The Diocese of Goulburn was established in 1863. At that time it extended to the south and west of Goulburn to the south-western corner of New South Wales (south of the 34th degree of latitude). In 1883 the diocese was divided, with the western portion designated as the major part of the newly created Diocese of Riverina. In 1950 the name was changed to the Diocese of Canberra and Goulburn. St Saviour's Cathedral, the mother church of the diocese, is located in Goulburn, New South Wales. Both the diocesan bishop and the diocesan office are located in Canberra, Australia's national capital, which is 87 kilometres to the south of Goulburn.
The consecration of Genieve Blackwell, formerly the Archdeacon for Goulburn and Rural Ministry, as part-time assistant bishop for the region of Wagga Wagga, the North-West and South-West (also becoming the Archdeacon of Wagga Wagga) and Ian Lambert, formerly the Archdeacon for the South Coast and Monaro, as part-time assistant bishop for the region of the Coast, Southern Monaro and the Snowy (also remaining as archdeacon) took place at St Saviour’s Cathedral, Goulburn on 31 March 2012. The then Archbishop of Sydney, Peter Jensen, who would normally be expected to consecrate the new bishops, asked the Bishop of Newcastle, Brian Farran, to take his place because Jensen opposes the ordination of women. Blackwell became the third woman Anglican bishop in Australia and the 31st in the world.