China–United Kingdom relations
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Chinese-United Kingdom relations (simplified Chinese: 中英关系; traditional Chinese: 中英關係; pinyin: Zhōng-Yīng guānxì), more commonly known as British–Chinese relations, Anglo-Chinese relations and Sino-British relations, refers to the interstate relations between China (with its various governments through history) and the United Kingdom. The UK and the People's Republic of China were on opposing sides of the Cold War, while the Republic of China and the UK were allies during World War II. Both countries are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
- 1 Chronology
- 2 British in China
- 3 Chinese statesmen
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 External links
William of Rubruck encountered an English bishop's nephew in the Mongol city of Karakorum.
Between England and the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644)
- English ships sailed to Macau in the 1620s, which was leased by China to Portugal. The Unicorn, an English merchant ship, sank near Macau and the Portuguese dredged up sakers (cannon) from the ships and sold those to China around 1620, where they were reproduced as Hongyipao.
- 27 June 1637 First direct contact between British and Chinese. Four heavily armed ships under Captain John Wendell, arrived at Macao in an attempt to open trade between England and China. They were not backed by the East India Company, but rather by a private group led by Sir William Courteen, including King Charles I's personal interest of £10,000. They were opposed by the Portuguese authorities in Macao (as their agreements with China required) and quickly infuriated the Ming authorities. Later in the summer they easily captured one of the Bogue forts, and spend several weeks engaged in low-level fighting and smuggling. After being forced to seek Portuguese help in the release of three hostages, they left the Pearl River on 27 December. It is unclear whether they returned home.
Between the UK and the Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1911)
- 1685 Michael Shen Fu-Tsung visits Britain and meets James II.
- 1793 George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney led the Macartney Embassy to Beijing
- 1816 William Pitt Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst led the Amherst Embassy to China.
- ca. 1820-1830 - British merchants turn Lintin Island in the Pearl River estuary into a centre of opium trade.
- 1839-42 First Opium War
- 1841 - Convention of Chuenpee, intended to end the war and to cede Hong Kong Island to the British, signed, but never ratified
- 29 August 1842 - Treaty of Nanking ends the war. It includes the cession of Hong Kong Island to the British, and opening of five treaty ports to international trade
- October 1843 - Treaty of the Bogue supplements Treaty of Nanking by granting extraterritoriality to British subjects in China and most favored nation status to Britain
- 1856-60 Second Opium War
- 26 March 1861 - In accordance with the treaties, a British Legation opens in Beijing (Peking). In the following few years consulates open throughout the Empire, including Hankou (Wuhan), Takao (Kaohsiung), Tamsui (near Taipei), Shanghai and Xiamen.
- 1868 - The Yangzhou riot.
- 1875 - The Margary Affair.
- 1877 - A Chinese Legation opens in London under Guo Songtao (Kuo Sung-t'ao)
- 1877-1881 - Britain advises on the Ili Crisis.
- 1886 - After Britain took over Burma, they maintained the sending of tribute to China, putting themselves in a lower status than in their previous relations. It was agreed in the Burmah convention in 1886, that China would recognise Britain's occupation of Upper Burmah while Britain continued the Burmese payment of tribute every ten years to Beijing.
- 1888 - War in Sikkim between the British and Tibetans. By the Treaty of Calcutta (1890), China recognises British suzerainty over northern Sikkim.
- 1896 - Sun Yat-sen is detained in the Chinese Legation in London. Under pressure from the British public, the Foreign Office secures his release.
- 9 June 1898 - Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory (Second Convention of Peking): New Territories are leased to Britain for 99 years, and are incorporated in Hong Kong
- 1898 - The British obtain a lease on Weihai Harbour, Shandong, to run for as long as the Russians lease Port Arthur. (The reference to the Russians was replaced with one to the Japanese after 1905). An incident occurred where Mail-steamers arrived in Shanghai and dropped off "four young English girls" in December 1898.
- 1900-1901 - The Boxer Rebellion
- 1901 - The Boxer Protocol
- 1906 - Anglo-Chinese Treaty on Tibet, which the UK interprets as limiting China to suzerainty over the region
- 1909 - The Japanese Government claims foreign consulates in Taiwan; the British consulates at Tamsui and Takoa close the following year.
Between the UK and the Republic of China (1912 - Present)
- 19 February 1927 - Following riots on the streets of Hankow (Wuhan) the Chen-O'Malley Agreement is entered into providing for the hand over of the British Concession area to the Chinese authorities.
- 1930 - Weihai Harbour returned to China.
- 17 May 1935 - Following decades of Chinese complaints about the low rank of Western diplomats, the British Legation in Beijing is upgraded to an Embassy.
- 1936-37 - British Embassy moves to Nanjing (Nanking), following the earlier transfer there of the Chinese capital.
- 1937-41 - British public and official opinion favours China in its war against Japan, but Britain focuses on defending Singapore and the Empire and can give little help. It does provide training in India for Chinese infantry divisions, and air bases in India used by the Americans to fly supplies and warplanes to China.
- 1941-45 - Chinese and British fight side by side against Japan in World War II. The British train Chinese troops in India and use them in the Burma campaign.
- 6 January 1950 - His Majesty's Government (HMG) removes recognition from the Republic of China. The Nanjing Embassy is then wound down. The Tamsui Consulate is kept open under the guise of liaison with the Taiwan Provincial Government.
- 13 March 1972 - The Tamsui Consulate is closed.
- February 1976 - The Anglo Taiwan Trade Committee is formed to promote trade between Britain and Taiwan.
- 30 June 1980 - Fort San Domingo is seized by the Republic of China authorities in lieu of unpaid rent.
- 1989 - The Anglo Taiwan Trade Committee begins issuing British visas in Taipei.
- 1993 - British Trade and Cultural Office opened in Taipei.
Between the UK and the People's Republic of China (1949 - Present)
The United Kingdom and the anti-Communist Nationalist Chinese government were allies during World War II. Britain sought stability in China after the war to protect its more than £300 million in investments, much more than from the United States. It agreed in the Moscow Agreement of 1945 to not interfere in Chinese affairs but sympathised with the Nationalists, who until 1947 were winning the Chinese Civil War against the Communist Party of China. By August 1948, however, the Communists' victories caused the British government to begin preparing for a Communist takeover of the country. It kept open consulates in Communist-controlled areas and rejected the Nationalists' requests that British citizens assist in the defense of Shanghai. By December, the government concluded that although British property in China would likely be nationalised, British traders would benefit in the long run from a stable, industrialising Communist China. Retaining Hong Kong was especially important; although the Communists promised to not interfere with its rule, Britain reinforced the Hong Kong Garrison during 1949. When the victorious Communist government declared on 1 October 1949 that it would exchange diplomats with any country that ended relations with the Nationalists, Britain—after discussions with other Commonwealth members and European countries—formally recognised the People's Republic of China in January 1950.
- 20 April 1949 - The People's Liberation Army attacks HMS Amethyst (F116) travelling to the British Embassy in Nanjing and forces a successful British rescue mission. Since the Communist Party of China does not recognise the UK or the Unequal Treaties, it argues that the ship has no right to be on the Yangtze.
- 6 January 1950 - The United Kingdom recognises the PRC as the government of China and posts a chargé d'affaires ad interim in Beijing (Peking). The British expect a rapid exchange of Ambassadors. However, the PRC demands concessions on the Chinese seat at the UN and the foreign assets of the Republic of China.
- c.1950 - British companies seeking trade with the PRC form the Group of 48 (now China-Britain Business Council).
- 1950 - British Commonwealth Forces in Korea successfully defend Hill 282 against Chinese and North Korean forces in the Battle of Pakchon, part of the Korean War.
- 1950 - The Chinese People's Volunteer Army defeat the British in a pyrrhic victory. Battle of Chosin Reservoir, part of the Korean War
- 1951 - The Chinese fought the British at the Battle of the Imjin River the result is disputed. After numerous casualties in the Korean War.
- 1951 - Chinese forces attacking outnumbered British Commonwealth forces are held back in the Battle of Kapyong.
- 1951 - British Commonwealth forces successfully capture Hill 317 from Chinese forces in the Battle of Maryang San.
- 1953 - Outnumbered British forces successfully defend Yong Dong against Chinese forces in the Battle of the Hook.
- 1954 - The Sino-British Trade Committee formed as semi-official trade body (later merged with the Group of 48).
- 1954 - A British Labour Party delegation including Clement Attlee visits China at the invitation of then Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai.
- 17 June 1954 - Following talks at the Geneva Conference, the PRC agrees to station a chargé d'affaires in London. The same talks resulted in an agreement to re-open a British office in Shanghai, and the grant of exit visas to several British businessmen confined to the mainland since 1951.
- 1961 - The UK begins to vote in the General Assembly for PRC membership of the United Nations. It has abstained on votes since 1950.
- June 1967 - Red Guards break into the British Legation in Beijing and assault three diplomats and a secretary. The PRC authorities refuse to condemn the action. British officials in Shanghai were attacked in a separate incident, as the PRC authorities attempted to close the office there.
- June–August 1967 - Hong Kong 1967 riots. The commander of the Guangzhou Military Region, Huang Yongsheng, secretly suggests invading Hong Kong, but his plan is vetoed by Zhou Enlai.
- July 1967 - Hong Kong 1967 riots - Chinese People's Liberation Army troops fire on British Hong Kong Police, killing 5 of them.
- 23 August 1967 - A Red Guard mob sacks the British Legation in Beijing, slightly injuring the chargé d'affaires and other staff, in response to British arrests of Communist agents in Hong Kong. A Reuters correspondent, Anthony Grey, was also imprisoned by the PRC authorities.
- 29 August 1967 - Armed Chinese diplomats attack British police guarding the Chinese Legation in London.
- 13 March 1972 - PRC accords full recognition to HMG, permitting the exchange of ambassadors. HMG acknowledges the PRC's position on Taiwan without accepting it.
- 1982 - During negotiations with Margaret Thatcher about the return of Hong Kong, Deng Xiaoping tells her that China can simply invade Hong Kong. It was revealed later (2007) that such plans indeed existed.
- 1984 - Sino-British Joint Declaration.
- 30 June-1 July 1997 - Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from United Kingdom to China.
- 1997 - China and Britain forge a strategic partnership.[unreliable source?][not in citation given]
- 24 August 2008 - Olympic flag was handed over from the Beijing mayor Guo Jinlong to London mayor Boris Johnson, for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London.
- 21 January 2005 - Sino-UK relations have entered mature period.[unreliable source?][importance?][weasel words]
- 29 October 2008 - HMG recognises Tibet as an integral part of the PRC. It had previously only recognised Chinese "suzerainty" (supremacy over the local ruler) over the region.
- 26 June 2010 - Chinese President Hu Jintao invites British PM for talks in Beijing at the start of what looks like a fresh start for the two nations.[page needed][weasel words][original research?]
- 5 July 2010 - Both countries pledge closer military cooperation.
- 25 November 2010 - senior military officials met in Beijing to discuss military cooperation.
- 26 June 2011 - Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits London in order to plan out trade between the two countries which is worth billions of pounds.
- October 2013 - Britain's chancellor George Osborne visited China to look at making new trade links. He said that the UK and China have "much in common" in a speech on a visit to China.
- June 2014 - Chinese Premier Li Keqiang and his wife Cheng Hong visit UK and meet with Queen Elizabeth II and British Prime Minister David Cameron.
- 20–23 October 2015 - Chinese President Xi Jinping and First Lady Peng Liyuan undertake a state visit to the United Kingdom, visiting London and Manchester. Also they met with Queen Elizabeth II and British Prime Minister David Cameron. 30+ billion pounds worth of trade deals are also signed on this state visit visit.
British in China
- Sir Robert Hart was an Scots-Irish statesman who served the Chinese Imperial Government as Inspector General of Maritime Customs from 1863 to 1907.
- George Ernest Morrison resident correspondent of The Times, London, at Peking in 1897, and political adviser to the President of China from 1912 to 1920.
- Sir Thomas Wade - first professor of Chinese at Cambridge University
- Herbert Giles - second professor of Chinese at Cambridge University
- Harry Parkes
- Sir Claude MacDonald
- Sir Ernest Satow served as Minister in China, 1900-06.
- John Newell Jordan followed Satow
- Sir Christopher Hum
- Augustus Raymond Margary
- Frederick W. Baller
- James Legge (first professor of Chinese at the University of Oxford)
- Joseph Needham
- Jonathan Spence
- Foreign relations of the United Kingdom
- Foreign relations of Imperial China
- China Policy Institute
- Foreign relations of the Republic of China (from 1911...)
- Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China (after 1949)
- Foreign relations of the Republic of China (...to today)
- British Chinese (Chinese people in the UK)
- Sustainable Agriculture Innovation Network (between the UK and China)
- Mundy, William Walter (1875). Canton and the Bogue: The Narrative of an Eventful Six Months in China. London: Samuel Tinsley. p. 51.. The full text of this book is available.
- Dodge, Ernest Stanley (1976). Islands and Empires: Western impact on the Pacific and East Asia (vol.VII). University of Minnesota Press. pp. 261–262. ISBN 978-0-8166-0788-4. Dodge says the fleet was dispersed off Sumatra, and Wendell was lost with all hands.
- J.H.Clapham (1927). "Review of The Chronicles of the East India Company Trading to China, 1635-1834 by Hosea Ballou Morse". The English Historical Review (Oxford University Press) 42 (166): 289–292. JSTOR 551695. Clapham summarizes Morse as saying that Wendell returned home with a few goods.
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- William Woodville Rockhill (1905). China's intercourse with Korea from the XVth century to 1895. LONDON: Luzac & Co. p. 5. Retrieved 19 February 2011.(Colonial period Korea ; WWC-5)(Original from the University of California)
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- Minutes of Evidence from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to the House of Commons Select Committee on Foreign Affairs
- Wolf, David C. (1983). "'To Secure a Convenience': Britain Recognizes China - 1950". Journal of Contemporary History 18 (2): 299–326. doi:10.1177/002200948301800207. JSTOR 260389.
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- "Backgrounder: China and the United Kingdom". Xinhua. 2003. Retrieved 2008-12-10. "Ambassador to China after 22-year interval". The Times (London). 14 March 1972. p. 1. ISSN 0140-0460.
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- Kerry Brown, What's Wrong With Diplomacy?: The Future of Diplomacy and the Case of China and the UK (Penguin, 2015) ch 1.
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- Kit-ching Chan Lau (1 December 1978). Anglo-Chinese Diplomacy 1906-1920: In the Careers of Sir John Jordan and Yuan Shih-kai. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 168–. ISBN 978-962-209-010-1.
- Carroll, John M., and John M. Carroll. Edge of empires: Chinese elites and British colonials in Hong Kong (Harvard UP, 2009.)
- Cox, Howard, and Kai Yiu Chan. "The changing nature of Sino-foreign business relationships, 1842-1941." Asia Pacific Business Review (2000) 7#2 pp: 93-110. online
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- Fairbank, John King. Trade and diplomacy on the China coast: The opening of the treaty ports, 1842-1854 (Harvard UP, 1953)
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- Le Fevour, Edward. Western enterprise in late Ch'ing China: A selective survey of Jardine, Matheson and Company's operations, 1842-1895 (East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1968)
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- Woodcock, George. The British in the Far East (1969)
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- Bickers, Robert. Britain in China: Community, Culture and Colonialism, 1900-49 (1999)
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- Breslin, Shaun. "Beyond diplomacy? UK relations with China since 1997." British Journal of Politics & International Relations 6#3 (2004): 409-425.
- Brown, Kerry. What's Wrong With Diplomacy?: The Future of Diplomacy and the Case of China and the UK (Penguin, 2015)
- Feis, Herbert. The China Tangle (1967), diplomacy during World War II
- Friedman, I.S. British Relations with China: 1931-1939 (1940) online
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- Tang, James Tuck-Hong. Britain's Encounter with Revolutionary China, 1949—54 (1992)
- Wolf, David C. "`To Secure a Convenience': Britain Recognizes China— 1950." Journal of Contemporary History 18 (April 1983): 299—326.
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- Backgrounder: Sino-British Relations
- Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
- Embassy of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the People's Republic of China