Anglian stage

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St Andrew's Church, Hornchurch, the furthest location south reached by a Pleistocene ice sheet in Britain[1]

The Anglian Stage is the name used in the British Isles for a middle Pleistocene glaciation. It precedes the Hoxnian Stage and follows the Cromerian Stage in the British Isles. The Anglian Stage is equivalent to the Elsterian Stage of northern Continental Europe, the Mindel Stage in the Alps and Marine Isotope Stage 12.[2][3][4] The Anglian Stage and Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 12 started about 478,000 years ago and ended about 424,000 years ago.[5][6]

The Anglian was the most extreme glaciation during the last 2 million years. In Britain the ice sheet reached the Isles of Scilly and the Western Approaches, the furthest south the ice reached in any Pleistocene ice age.[7] In the south-east of England it diverted the River Thames from its old course through the Vale of St Albans south to its present position.[8]

This stage had been equated to the Kansan Stage in North America. However, the terms Kansan Stage, along with Yarmouth, Nebraskan, and Aftonian stages, have been abandoned by North American Quaternary geologists and merged into the Pre-Illinoian stage.[9][10] The Anglian Stage is now correlated with the period of time which includes the Pre-Illinoian B glaciation of North America.[4][10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The Essex Field Club, Geology Site Account, The Dell Strictly, the furthest point south was The Dell, a few metres south of the church.
  2. ^ McMillan, A.A. (2005). "A provisional Quaternary and Neogene lithostratigraphic framework Great Britain". Netherland Journal of Geosciences. 84 (2): 87–107.
  3. ^ Walker, M. (2005). Quaternary Dating Methods. Chichester UK: Wiley. ISBN 0-470-86927-5.
  4. ^ a b Gibbard, P.L.; Boreham, S.; Cohen, K.M.; Moscariello, A. (2007). "Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years". Cambridge UK: Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge. Archived from the original (JPG 844 kb) on 2008-09-10.
  5. ^ Lisiecki, L.E. (2005) Ages of MIS boundaries. LR04 Benthic Stack Boston MA:Boston University
  6. ^ Lisiecki, L.E.; Raymo, M.E. (2005). "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic d18O records" (PDF). Paleoceanography. 20: PA1003. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.1003L. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071.
  7. ^ Scourse, JD (ed) (2006) The Isles of Scilly: Field Guide. Quaternary Research Association, London, 2006.
  8. ^ "Greater London". Natural England. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  9. ^ Hallberg, G.R. (1986). "Pre-Wisconsin glacial stratigraphy of the Central Plains region in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri". Quaternary Science Reviews. 5: 11–15. Bibcode:1986QSRv....5...11H. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90169-1.
  10. ^ a b Richmond, G.M.; Fullerton, D.S. (1986). "Summation of Quaternary glaciations in the United States of America". Quaternary Science Reviews. 5: 183–196. Bibcode:1986QSRv....5..183R. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90184-8.

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