Angola–Zimbabwe relations

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Angolan – Zimbabwean relations
Map indicating locations of Angola and Zimbabwe

Angola

Zimbabwe

Angola–Zimbabwe relations have remained cordial since the birth of both states, Angola in 1975 and Zimbabwe in 1980, during the Cold War. While Angola's foreign policy shifted to a pro-U.S. stance based on substantial economic ties, under the rule of President Robert Mugabe Zimbabwe's ties with the West soured in the late 1990s.

Angolan Civil War[edit]

President Mugabe and South African President Nelson Mandela met in Lusaka, Zambia on November 15, 1994 to boost support for the Lusaka Protocol, a peace agreement signed in August that tried to end Angola's civil war. Mugabe and Mandela both said they would be willing to meet with Jonas Savimbi, leader of UNITA, a pro-Western militant group. Mandela asked Savimbi to come to South Africa, but Savimbi did not come.[1][2]

In 1998 the Angolan government bought ammunition and uniforms from Zimbabwe Defence Industries in violation of the arms embargo established under the Lusaka Protocol. Thanks to foreign arms shipments the Angolan government regained the upper hand, ultimately ending the war in 2002.[3]

Second Congo War[edit]

Main article: Second Congo War

Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe intervened militarily in the Second Congo War (1998-2003), fighting on behalf of President Joseph Kabila of the DRC against the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC) and Uganda, and the Congolese Rally for Democracy and Rwanda. While armed forces loyal to Angola and other neighboring countries withdrew in 2002, Rwandan and Zimbabwean forces stayed.[4]

Transparency International's (TI) Corruption Perception Index (CPI) for 2003 found the governments of Angola and Zimbabwe the most corrupt in Southern Africa. On a scale of 0 to 10 with 0 the most corrupt and 10 the most transparent, TI rated Angola 1.8 and Zimbabwe 2.3, some of the highest corruption ratings in the world.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vines, Alex (1999). Angola Unravels: The Rise and Fall of the Lusaka Peace Process. Human Rights Watch. 
  2. ^ Rothchild, Donald S. (1997). Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Pressures and Incentives for Cooperation. pp. 137–138. 
  3. ^ Vines, Alex (1999). Angola Unravels: The Rise and Fall of the Lusaka Peace Process. Human Rights Watch. pp. 103–104. 
  4. ^ Ayton-Shenker, Diana (2002). A Global Agenda: Issues Before the 57th Assembly of the United Nations. p. 44. 
  5. ^ "ZIMBABWE: Corruption increasing, Transparency International". IRIN Africa. 2003. Retrieved 2007-12-20.