pleistocene ice age.[8] In the south-east of England it diverted the River Thames from its old course through the Vale of St Albans south to its present position.[9]

This stage had been equated to the Kansan Stage in North America. However, the terms Kansan Stage, along with Yarmouth, Nebraskan, and Aftonian stages, have been abandoned by North American Quaternary geologists and merged into the Pre-Illinoian stage.[10][11] The Anglian Stage is now correlated with the period of time which includes the Pre-Illinoian B glaciation of North America.[4][11]

See also[edit]

See also[edit]

Historical names of the "four major" glacials in four regions.
Region Glacial 1 Glacial 2 Glacial 3 Glacial 4
Alps Günz Mindel Riss Würm
North Europe Eburonian Elsterian Saalian Weichselian
British Isles Beestonian Anglian Wolstonian Devensian
Midwest U.S. Nebraskan Kansan Illinoian Wisconsinan
Historical names of interglacials.
Region Interglacial 1 Interglacial 2 Interglacial 3
Alps Günz-Mindel Mindel-Riss Riss-Würm
North Europe Waalian Holsteinian Eemian
British Isles Cromerian Hoxnian Ipswichian
Midwest U.S. Aftonian Yarmouthian Sangamonian


  1. ^ The Essex Field Club, Geology Site Account, The Dell Strictly, the furthest point south was The Dell, a few metres south of the church.
  2. ^ McMillan, A.A. (2005). "A provisional Quaternary and Neogene lithostratigraphic framework Great Britain". Netherland Journal of Geosciences. 84 (2): 87–107. doi:10.1017/S0016774600022988.
  3. ^ Walker, M. (2005). Quaternary Dating Methods. Chichester UK: Wiley. ISBN 0-470-86927-5.
  4. ^ a b Gibbard, P.L.; Boreham, S.; Cohen, K.M.; Moscariello, A. (2007). "Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years". Cambridge UK: Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge. Archived from the original (JPG 844 kb) on 2008-09-10.
  5. ^ Lisiecki, L.E. (2005) Ages of MIS boundaries. LR04 Benthic Stack Boston MA:Boston University
  6. ^ Lisiecki, L.E.; Raymo, M.E. (2005). "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic d18O records" (PDF). Paleoceanography. 20: PA1003. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.1003L. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071. hdl:2027.42/149224. S2CID 12788441.
  7. ^ Böse et al. (2012), Quaternary Glaciations of Northern Europe, Quaternary Science Reviews 44, page 17-22.
  8. ^ Scourse, JD (ed) (2006) The Isles of Scilly: Field Guide. Quaternary Research Association, London, 2006.
  9. ^ "Greater London". Natural England. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  10. ^ Hallberg, G.R. (1986). "Pre-Wisconsin glacial stratigraphy of the Central Plains region in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri". Quaternary Science Reviews. 5: 11–15. Bibcode:1986QSRv....5...11H. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90169-1.
  11. ^ a b Richmond, G.M.; Fullerton, D.S. (1986). "Summation of Quaternary glaciations in the United States of America". Quaternary Science Reviews. 5: 183–196. Bibcode:1986QSRv....5..183R. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90184-8.

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