Anglican Church of Australia
|Anglican Church of Australia|
Archbishop of Melbourne
The Anglican Church of Australia is a Christian church in Australia and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. It is the second largest church in Australia, after the Roman Catholic Church. According to the 2016 census, 3.1 million Australians identify as Anglicans.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics and structure
- 3 Society, arts and culture
- 4 Ordination of women
- 5 Same-sex unions and LGBT clergy
- 6 Provinces and dioceses
- 7 Ecumenical relations
- 8 Relation with the Anglican realignment
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
When the First Fleet was sent to New South Wales in 1787, Richard Johnson of the Church of England was licensed as chaplain to the fleet and the settlement. In 1825 Thomas Scott was appointed Archdeacon of Australia under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Calcutta. William Grant Broughton, who succeeded Scott in 1829, was consecrated the first (and only) "Bishop of Australia" in 1836.
In early Colonial times, the Church of England clergy worked closely with the governors. Richard Johnson, a chaplain, was charged by the governor, Arthur Phillip, with improving "public morality" in the colony, but he was also heavily involved in health and education. Samuel Marsden (1765–1838) had magisterial duties, and so was equated with the authorities by the convicts. He became known as the "flogging parson" for the severity of his punishments. Some of the Irish convicts had been transported to Australia for political crimes or social rebellion in Ireland, so the authorities were suspicious of Roman Catholicism for the first three decades of settlement and Roman Catholic convicts were compelled to attend Church of England services and their children and orphans were raised by the authorities as Anglicans.
The Church of England lost its legal privileges in the Colony of New South Wales by the Church Act of 1836. Drafted by the reformist attorney-general John Plunkett, the act established legal equality for Anglicans, Roman Catholics and Presbyterians and was later extended to Methodists.
A mission to the Aborigines was established in the Wellington Valley in New South Wales by the Church Missionary Society in 1832, but it ended in failure and indigenous people in the 19th century demonstrated a reluctance to convert to the religion of the colonists who were seizing their lands.
In 1842 the Diocese of Tasmania was created. In 1847 the rest of the Diocese of Australia was divided into the four separate dioceses of Sydney, Adelaide, Newcastle and Melbourne. Over the following 80 years the number of dioceses increased to 25.
Sectarianism in Australia tended to reflect the political inheritance of Britain and Ireland. Until 1945, the vast majority of Roman Catholics in Australia were of Irish descent, causing the Anglo-Protestant majority to question their loyalty to the British Empire. The Australian Constitution of 1901 provided for freedom of religion. Australian society was predominantly Anglo-Celtic, with 40% of the population being Anglican. It remained the largest Christian denomination until the 1986 census. After World War II, the ethnic and cultural mix of Australia diversified and Anglicanism gave way to Roman Catholicism as the largest denomination. The number of Anglicans attending regular worship began to decline in 1959 and figures for occasional services (baptisms, confirmations, weddings and funerals) started to decline after 1966. In recent times, the Anglican and other Christian churches of Australia have been active in ecumenical activity. The Australian Committee for the World Council of Churches was established in 1946 by the Anglican and mainline Protestant churches. The movement evolved and expanded with Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches later joining and by 1994 the Roman Catholic Church was also a member of the national ecumenical body, the National Council of Churches in Australia.
Since 1 January 1962 the Australian church has been autocephalous and headed by its own primate. On 24 August 1981 the church officially changed its name from the Church of England in Australia to the Anglican Church of Australia.
Although the Book of Common Prayer remains the official standard for Anglican belief and worship in Australia, An Australian Prayer Book (AAPB) was published in 1978 after a prolonged revision of liturgy. Another alternative service book, A Prayer Book for Australia (APBA), was published in 1995.
In 1985 the general synod of the Australian church passed a canon to allow the ordination of women as deacons. In 1992 the general synod approved legislation allowing dioceses to ordain women to the priesthood. Dioceses could choose to adopt the legislation. In 1992, 90 women were ordained in the Anglican Church of Australia and two others who had been ordained overseas were recognised. After decades of debate the issue of women's ordination, particularly as bishops, continues to divide traditionalists and reformers within the church. As of November 2013 five dioceses had not ordained women as priests and two had not ordained women as deacons. The most recent diocese to vote in favour of ordaining women as priests was the Ballarat diocese in October 2013. In 2008, Kay Goldsworthy was ordained as an assistant bishop for the Diocese of Perth, thus becoming the first woman consecrated as a bishop of the Anglican Church of Australia. Sarah Macneil was elected in 2013 to be the first female diocesan bishop in Australia. In 2014 she was consecrated and installed as the first female diocesan bishop in Australia (for the Diocese of Grafton in New South Wales).
The church remains a major provider of education and welfare services in Australia. It provides chaplains to the Australian Defence Force, hospitals, schools, industry and prisons. Senior clergy such as Peter Jensen, former Archbishop of Sydney, have a high profile in discussions on a diverse range of social issues in contemporary national debates. In recent times the church has encouraged its leaders to talk on such issues as indigenous rights; international security; peace and justice; and poverty and equity. The current primate is Philip Freier, Archbishop of Melbourne, who took office on 4 July 2014.
Demographics and structure
Until the 1986 census, Australia's most populous Christian church was the Anglican Church of Australia. Since then Roman Catholics have outnumbered Anglicans by an increasing margin. One rationale to explain this relates to changes in Australia's immigration patterns. Prior to the Second World War, the majority of immigrants to Australia had come from the United Kingdom - though most of Australia's Roman Catholic immigrants had come from Ireland. After World War II, Australia's immigration program diversified and more than 6.5 million migrants arrived in Australia in the 60 years after the war, including more than a million Roman Catholics.
Census data shows that as a percentage of population Anglican affiliation peaked in 1921 at 43.7%, and the number of persons indicating Anglican affiliation peaked in 1991 at 4 million. In the 2011 there were 3,679,907 Anglicans, representing 17.1 per cent of the population. (See accompanying graph.)
The Australian church consists of twenty-three dioceses arranged into five provinces (except for Tasmania) with the metropolitical sees in the states' capital cities. Broughton Publishing is the church's national publishing arm.
|State/Territory ||% 2016||% 2011||% 2006||% 2001|
|Australian Capital Territory||10.8||14.7||16.7||18.5|
|New South Wales||15.5||19.9||21.8||23.8|
The National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Anglican Council (NATSIAC) appoints two Indigenous bishops for national work with indigenous people: the National Aboriginal Bishop is based in South Australia (as an assistant bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Adelaide); while the National Torres Strait Islander Bishop is based at Thursday Island, Queensland (as an assistant bishop of the Anglican Diocese of North Queensland).
Society, arts and culture
Welfare and education
Anglicans have played a prominent role in welfare and education since Colonial times, when First Fleet chaplain Richard Johnson was credited by one convict as "the physician both of soul and body" during the famine of 1790 and was charged with general supervision of schools. Today the church remains a significant provider of social welfare with organisations working in education, health, missionary work, social welfare and communications. Welfare organisations include Anglicare and Samaritans. There are around 145 Anglican schools in Australia, providing for more than 105,000 children. Church schools range from low-fee, regional and special needs schools to high-fee leading independent schools like Geelong Grammar, whose alumni include Prince Charles and Rupert Murdoch; and Sydney's The Kings School. The Australian Anglican Schools Network is the national schools network of the Australian General Synod.
The first Church of England edifice was built in the colony of New South Wales in 1793. Today, most towns in Australia have at least one Christian church. One of Australia's oldest Anglican churches is St James' Church in Sydney, built between 1819 and 1824. The historic church was designed by Governor Macquarie's architect, Francis Greenway - a former convict - and built with convict labour. The church is set on a sandstone base and built of face brick with the walls articulated by brick piers. Sydney's Anglican cathedral, St Andrew's, was consecrated in 1868 from foundations laid in the 1830s. Largely designed by Edmund Thomas Blacket in the Perpendicular Gothic style reminiscent of English cathedrals. Blacket also designed St Saviour's Cathedral in Goulburn, based on the Decorated Gothic style of a large English parish church and built between 1874-1884.
Tasmania is home to a number of significant colonial Anglican buildings including those located at Australia's best preserved convict era settlement, Port Arthur. According to 19th century notions of prisoner reform, the Model Prison incorporates a grim chapel, into which prisoners in solitary confinement were shepherded to listen (in individual enclosures) to the preacher's Sunday sermon - their only permitted interaction with another human being. Adelaide, the capital of South Australia has long been known as the City of Churches and its St Peter's Anglican Cathedral is a noted city landmark.
The oldest building in the city of Canberra is the picturesque St John the Baptist Church in Reid, consecrated in 1845. This church long predates the city of Canberra and is not so much representative of urban design as it is of the Bush chapels which dot the Australian landscape and stretch even into the far Outback.
A number of notable Victorian era chapels and edifices were also constructed at church schools across Australia. Along with community attitudes to religion, church architecture changed significantly during the 20th century.
Ordination of women
The church permits the ordination of women on a diocesan basis. In 1992, the church ordained the first women priests. In 2008, the Diocese of Perth consecrated the first woman bishop, the Rt Revd Kay Goldsworthy. Then, in 2014, the Diocese of Grafton consecrated and installed its first diocesan woman bishop, the Rt Revd Sarah Macneil. Bishop Kay Goldsworthy also became the second diocesan woman bishop when she was consecrated as bishop of Gippsland. The dioceses of Sydney, North West Australia and The Murray do not ordain women as priests. In 2017, the Diocese of The Murray ordained the first woman as a deacon becoming the last diocese to ordain women to the diaconate.
In August of 2017, the Anglicans of Western Australia elected the Anglican Church of Australia's first female archbishop, Kay Goldsworthy.
Same-sex unions and LGBT clergy
Currently, there is no official position on homosexuality. During a meeting, the House of Bishops stated that they "accept the weight of 1998 Lambeth Resolution 1.10 and the 2004 General Synod resolutions 33, 59 and 61–64 as expressing the mind of this church on issues of human sexuality ... and understand that issues of sexuality are subject to ongoing conversation". A former primate, Peter Carnley, supported the blessing of same-sex relationships and supported "recognition of lifelong friendships between two homosexuals which would give them the same legal status as a heterosexual married couple." A spokesman for Phillip Aspinall, an archbishop, stated that "In effect it is an undertaking not to ordain, license, authorise or appoint persons whom the bishop knows to be in a sexual relationship outside of marriage." At the same time, Archbishop Aspinall stated that he personally does not take an official position. Despite what the spokesman said, however, an Anglican priest came out as gay in 2005 in Melbourne. In the Diocese of Perth, "there are gay and lesbian clergy serving in the priesthood." Archbishop Roger Herft, as a diocesan bishop, "support[ed] blessing gay unions." In 2012, a bishop "appoint[ed] a gay priest in a same-sex partnership to a Gippsland parish." The Anglican Diocese of Sydney, the largest of the country, has expressed its opposition to same-sex unions and has been involved in the Anglican realignment as a member of the Fellowship of Confessing Anglicans.
However, many clergy and bishops in the church support same-sex unions. In 2012, the Diocese of Gippsland appointed an openly partnered gay priest. In 2013, the Diocese of Perth voted in favour of recognising same-sex unions. Archbishop Roger Herft vetoed the Perth motion, but said "what we have in the Diocese [of Perth] of course is a number of people in same-sex relationships amongst the clergy and amongst the laity and we have always said that people of all forms of sexuality and orientation are welcome...." In 2015, the Bishop of Wangaratta endorsed same-sex marriage legislation, and clergy offered to perform gay marriages when allowed to do so. In Grafton, Bishop Sarah Macneil has taken an affirming stance, and the cathedral of Grafton is an affirming congregation. Another cathedral that is affirming is St John's Cathedral in Brisbane. Bishop Greg Thompson of Newcastle had taken a stance in favour of gay rights.
In 2015, an arm of the Anglican Church in Southern Queensland voted in favour of same-sex civil unions. Also, Bishop Kay Goldsworthy appointed an openly gay and partnered priest to another post. In response, the Sydney Synod passed a resolution stating that Sydney "views the actions of the Bishop of Gippsland as a breach of collegiality and fellowship at a profound level..."
In 2016, the Bishop of Ballarat declared his support for same-sex marriage. In April 2016, a parish in the Diocese of Perth blessed the union of a same-sex couple. At General Synod in 2017, the Anglican Church of Australia passed a resolution criticising the Scottish Episcopal Church for its acceptance of same-sex marriage as well as an additional resolution calling for the Church of Australia "to have a series of conversations on its understanding of sexuality." Also in 2017, Western Australia elected Bishop Kay Goldsworthy to be archbishop; Goldsworthy shared that she supports an "inclusive" approach to same-sex marriage.
Provinces and dioceses
- Province of Victoria (Metropolitan: Philip Freier, Archbishop of Melbourne)
- Province of South Australia (Metropolitan: Jeffrey Driver, Archbishop of Adelaide)
- Province of New South Wales (Metropolitan: Glenn Davies, Archbishop of Sydney)
- Province of Queensland (Metropolitan: Phillip Aspinall, Archbishop of Brisbane)
- Province of Western Australia (Metropolitan-elect: Kay Goldsworthy, Archbishop-elect of Perth)
- Extraprovincial diocese
Map of dioceses
|KEY to province colours||New South Wales||Victoria||Queensland||Western Australia||South Australia||Extraprovincial|
The church is a member of the Christian Conference of Asia.
Relation with the Anglican realignment
The Anglican Diocese of Sydney has been a leading name in the Anglican realignment, since they first opposed the pro-homosexuality policies of the Episcopal Church of the United States and the Anglican Church of Canada. Bishop Peter Jensen attended the first Global Anglican Future Conference, on June 2008, in Jerusalem, and is currently the chairman of GAFCON. The Anglican Diocese of Sydney and the Anglican Diocese of North West Australia have declared themselves in full communion with the Anglican Church in North America, started in June 2009, which represents Anglican realignment in United States and Canada.
The Fellowship of Confessing Anglicans was launched in Australia on 26 March 2015, in a conference held in Melbourne that reunited 460 members, including 40 from New Zealand, and was attended by Archbishop Eliud Wabukala, from the Anglican Church of Kenya, their international chairman, Archbishop Stanley Ntagali, from the Anglican Church of Uganda, and Archbishop Glenn Davies, from the Anglican Diocese of Sydney. The then archdeacon of the Anglican Diocese of Melbourne, now bishop Richard Condie, of the Anglican Diocese of Tasmania, became chairman of FCA Australia.
The Anglican Church of Australia passed a motion at their General Synod on 7 September 3017, condemning the Scottish Episcopal Church decision to approve same-sex marriage as "contrary to the doctrine of our church and the teaching of Christ", and declaring itself in "impaired communion" with the province. It also expressed "support for those Anglicans who have left or will need to leave (...) because of its redefinition of marriage and those who struggle and remain", and presented their prayers for the return of SEC "to the doctrine of Christ in this matter" and the restoration of the impared communion.
- Melbourne Archbishop to lead Australian Anglican Church, 29 June 2014 (Accessed 30 June 2014)
- "Census vs Attendance (2001)". National Church Life Survey.
- "Number of Australian Anglicans falls by 580,000 in five years: Census 2016". tma.melbourneanglican.org.au. Retrieved 2017-09-11.
- K. J. Cable. "Johnson, Richard (1753? - 1827) Biographical Entry - Australian Dictionary of Biography Online". Adbonline.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- A. T. Yarwood. "Marsden, Samuel (1765 - 1838) Biographical Entry - Australian Dictionary of Biography Online". Adbonline.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- "Catholic Encyclopedia: Australia". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- "The Catholic Community in Australia". Catholic Australia. Archived from the original on 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- T. L. Suttor. "Plunkett, John Hubert (1802 - 1869) Biographical Entry - Australian Dictionary of Biography Online". Adbonline.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
-  Archived March 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Cultural diversity". 1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2008. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2008-02-07. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
- When did the Church of England become the Anglican Church of Australia? Archived March 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- Anglican Church of Australia website.
- "Anglican Church of Australia — World Council of Churches". Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "Bishops ruling shatters stained glass ceiling". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2007-09-29.
- COWIE, TOM (19 October 2013). "Ballarat Anglican church approves women priests". Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- Davies, Matthew (2008-04-11). "Australia appoints first woman bishop". Episcopalchurch.org. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- "Australia: Sarah Macneil appointed first female diocesan bishop". 18 November 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "Australia's first woman diocesan bishop consecrated". Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- About Australia: Religious Freedom Archived August 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Anglican Archbishop of Sydney: Peter Jensen :: Sunday Profile". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
-  Archived October 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- Rowland Croucher. "‘God Wants You To Love Me’ (Sexual Abuse In The Anglican Church) | John Mark Ministries". Jmm.aaa.net.au. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- Amelia Bentley (2009-04-24). "Priest admits sex abuse of altar boys". Brisbanetimes.com.au. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- "Contact Us". Broughton Publishing. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "QuickStats". Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "Australia: Schools and Education". Anglicans Online. 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
-  Archived March 17, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Heritage Branch Website - Online Database". Heritage.nsw.gov.au. 2013-06-27. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- "History". Goulburncathedral.org.au. Archived from the original on 2013-06-16. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
-  Archived March 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Australian Convict Site & Attractions near Hobart Tasmania". Port Arthur. 2013-05-13. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- Welcome | St Peter’s Cathedral Archived 2010-05-23 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Twenty years of female Anglican priests". abc.net.au. ABC. Retrieved April 28. Check date values in:
- "Kay Goldsworthy to become new Anglican Bishop of Gippsland". abc.net.au. ABC. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- www.eastgippslanddesign.com.au. "Kay Goldsworthy | Anglican Diocese of Gippsland". www.gippsanglican.org.au. Retrieved 2017-05-15.
- "Are women able to be priests in the Anglican Church of Australia?". anglican.org.au. Anglican Church of Australia. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- "First woman deacon in The Murray". www.churchtimes.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-15.
- "Anglican Church elects Australia's first female Archbishop". ABC News. 2017-08-29. Retrieved 2017-09-11.
- "Homosexuality". anglican.org.au. Anglican Church of Australia. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- "Anglican Church around the world". BBC. 2008-07-15. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
- Eddington, Bill (2001-07-01). "In Brief... Ordination of Gay Priests Defining Issue for Anglicans in Australia". United Church of God. Retrieved 2016-04-29.
- "Lateline - 25/02/2004: Archbishop Peter Carnley suggests lifelong friendships over gay marriage". www.abc.net.au. Retrieved 2017-03-31.
- ""Gay clergy banned in Australia", ''The Church of England Newspaper'', 22 April 2012, p. 7". Geoconger.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- Attard, Monica. "The Primate of the Anglican Church of Australia, Dr Phillip Aspinall". abc.net.au. ABC. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- Zwartz, Barney. "Gay priest calls for greater acceptance". theage.com.au. The Age. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- Herft, Roger (October 8, 2013). "SYNOD MOTION – HUMAN SEXUALITY" (PDF). perth.anglican.dort. Anglican Diocese of Perth. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- "Anglicans look for leader with a healing touch - National - www.smh.com.au". www.smh.com.au. Retrieved 2017-03-31.
- Porter, Muriel (2014-06-16). "Bishop whose heart 'lay with the alien and the outsider'". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2017-05-14.
- Porter, Muriel. "Sydney Anglicans and the threat to world Anglicanism". abc.net.au. ABC. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- ABC Gippsland. "Bishop defends gay priest appointment". abc.net.au. ABC. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "Anglican spat over gay priest". www.starobserver.com.au. Retrieved 2016-06-07.
- "Perth Anglicans vote to recognise same-sex relationships". abc.net.au. ABC. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- "Archbishop rejects formal recognition of same-sex relationships". ABC News. 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2016-12-10.
- "Bush bishop supports same-sex marriage". abc.net.au. ABC. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- DOW, AISHA (2012-11-19). "Gays to wed at St Matthew’s?". Retrieved 2016-07-08.
- Porter, Muriel. "First woman diocesan for Australia consecrated". churchtimes.co.uk. Church Times. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- "Welcoming Congregations". changingattitude.org.au. Changing Attitude. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- "Is the Australian Anglican Church in the Throes of Schism? - Virtueonline – The Voice for Global Orthodox Anglicanism". Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "Same-sex marriage: Arm of Anglican Church supports civil unions in Queensland". courier.com.au. Couriermail. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
- MCCARTHY, JOANNE (2016-02-22). "Gay clergy ‘tensions’ before Anglican conference". Newcastle Herald. Retrieved 2016-04-29.
- "Sydney Synod “Grieved” by actions of Bishops of Gippsland and Wangaratta". davidould.net. 2015-10-16. Retrieved 2017-09-11.
- "Ballarat's Anglican Bishop declares support for same-sex marriage". 2016-09-15. Retrieved 2016-09-15.
- "Anglican priest running LGBTI parish service in Perth". ABC News. 2016-10-08. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- Premier (2017-09-08BST16:10:52+0100). "Australian Anglicans criticises Scottish Church for departing from teachings of Christ - Premier Christian Radio". Premier Christian Radio. Retrieved 2017-09-11. Check date values in:
- "Perth’s new Anglican archbishop supports gay marriage". The West Australian. 2017-08-29. Retrieved 2017-09-11.
- RIGNEY, SAM (2 February 2014). "New Anglican bishop promises justice, compassion". Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "Anglicans Elect First Woman Bishop", news.com.au.
- We see them and embrace them, 28 October 2009
- Diocese of NW Australia recognizes ACNA as "a member church of the Anglican Communion", Anglican Church League Website, 5 October 2014
- Russell Powell. "FCA underway | News". Sydneyanglicans.net. Retrieved 2015-11-04.
- Breaking: Australian General Synod notes SEC marriage canon "contrary to the doctrine of our Church and the teaching of Christ", David Ould Net, 7 September 2017
- Blombery, Tricia (1996). The Anglicans in Australia. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN 978-0-644-45913-6.
- Breward, Ian. A History of the Australian Churches.
- Bunting, Ian, ed. (1996). Celebrating the Anglican Way. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-64268-9.
- Davis, John (1993). Australian Anglicans and their Constitution. Canberra: Acorn Press. ISBN 978-0-908284-14-6.
- Elkin, A. P. (1955). The Diocese of Newcastle: A History.
- Harris, John. One Blood: 200 Years of Aboriginal Encounter with Christianity.
- Hilliard, David (1986). Godliness and Good Order: A History of the Anglican Church in South Australia. Netley, South Australia: Wakefield Press. ISBN 978-0-949268-45-7.
- Judd, Stephen; Cable, Kenneth J. Sydney Anglicans: A History of the Diocese. Sydney: Anglican Information Office.
- Kaye, Bruce Norman (1995). A Church Without Walls: Being Anglican in Australia. North Blackburn, Victoria: Dove. ISBN 978-1-86371-557-7.
- Porter, Brian, ed. (1997). Melbourne Anglican: The Diocese of Melbourne, 1847–1997. Melbourne: Mitre Books. ISBN 978-1-86407-181-8.
- Porter, Muriel (1989). Women in the Church: The Great Ordination Debate in Australia. Ringwood, Victoria: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-013041-6.
- — (2006). The New Puritans: The Rise of Fundamentalism in the Anglican Church. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Publishing. ISBN 978-0-522-85184-7.