Angul district

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This article is about the district. For its eponymous headquarters, see Angul.
Angul District
ଅନୁଗୋଳ ଜିଲ୍ଲା
District
Location of Angul District
Coordinates: 20°49′59″N 85°06′00″E / 20.833°N 85.1°E / 20.833; 85.1Coordinates: 20°49′59″N 85°06′00″E / 20.833°N 85.1°E / 20.833; 85.1
Country  India
State Odisha
Established 1 April 1993
Headquarters Angul
Government
 • Type Municipality
 • Collector Shri Anil Kumar Samal [IAS]
Area
 • Total 6,232 km2 (2,406 sq mi)
Elevation 875.5 m (2,872.4 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,271,703[1]
 • Density 199/km2 (520/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Odia,
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 759122
Telephone code 06764
Vehicle registration OD-19/OR-19
Nearest city(s) Cuttack, Bhubaneswar, Sambalpur
Sex ratio 0.942 /
Literacy 78.96%
Vidhan Sabha constituency 5
Climate Aw (Köppen)
Precipitation 1,421 millimetres (55.9 in)
Average summer temperature 47 °C (117 °F)
Average winter temperature 10 °C (50 °F)
Website www.angul.nic.in
General information
Subdivisions: 4
Blocks: 8
Municipalities: 2
N.A.C.: 1
Tehsils: 5
Forest Coverage: 2,716.82 km²
Villages: 1,922
Grama panchayat: 180
Towns: 9

Angul is a district of Odisha state in India. The city of Angul is the district headquarters.

Geography[edit]

Angul district (odia:ଅନୁଗୋଳ ଜିଲ୍ଲା) is located in the center of the state of Odisha and lies between 20° 31 N & 21° 40 N latitude and 84° 15 E & 85° 23 E longitude. The altitude is between 564 and 1187 metres.[2] The district has an area of 6232 km2. It is bounded by Dhenkanal and Cuttack district in the east, Deogarh, Kendujhar and Sundargarh district in north, Sambalpur and Sonepur in west and Boudh and Nayagarh in the south side. The district is abundant with natural resources. Angul, The district headquarters is about 150 kilometers from the state capital Bhubaneswar.

It is the hottest district in India where maximum temperature goes up to 550C during summer.

A study jointly conducted by Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (IIT-D) and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) reveals that Angul district is among the top ten most polluted Indian cities where the pollution level reached to a 'very alarmingly' level.[3]

Divisions[edit]

Angul district is divided into Blocks, Tehsils and subdivisions. They are: Subdivisions

Blocks

  • Angul Sadar
  • Athamalik Sadar
  • Chhendipada
  • Talcher Sadar
  • Pallahada Sadar
  • Banarpal
  • Kishorenagar
  • Kaniha

Tehsils

  • Angul
  • Athamalik
  • Talcher
  • Pallahada
  • Chendipada
  • Banarpal
  • Kishorenagar
  • Kaniha

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Angul district has a population of 1,271,703,[4] roughly equal to the nation of Estonia[5] or the US state of New Hampshire.[6] This gives it a ranking of 380th in India (out of a total of 640).[4] The district has a population density of 199 inhabitants per square kilometre (520/sq mi) .[4] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 11.55%.[4] Anugul has a sex ratio of 942 females for every 1000 males,[4] and a literacy rate of 78.96%.[4]

History[edit]

A bridge between western and coastal areas of Odisha where the prehistoric and protohistoric relics are found in the villages of Bhimakund, Kankili, Kulei, Samal, Sanakerjang, Kaliakata, Paranga, Kerjang, Ogi, Tikarapara and Pallahara. Rulers have been the Bhanjas of Angulaka-pattana, the Sulkis of Kodalaka Mandala, the Nandodbhavas of Airavatta Mandala, and the Tungas of Yamagartta Mandala.

Legend says that ancient angul was the land of tribals such as Gonds, Kandhas, Sabaras. Angul was divided into number of small feudals and all chieftains were independent. But the feudals were made to pay a tax to a king. One of the feudal kings named "Anu" started a rebellion against that bigger kingdom but the bigger king with the help of Mathura's Rajputs suppressed the rebellion. As there was a war between both party and in local language "war" is "Golmala" so the name derived Anugol=Anu+Gol(mala). Subsequently this Anugol became Angul. The government named the area Angul in 1896.

The Bhaumakaras declined by the middle of the 10th Century AD when the eastern part of Odisha including the Dhenkanal region passed to the hands of the Somavamsis of South Kosala. The Somavamsis in their turn, were ousted by the Gangas and Odisha was occupied by Chodagangadedva some time before 1112 AD. The Ganga rule lasted till 1435 AD when a new Solar dynasty founded by Kapilendradeva came to power.

About the year 1533, Govinda Vidyadhar put an end to the Suryavamsi rule and started the rule of Bhoi dynasty, which lasted up to 1559 when Mukundadeva, belonging to the Chalukya family, occupied the throne. In 1568, the Afghans of Bengal invaded Odisha, and defeated and killed Mukundadeva after which Odisha came under their occupation. During all this period of dynastic changes, Angul played no remarkable role in history and this territory simply passed from one political authority to the other. During the rule of Suryavamsis and the Bhois and subsequently some new feudal states developed as self-contained political units. These are Angul, Talcher, Pallahara and Athamallik.

Somanath Singh Jagadev was the last independent king of Angul and he ruled for 33 years from 1814 to 1847 when he was deposed by the government according to the Doctrine of Lapse. His imperial capital is Krushnadevagara, currently known as Purunagada village 15 km from Angul town. The ruins of his fort remain there inside the lush jungle of Purunagada.

The king's family deity or Kuladevata God Madanmohan temple is worshipped by villagers He incurred displeasure nor only among the neighbouring Feudatory Chiefs of Dhenkanal, Hindol, Daspalla, Baudh, and Athmallik but also among the British Officers by his head-strong dealings and outspoken nature. His state was confiscated by the government in their Resolution, dated 16 September 1848. Angul thus passed under the direct rule of the British and was administered by the Superintendent of the Tributary Mahals, through the agency of an officer known as Tehsildar, who collected revenue and administered justice, until 1891 when Angul was constituted a separate district. The statue of king Somanath Singh Jagadev is situated at the heart of Angul city.

The district was formally formed out of the former undivided Dhenkanal district on the date of April 1, 1993 by the Chief Minister of Odisha, Biju Patnaik.


Economy[edit]

Industries like the National Aluminium Company (NALCO), Mahanadi Coalfields Limited (MCL), National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Jindal Steel and Power Limited (JSPL), Bhusan Steels Ltd., BRG ltd. etc. are situated in the district.

East Coast Railway's highest earning railway station is Talcher Railway station.

Two Blocks - Palahara and Athamalik - are left behind in the quest for progress and have significant numbers of poor and tribal people residing in them.

Economy[edit]

Industries like the National Aluminium Company (NALCO), Mahanadi Coalfields Limited (MCL), National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Jindal Steel and Power Limited (JSPL), Bhusan Steels Ltd., BRG ltd. etc. are situated in the district.This heavy industries along with a lot of small industries is contributing enormous amount of money to state as well as countries GDP. East Coast Railway's highest earning railway station is Talcher Railway station.

Though out of two blocks of Angul district i.e. Angul and Talcher but other two blocks i.e. Palahara and Athamalik are left behind in this quest for progress and has significant amount of poor and tribal people are residing in these blocks.

Major Industries[edit]

NALCO is a blue chip company in the aluminium sector. NALCO is the largest integrated bauxite-alumina-aluminium complex in Asia. Nalco's 2.18 lac tpa capacity aluminium smelter and its 720 MW captive power plant are located in Angul. Nalco's smelter came online in 1984. NALCOP manufacturing plants and township called Nalco Nagar are located at 5 km from Angul town, by the side of National Highway NH-42. Nalco manufactures primary aluminium metal in the form of ingots, wire rods, sow moulds, billets and strips. Nalco aluminium is exported to 30 countries.

NTPC has two power plants in Angul district. NTPC/TTPS is located 7 km from Talcher on the way to Bhubaneswar (460MW. NTPC/TSTPS, also known as NTPC Kaniha (3000 MW) is located at Kaniha, 60 km from Angul. The company has a township for its 1500 employees. The beneficiary states from the power generation are Odisha, Bihar, Sikkim, Damodar Valley Corporation, West Bengal, Jharkhand and southern states. Coal for the power plant is sourced from the Talcher Coal Field and water for thermal power is taken from Samal Barrage Reservoir.

MCL : Mahanadi Coal Field Limited is located in Talcher (20 km from Angul). It is a unit of Coal India Limited, MCL was previously under SECL (South Eastern Coal Field). The major mines under MCL are the Ananta Colliery, Dera Colliery and Balanda Colliery.

FCI (the Fertilizer Corporation of India) has its unit in Talcher, Angul. One of the oldest industries of this area, FCI Talcher has faced problems in its viable operation and the plant has faced closure since 1998. The township and plants do exist, waiting for revival. RCF (Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers) plans to revive the FCI plant in Talcher with a capital outlay of about Rs. 3000 crores.

HWP (the Heavy Water Plant) located in Talcher 20 km from Angul is a government of India organisation under the aegis of the Ministry of Atomic Power and Energy. The plant is involved in the production of organic solvents like TBP, D2EFHA, TAPO & TOPO, required as a part of the nuclear power programme of the country.

TTPS (Talcher Thermal Power Station) was one of the oldest power generation plants of the government of Odisha, with a capacity of 460 MW . It is located in Talcher. Coal for the plant is sourced from the Talcher Coal Field and water for the thermal power is taken from nearby Brahmani river. It faced problems in its operations and was in the red. The company was taken over by NTPC and its operation has once again become economically viable. The power plant has been run by NTPC since 1998.

JSPL (Jindal Steel and Power) is a major industry which has come up in Angul district with a capital investment of Rs. 20,000.00 crores for setting a steel producing facility and a 1500 MW power generation unit. JSPL plans to commission the first phase of its 6 million tonne per annum (MTPA) steel plant in Angul district by mid-2014. In the first phase, it will have a capacity of 1.8 mtpa.

BSSL (Bhushan Steel and Strips) is in the process of setting up a power plant and an advanced hot rolling plant on 1,618 acres (6.55 km2) at Angul, at a cost of Rs. 5,200 crores. It is in talks with the state government for the allotment of additional 3,500 acres (14 km2) to enable it to triple the planned capacity of 2.2 million tonnes (mt) in about five years. The Angul plant has already started producing 110 MW, sponge iron and billets production is close to 0.5 million tonnes.

Culture[edit]

Though one of the most industrialized district of India, Angul has one of the largest and most magnificent natural beauties i.e. Satakosia tiger reserve. As the Mahanadi River takes a sharp turn, It has created one of the deepest gorges of India. Satakosi got his name from his gorge as 'Sata' means Seven and 'Kosha' means Mile in Odia. Inside this reserve there is Tikarapada Wildlife Sanctuary. It is famous for the endangered crocodile species "Gharial" Breeding Center. It is of 795.52 km2 area.

Civil Society[edit]

People For Animals, Angul Unit

People for Animals also known as PFA is India's largest animal welfare organization with a nationwide network of 26 hospitals, 170 units and 2.5 Lakh members. We work to rescue and rehabilitate sick and needy animals. We set up and run shelters, ambulance services, sterilization programs, treatment camps and disaster rescue missions for animals. We conduct education programs in schools, fight cases in court and lobby on animal issues in parliament. At present, we have a nationwide network of 170 units, 26 hospitals and 60 mobile units. Angul Unit In-Charge : Mr. Biplab Mahapatra, Cell : 9438013873 (Helpline) Animal Activist

Mr. Biplab Mahapatra, In-Charge, People For Animals, Angul

Places of worship[edit]

Angul Pre-car Festival

Anugul - Budhi Thakurani Temple built on a small hill. A huge Jagannatha Temple known as Saila Srikhetra has also been built near the Budhi Thakurani temple. This Jagannath Temple is the exact replica of Puri Jagannath Temple and has been built over a small hill.

Tikarapada[edit]

Tikarpada Tiger Reserve

Location : It is 60 kilometers from the district headquarters and 200 kilometers from Bhubaneswar. It is famous for the Gharial Crocodile Sanctuary, which is situated on the bank of River Mahanadi. Wildlife lovers can watch tiger, leopard, elephant, gaur, sambar, spotted deer, mouse deer, nilagai, four-horned antelope and sloth bear. Wild dogs used to be sighted often. Reptiles seen include the Gharial, mugger crocodile, fresh water turtle. Poisonous and non-poisonous snakes can be sighted. The site is popular as a trekking hotspot. Tikarapada is also famous for the Satakoshia George of river Mahanadi, and its lush green forest.

Bhimkund[edit]

Main article: Anantashayana_Vishnu

Bhimkund is a tourist place, situated about eight kilometers from the town of Talcher. The sleeping statue of Lord Vishnu can be seen on the river bed of Brahmani.

Khuludi[edit]

Water spring at Khuludi

Coordinates: 21°26'16"N 85°15'25"E

The Shiva temple under the foothills of Malyagiri (also known as Malayagiri) is a place of pilgrimage for the people of the district. Lord Shiva abodes here under the name of Girishwara, meaning the Lord of the Mountains. The word Girishwara forms combining Giri(Mountain) and Ishwara (God).The waterfall near the temple is an attraction it is a small one with a height of 10–12 feet. The Khuludi village is 25 kilometers from Pallahara, 104 kilometers from the district headquarter Angul via National Highway 23 (India) and 153 kilometers from Ispat city Rourkela via SH 10A and National Highway 23 (India) .

Deulajhari[edit]

Main article: Deulajhari
Shree Siddheswar Baba Temple

One more important place from both the religious and the natural beauty point of view is Deulajhari, better known as the ancient citadel of Saivism. The temple has been consecrated amidst lush indigenous-jasmine forest (locally known as Kiabana) that stands as the high walls. To the south of the temple flows the sacred river Chitrotpala, and in the north stands the towering hills of Panchadhara. The uniqueness of the place lies in its hot springs that surround the temple. As per the ancient records, there were eighty-four such hot springs in and around the place. But as of now there are 24 springs still active. The most popular springs are Agnikunda, Taptakunda, Himakunda, Amrutakunda and Labakusakunda. The temperature of water in these springs varies from 40 degrees Celsius to 62 degrees Celsius.

Saradhapur[edit]

It is near to Angul, 5 km from district headquarters. There is an ashram named as Purunapani located in the village. The Mandaragiri mountain is in the village.

Other places of interest are Rengali Dam and Samal Barage over Brahmani River, the hot water spring at Deulajhari in its Athmallik sub-div, Panchadhara hills, Budhi Thakurani and Lord Jagannath Temple, the puppet dance.

Politics[edit]

Vidhan sabha constituencies[edit]

The following is the five Vidhan sabha constituencies[7][8] of Angul district and the elected members[9] of that area

No. Constituency Reservation Extent of the Assembly Constituency (Blocks) Member of 14th Assembly Party
59 Pallahara None Pallahara, Kaniha (part) Mahesh Sahoo BJD
60 Talcher None Talcher (M), Talcher, Kaniha (part) Braja Kishore Pradhan BJD
61 Angul None Angul (M), NALCO (C. T), Angul (part), Banarpal (part) Rajani Kant Singh BJD
62 Chhendipada SC Chhendipada, Banarpal (part) Sushanta Behera BJD
63 Athmallik None Athmallik (NAC), Athmallik, Kishorenagar, Angul (part) Sanjeeb Kumar Sahoo BJD

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/408-anugul.html
  2. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  3. ^ hindu.com:Angul-Talcher seventh most polluted industrial cluster in the country
  4. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  5. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. Estonia 1,282,963 July 2011 est. 
  6. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. New Hampshire 1,316,470 
  7. ^ Assembly Constituencies and their EXtent
  8. ^ Seats of Odisha
  9. ^ "List of Member in Fourteenth Assembly". ws.ori.nic.in. Retrieved 19 February 2013. MEMBER NAME 

External links[edit]