Anglican Church of Mexico

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Anglican Church of Mexico
ClassificationProtestant
OrientationAnglican
ScriptureHoly Bible
TheologyAnglican doctrine
PolityEpiscopal
Primate
TerritoryMexico
Members21,000-100,000[1]
Official websitemexico-anglican.org

The Anglican Church of Mexico (Spanish: La Iglesia Anglicana de México), originally known as Church of Jesus (the oldest non-Roman Catholic church in Mexico), is the Anglican province in Mexico and includes five dioceses. The interim primate is Enrique Treviño, Bishop of Cuernavaca.[2] Although born in Mexico and not being the result of any foreign missionary effort, the shield of the denomination uses the colors representing Mexico as well as those of the Episcopal Church (US) recognizing its historical connection with the US church since obtaining the apostolic succession from the US-based Anglican church.[3]

History[edit]

The 17th-century former Convento San José de Gracia now serves as the Anglican Cathedral of Mexico

The Anglican Church of Mexico can trace its roots to the Mexican War for independence in 1810, and to the attempt in 1854 by several liberal minded priests who later supported the liberal Constitution of 1857 (for this reason they became known as “Constitutionalist Fathers”) to reform the local Roman Catholic Church, but it was the Reform War that led to the foundation of the Church. Religious reforms in 1857 secured freedom of religion, separating the Roman Catholic Church from government and politics. In 1860, the newly formed Church of Jesus contacted the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, seeking Apostolic Succession. In 1879, the first bishop, H. Chauncey Riley, was consecrated. In 1958, the fourth missionary bishop of Mexico José G. Saucedo was the first of the church's bishops to be consecrated on Mexican soil, being the de facto leader of the Mexican church for the second half of the 20th century leading the process for it to become an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion on 1 January 1995, and being elected its first primate archbishop.

Membership[edit]

Today, there are 52 Anglican parishes in Mexico, 36 missions, and 12 other affiliated institutions.[4] While some sources claim 100,000 baptized members,[5] the Church of England Yearbook, which includes information on other Anglican provinces, and a study published in 2016 by the Journal of Anglican Studies and Cambridge University Press, report that the church has 21,000 active baptized members.[6]

Structure[edit]

Map of dioceses of Anglican Church of Mexico (Green: Northern; Red: Western; Yellow: Southeastern; White: Mexico; Blue: Cuernavaca)

The polity of the Anglican Church of Mexico is episcopal, as is true of all other Anglican churches. The church maintains a system of geographical parishes organized into dioceses. There are 5 of these, each headed by a bishop.[3] Each diocese is divided into archdeaconries, each headed by a senior priest. The archdeaconries are further subdivided into parishes, headed by a parish priest. Several of the dioceses are named in Spanish merely for a compass direction — del Occindente, del Norte, del Sureste — which translate directly as "of the West" &c.[7] However, the Episcopal Church and other English-language Anglican Communion sources instead render these names with "Mexico" — e.g. "of Western Mexico" — so these are the forms used on the English-language Wikipedia.

Diocese of Mexico[edit]

In 1879, diocesan bishop Henry C. Riley was ordained and consecrated by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America as "Bishop of the Valley of Mexico", to exercise oversight over the Mexican "Church of Jesus". Riley resigned in 1884 and the care of the independent church lapsed to the Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church. Henry Forrester, the church's local administrator, was elected Bishop of the Valley of Mexico, but died before consecration.

In 1904, the Episcopal Church formed all of the Mexican Republic into one Missionary District of Mexico, for North American Anglicans/Episcopalians in Mexico;[8] and which the native Church of Jesus joined in 1906.[9][10] That year, Henry D. Aves was consecrated first Missionary Bishop of Mexico and resigned in 1923. In 1926, Frank W. Creighton succeeded him as second missionary bishop.[11] In 1972, the Episcopal Church divided the missionary district in three, creating those of Northern and of Western Mexico, and renaming the remaining portion as Central & Southern Mexico; on 1 January 1980, all three were erected into dioceses. In 1988/9 the Central and Southern diocese was again split in three, creating the Cuernavaca and Southeastern dioceses, the remainder being named, again, the Diocese of Mexico (City).[12] The diocese today is based in Mexico City, where its cathedral is St Joseph of Grace.

Missionary bishops of the Missionary Diocese of Mexico
  • 1879–1884: I diocesan bishop Henry C. Riley, Bishop of the Valley of Mexico[12]
  • the Presiding Bishop, Provisional Bishop
  • Henry Forrester, bishop-elect
  • 1904–1923: II diocesan bishop Henry D. Aves (first missionary bishop)
  • 1926–1933: III diocesan bishop Frank W. Creighton, Bishop of Michigan
  • 1934–1957: IV diocesan bishop Efrain Salinas[13]
  • 1958–1972: V diocesan bishop José G. Saucedo (fourth missionary bishop; continued as Diocesan Bishop of the new Diocese of Central & Southern Mexico)
    • 1964–1972: suffragan bishop Leonardo Romero, suffragan bishop[8] (became I diocesan bishop of the new Diocese of Northern Mexico)
    • 1964–1972: suffragan bishop Melchor Saucedo, suffragan bishop[8] (became I diocesan bishop the new Diocese of Western Mexico)
  • 1972–1980: V diocesan bishop José G. Saucedo (last missionary bishop continued as diocesan bishop of the now renamed Diocese of Central & Southern Mexico )[14]
Bishops of the Diocese of Central & Southern Mexico (former Missionary Diocese of Mexico)
  • 1973–1989: V diocesan bishop José G. Saucedo (became first Diocesan Bishop of the new Diocese of Cuernavaca)
    • 22 March 1980 – 1982 (resigned): suffragan bishop Roberto Martinez-Resendiz suffragan (in Nopala, Hidalgo)[15][16]
    • 22 March 1980 – 1989: suffragan bishop Claro Huerta Ramos, suffragan (in Arroyo Zacate, Veracruz;[17][16] became I Diocesan Bishop of the new Diocese of Southeastern Mexico)
    • 1985 – 1997: suffragan bishop Martiniano García Montiel, suffragan
Bishops of the Diocese of Mexico (former Diocese of Central & Southern Mexico)
  • 1989 – 2003: VI diocesan bishop Sergio Carranza Gomez[18] (Resigned to become auxiliary bishop of L.A., Cal., USA)
    • 1990 – 2018 (died): Auxiliary Bishop Roberto Martinez-Resendiz
  • 2002 – 2020: VII diocesan bishop Carlos Touché Porter[19] (Due to retire at the latest on April 6th 2020, his jurisdiction was terminated by action of the Primate on August 6th 2020).

Diocese of Northern Mexico[edit]

Carved out in 1972 from the missionary district of Mexico; erected a diocese in 1980. Based in Monterrey, Nuevo León; where is the Cathedral of the Holy Family.

Bishops of Northern Mexico
  • 1972 – 1986 (d.): I diocesan bishop Leonardo Romero[20] (also Bishop-in-Charge of Episcopal Diocese of El Salvador from 1984)[21]
  • 1987 – 2002 (deposed for embezzlement and fraud[22]): II diocesan bishop German Martínez Márquez
  • 2003 – 2010: III diocesan bishop Marcelino Rivera Delgado
  • 2010 – November 2020: IV diocesan bishop Francisco Moreno

Diocese of Western Mexico[edit]

Coat of arms of the Diocese of Western Mexico

Carved out in 1972 from the missionary district of Mexico; erected a diocese in 1980. Based in Zapopan, Jalisco; cathedral of St Paul in that city.

Bishops of Western Mexico
  • 1972 – 1981: I diocesan bishop Melchor Saucedo Mendoza
  • 1981 – 2002 (deposed for embezzlement and fraud[22] ): II diocesan bishop Samuel Espinoza V.
  • 2003 – 2018: III diocesan bishop Lino Rodríguez Amaro[23]
  • 2018 – 2030: IV diocesan bishop Ricardo Gómez Osnaya

Diocese of Cuernavaca[edit]

Carved out in 1989 from the Central & Southern diocese in 1988/9; Cathedral of St Michael & All Saints, Cuernavaca, Morelos.

Bishops of Cuernavaca

Diocese of Southeastern Mexico[edit]

Carved out in 1989 from the Central & Southern diocese in 1988/9; based in Xalapa, Veracruz.

Bishops of Southeastern Mexico
  • 1989 – 1999: I Diocesan Bishop Claro Huerta Ramos[10] (Retires and later deposed on corruption charges).
  • 1999 – 2020 (March 10): II Diocesan Bishop Benito Juárez Martinez[10]

(Due to retire the latest on June 1st 2019, his jurisdiction was terminated by action of the Primate on March 10th 2020).

Primates[edit]

Primates of the Anglican Church of Mexico
  • 1995 – 1997: José G. Saucedo (Cuernavaca)
  • 1997: Claro Huerta (Southeastern; Acting Primate)
  • 1999 – 2002: (deposed for embezzlement and fraud[22] ): Samuel Espinoza (Western)
  • 2002 – 2004: Martiniano Garcia Montiel (Cuernavaca; Acting Primate)
  • 2004 – 2014: Carlos Touché Porter (Mexico)
  • 2014 – August 2020 (retirement) Francisco Moreno (Northern)[30]
  • August 2020 – November 2020 Francisco Moreno (Northern; acting Primate)
  • November 2020 – April 2021 Enrique Treviño (Cuernavaca; Interim Primate)

Worship and liturgy[edit]

The Anglican Church of Mexico, being since its inception a Mexican catholic expression of Christianity, embraces three orders of ministry: deacon, priest, and bishop. A local variant of the Book of Common Prayer is used.[31]

Ordination of women[edit]

The Anglican Church of Mexico allows women to be ordained, and women have been ordained as deacons and priests.[32] The church allows the ordination of women to the episcopate, but, to date, no women have been ordained bishops.[33][34] The first women were ordained to the priesthood in 1994 and, as of 2014, there were 17 women serving as priests in the Anglican Church of Mexico.[35] As of 2021, 7 of the women priests served in the Diocese of Mexico.[36] In 2020, the Anglican church in the Yucatan welcomed the first woman to be ordained to the diaconate for the region.[37] In 2021, the Diocese of Mexico acknowledged that a woman may be elected bishop in the diocese.[38] In November 2021, the Diocese of Mexico elected Alba Sally Sue Hernández as Bishop, making her the first woman to be elected bishop within the Anglican Church of Mexico.[39]

Human sexuality[edit]

The Anglican Church of Mexico only recognizes heterosexual marriage as the standard for marriage in the church. Upon the approval of gay civil marriage in Mexico, then Primate Francisco Moreno expressed that the official stance of the Anglican Church of Mexico will continue in spite of secular legislation.[40]

One of the currently active bishops has openly spoken in support of same-gender marriage, Canadian-educated Julio César Martín-Trejo, bishop of the Diocese of the Southeast.[41][42][43] At least one parish in the country has publicly expressed support for LGBTQ unions.[44] Although unofficially, in the diocese of Mexico, bishops have allowed clergy to be in informal same-sex relationships, while in the Diocese of Western Mexico a retired gay priest officially in a secular civil marriage has been allowed to teach at its seminary.[45][46] In 2019, Bishop Ricardo Joel Gomez Osnaya licensed an openly gay and married priest for a congregation in the Diocese of Western Mexico.[47]

In 2016, the General Synod of the church published a pronouncement declaring itself to be against all forms of violence and discrimination against migrants, victims of violence, or the LGBTI community. [48] On December 19, 2020, three diocesan Bishops released a statement explaining that they are discussing issues related to the LGBT community and church teaching, and are working towards a common understanding.[49]

In 2021, for the first time in the history of IAM, one of its dioceses participated in a LGBT Pride Parade: on June 19 2021, under the leadership of its bishop, the Right Rev. Julio César Martín-Trejo, the Anglican Diocese of the Southeast joined demands for equal civil marriage and LGBT rights in the city of Xalapa, Veracruz.[50][51][52] Bishop Martin expressly asked the secular authorities to respect the Federal Supreme Court's decision and legalise gay civil marriage.[53] His diocese also spoke out against hate crimes against LGBT people and others.[54] Bishop Martin has also proposed a draft version for the blessing of same-gender couples, though the policy is in discussion and not yet approved.[55] Other clergy in Bishop Martin's Diocese support LGBT inclusion in the Church.[56][57]

Doctrine and practice[edit]

The center of the Anglican Church of Mexico's teaching is the life and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The basic teachings of the church, or catechism, includes:

The threefold sources of authority in Anglicanism are scripture, tradition, and reason. These three sources uphold and critique each other in a dynamic way. This balance of scripture, tradition and reason is traced to the work of Richard Hooker, a sixteenth-century apologist. In Hooker's model, scripture is the primary means of arriving at doctrine and things stated plainly in scripture are accepted as true. Issues that are ambiguous are determined by tradition, which is checked by reason.[58]

Ecumenical relations[edit]

Unlike many other Anglican churches, the Anglican Church of Mexico is not a member of the ecumenical World Council of Churches.[59] The denomination maintains ecumenical dialogue with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodox churches.[60]

The Anglican Church of Mexico considers itself to be a part of the Global Center seeking to reconcile the divide between conservative and liberal provinces in the Anglican Communion while respecting diversity of opinion and practice.[61]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ramírez, Mariana Viayra. "Anglicanos mexicanos rechazan unirse a la Iglesia católica". cronica.com.mx. La Crónica. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  2. ^ "Bienvenidos a la Iglesia Anglicana de México". mexico-anglican.org. Archived from the original on 2016-02-12. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
  3. ^ a b "Bienvenidos a la Iglesia Anglicana de México". mexico-anglican.org. Archived from the original on 2016-10-08. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
  4. ^ "Bienvenidos a la Iglesia Anglicana de México". mexico-anglican.org. Anglican Church of Mexico. Archived from the original on February 12, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  5. ^ "Anglicanos mexicanos rechazan unirse a la Iglesia católica | La Crónica de Hoy". www.cronica.com.mx. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  6. ^ Muñoz, Daniel (May 2016). "North to South: A Reappraisal of Anglican Communion Membership Figures". Journal of Anglican Studies. 14 (1): 71–95. doi:10.1017/S1740355315000212. ISSN 1740-3553.
  7. ^ La Iglesia Anglicana de México — Nosotros (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  8. ^ a b c Episcopal News Service archives — Romero, Saucedo Consecrated; March 6, 1964 (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  9. ^ La Iglesia Anglicana de Mexico (IAM) — Historical Preface (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  10. ^ a b c d Anglican Diocese of Southeastern México — Historic Summary (Archived from the original on 29 August 2009 and accessed 20 May 2018)
  11. ^ Anglican History — The Church in Mexico, by Frank Whittington Creighton (Accessed 19 May 2018)
  12. ^ a b An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church — Mexico, Diocese of (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  13. ^ Episcopal News Service archives — Funeral Services Held for Efrain Salinas; December 30, 1968 (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  14. ^ Episcopal News Service archives — Jose Saucedo, Retired Primate of the Anglican Church of Mexico, Dies in Hospital; September 3, 1998 (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  15. ^ Episcopal News Service archives — Mexican Diocese Chooses First Suffragan; May 31, 1979 & Mexican Suffragan Bishop Resigns; April 27, 1982 (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  16. ^ a b Episcopal News Service archives — Two Mission Bishops Consecrated in Mexico; April 3, 1980 (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  17. ^ Episcopal News Service archives — Mexican Diocese Elects Second Suffragan; October 11, 1979 (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  18. ^ Episcopal News Service archives — Carranza-Gomez Elected In Mexico; April 27, 1989 & Sergio Carranza-Gomez Consecrated Sixth Bishop of Mexico; October 17, 1989; & Episcopal News — Summer 2010: From Mexico to L.A., Bishop Carranza rises to challenges (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  19. ^ Ekklesia — Archbishop of Mexico becomes Patron of Inclusive Church (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  20. ^ Episcopal News Service archives — Romero Dies Following Surgery; June 5, 1986 (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  21. ^ Episcopal News Service archives — Romero Given El Salvador Oversight; March 15, 1984 (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  22. ^ a b c The Living Church, Vol. 225. 25 August 2002, p. 6 & 29 September 2002, p. 6 (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  23. ^ La Iglesia Anglicana de Mexico — Provincial Contacts, December 2008 (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  24. ^ Vida Anglicana — Noticias Octubre 2010 (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ Anglican Diocese of Nova Scotia & P.E.I. — NetNews ANNOUNCEMENTS June 2019 (Accessed 19 June 2019)
  27. ^ ://www.anglicanjournal.com/qa-nova-scotia-based-priest-elected-as-bishop-in-mexico/ Anglican Journal June 17, 2019] (Accessed 19 June 2019)
  28. ^ ://www.anglicannews.org/news/2019/06/new-mexican-bishop-hopes-to-lead-services-in-indigenous-languages.aspx ACNS Anglican Communion News Service June 14, 2019 (Accessed 19 June 2019)
  29. ^ ://anglican.ink/2019/06/14/canadian-priest-confirmed-as-bishop-of-southeast-mexico/ Anglican Ink June 14, 2019 (Accessed 19 June 2019)
  30. ^ Anglican Communion News Service — Francisco Moreno elected Primate of Mexico (Accessed 20 May 2018)
  31. ^ "Bienvenidos a la Iglesia Anglicana de México". mexico-anglican.org. Archived from the original on 2016-02-12. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
  32. ^ "Preguntas Frecuentes". mexico-anglican.org. Anglican Church of Mexico. Archived from the original on February 12, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  33. ^ "Habrá obispo mexicana en unos años: Iglesia Anglicana". Excélsior (in Spanish). 2014-07-20. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  34. ^ "CONAPRED -". www.conapred.org.mx. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  35. ^ "Mujer sacerdote de México celebra apertura anglicana". Excélsior (in Spanish). 2014-07-16. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  36. ^ "DIÓCESIS DE MÉXICO - ELECCIÓN DE OBISPO DIOCESANO". www.eleccionepiscopal2021.org.mx. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  37. ^ "Una mujer en triple ordenación diaconal". El Diario de Yucatán (in Spanish). 2020-10-20. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  38. ^ "DIÓCESIS DE MÉXICO - ELECCIÓN DE OBISPO DIOCESANO". www.eleccionepiscopal2021.org.mx. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  39. ^ "DIÓCESIS DE MÉXICO - ELECCIÓN DE OBISPO DIOCESANO". www.eleccionepiscopal2021.org.mx. Retrieved 2021-11-06.
  40. ^ "Anglicanos y mormones contra matrimonios gay". Vanguardia. Retrieved 2016-06-18.
  41. ^ ://www.anglicanjournal.com/qa-nova-scotia-based-priest-elected-as-bishop-in-mexico/ Anglican Journal June 17, 2019] (Accessed 19 June 2019)
  42. ^ https://eur04.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fepiscopalchicago.org%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2019%2F11%2FThrive_F19_FNL_spreads.pdf&data=02%7C01%7C%7Cbe39a49481dd4b11417208d772db0adf%7C84df9e7fe9f640afb435aaaaaaaaaaaa%7C1%7C0%7C637104157407822040&sdata=0TogiqLED%2FqBxC3GcwhjdUUVQn2UGK%2BgsnDJnaqzo3s%3D&reserved=0[bare URL PDF]
  43. ^ "Obispo anglicano, a favor de bodas gay".
  44. ^ "List Churches by Country - GayChurch.org". GayChurch.org. Retrieved 2016-04-30.
  45. ^ "Mexico backs Anglican Covenant: The Church of England Newspaper, July 9, 2010 p 5". Conger. 2010-07-17. Retrieved 2020-10-19.
  46. ^ "Non Members – ChurchNewspaper.com". Retrieved 2020-10-19.
  47. ^ "Christ Church By the Sea: Rector". March 17, 2019.
  48. ^ "Pronunciamiento de VIII Sínodo General de la Iglesia Anglicana de México". mexicoanglicano.wordpress.com. Anglican Church of Mexico. June 18, 2016. Retrieved June 19, 2016.
  49. ^ "México Anglicano". México Anglicano (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-12-21.
  50. ^ "Marcha Iglesia Anglicana por la diversidad sexual y el matrimonio igualitario en Xalapa | la Jornada Veracruz".
  51. ^ Xalapa, Maribel Sánchez | Diario de. "Obispo anglicano pide autorizar matrimonios gay". Diario de Xalapa | Noticias Locales, Policiacas, sobre México, Veracruz, y el Mundo. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  52. ^ "Marcha Iglesia Anglicana por la diversidad sexual y el matrimonio igualitario en Xalapa | La Jornada Veracruz". www.jornadaveracruz.com.mx. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  53. ^ "Obispo anglicano pide autorizar matrimonios gay".
  54. ^ www.tresite.com, Diseño UX/UI: www soychris com | Programación. ""Todos somos iguales ante Dios", reverendo reza por crímenes de odio". La Silla Rota (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  55. ^ Martin, Julio (April 21, 2021). "Directiva 1.2021".
  56. ^ "Tendrá la Iglesia Anglicana en Yucatán un nuevo sacerdote". El Diario de Yucatán (in Spanish). 2021-05-28. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  57. ^ "Marcha Iglesia Anglicana por la diversidad sexual y el matrimonio igualitario en Xalapa | La Jornada Veracruz". www.jornadaveracruz.com.mx. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  58. ^ Anglican Listening Archived 2008-07-05 at the Wayback Machine Detail on how scripture, tradition, and reason work to "uphold and critique each other in a dynamic way".
  59. ^ http://www.oikoumene.org/?id=3587 World Council of Churches
  60. ^ "Bienvenidos a la Iglesia Anglicana de México". mexico-anglican.org. Archived from the original on 2016-01-24. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
  61. ^ "Latin America, Caribbean bishops uphold diversity of Anglicanism | Episcopal Church". www.episcopalchurch.org. Retrieved 2016-07-07.

Bishops[edit]

Apostolic Succession

The episcopate of the Anglican Church of Mexico historically derives its Apostolic Succession from the Episcopal Church (USA), however, a Church of England bishop and the bishop of the Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church, both having been consecrated by the Primate of the Church of England, George Carey, Archbishop of Canterbury, and by Old Catholic and Irish bishops among them John Coote Duggan, bishop of Tuam, Killala and Achonry, of the Church of Ireland, and Joachim Vobbe, bishop of Bonn, of the Old Catholic Church, Union of Utrecht, participated in 2019 as co-consecrators for the 22nd of the bishops (Rt. Rev. Julio C. Martín) of the Anglican Church of Mexico effectively introducing the Dutch Old Catholic, the Irish and the English lines of Apostolic Succession into the Mexican Anglican episcopate.[1][2]

Further reading[edit]

  • Anglicanism, Neill, Stephen. Harmondsworth, 1965.

External links[edit]