Angular (web framework)

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Angular
Developer(s)Google
Initial release2.0 / 14 September 2016; 7 years ago (2016-09-14)[1]
Stable release
17.3.0[2] Edit this on Wikidata / 13 March 2024; 30 days ago (13 March 2024)
Preview release
17.1.0-next.0 / 15 November 2023; 4 months ago (2023-11-15)[3]
RepositoryAngular Repository
Written inTypeScript, JavaScript
PlatformWeb platform
TypeWeb framework
LicenseMIT License
Websiteangular.io

Angular (also referred to as "Angular 2+")[4] is a TypeScript-based, free and open-source single-page web application framework led by the Angular Team at Google and by a community of individuals and corporations. Angular is a complete rewrite from the same team that built AngularJS. Angular ecosystem consists of a diverse group of over 1.7 million developers, library authors, and content creators.[5]

Differences between Angular and AngularJS[edit]

Architecture of an Angular application, services, and dependency injection

Google designed Angular as a ground-up rewrite of AngularJS.

  • Angular does not have a concept of "scope" or controllers; instead, it uses a hierarchy of components as its primary architectural characteristic.[6]
  • Angular has a different expression syntax, focusing on "[ ]" for property binding, and "( )" for event binding[7]
  • Modularity – much core functionality has moved to modules
  • Angular recommends the use of Microsoft's TypeScript language, which introduces the following features:
  • Dynamic loading
  • Asynchronous template compilations
  • Iterative callbacks provided by RxJS.
  • Support to run Angular applications on servers.

History[edit]

Angular 2.0 was announced at the ng-Europe conference 22–23 October 2014.[8][9] The drastic changes in the 2.0 version created considerable controversy among developers.[10] On April 30, 2015, the Angular developers announced that Angular 2 moved from Alpha to Developer Preview.[11] Angular 2 moved to Beta in December 2015,[12] and the first release candidate was published in May 2016.[13] The final version was released on 14 September 2016.

On 13 December 2016 Angular 4 was announced, skipping 3 to avoid confusion due to the misalignment of the router package's version which was already distributed as v3.3.0.[14] The final version was released on 23 March 2017.[15]

Features in version 4.3:[citation needed]

  • Introducing HttpClient, a smaller, easier-to-use, and more powerful library for making HTTP Requests.
  • New router life cycle events for Guards and Resolvers. Four new events: GuardsCheckStart, GuardsCheckEnd, ResolveStart, ResolveEnd join the existing set of life cycle events such as NavigationStart.
  • Conditionally disable animations.

Angular 6 was released on 4 May 2018.[16] This is a major release focused less on the underlying framework and more on the toolchain and on making it easier to move quickly with Angular in the future, like ng update, ng add, Angular Elements, Angular Material + CDK Components, Angular Material Starter Components, CLI Workspaces, Library Support, Tree Shakable Providers, Animations Performance Improvements, and RxJS v6.

On 18 October 2018, Angular 7 was released. This version had updates regarding Application Performance, Angular Material & CDK, Virtual Scrolling, Improved Accessibility of Selects, now supports Content Projection using web standard for custom elements, and dependency updates regarding Typescript 3.1, RxJS 6.3, Node 10 (still supporting Node 8).[17]

Angular 8 was released on 28 May 2019. Featuring Differential loading for all application code, Dynamic imports for lazy routes, Web workers, TypeScript 3.4 support, and Angular Ivy as an opt-in preview. Angular Ivy opt-in preview includes:[18]

  • Generated code that is easier to read and debug at runtime
  • Faster re-build time
  • Improved payload size
  • Improved template type checking
  • Backwards compatibility
Angular logo from 2016 to 2023 (v3-v16)
Logo from 2016 to 2023 (v2-v16)
Angular current logo (v17)
Current logo (v17)

Angular 17 was released on November 8, 2023. Some new features include the new Application builder, a new syntax for control flow, a reworked learning and documentation website, and more.[19]

Naming[edit]

The rewrite of AngularJS was called "Angular 2", but this led to confusion among developers. To clarify, the Team announced that separate names should be used for each framework with "AngularJS" referring to the 1.X versions and "Angular" without the "JS" referring to versions 2 and up.[20]

Version History[edit]

Version Release date New features Notes
Angular 17 November 8, 2023[19] Application builder, a new syntax for control flow, and a re-worked learning and documentation website.[19]
Angular 16 3 May 2023 Partial hydration for Angular Universal's Server-side rendering, experimental Jest support, and Esbuild-based build system for development servers.
Angular 15 November 18, 2022
Angular 14 2 June 2022 Typed forms, standalone components, and new primitives in the Angular CDK (component dev kit).
Angular 13 4 November 2021[21]
Angular 12 12 May 2021[22] Deprecated support for Internet Explorer 11.
Angular 11 11 November 2020[23]
Angular 10 24 June 2020[24] New Date Range Picker (Material UI library).
Angular 9 6 February 2020 Improved build times, enabling AOT on by default
Angular 8 28 May 2019 Differential loading for all application code, Dynamic imports for lazy routes, Web workers, TypeScript 3.4 support, and Angular Ivy as an opt-in preview.[18]
Angular 7 18 October 2018 Updates regarding Application Performance, Angular Material & CDK, Virtual Scrolling, Improved Accessibility of Selects. Support for Content Projection using web standard for custom elements, and dependency updates regarding Typescript 3.1, RxJS 6.3 and Node 10.[17]
Angular 6 4 May 2018[16]
Angular 5 1 November 2017[25] Support for progressive web apps, a build optimizer and improvements related to Material Design.[26]
Angular 4.3 New router life cycle events for Guards and Resolvers. Minor release, meaning that it contains no breaking changes and that it is a drop-in replacement for Angular 4.x.x.
Angular 4 23 March 2017[15] Backward compatible with Angular 2.
Angular 2 14 September 2016

Future releases[edit]

Since v9, the Angular team has moved all new applications to use the Ivy compiler and runtime. They will be working on Ivy to improve output bundle sizes and development speeds.[27]

Each version is expected to be backward-compatible with the prior release. The Angular development team has pledged to do twice-a-year upgrades.

Support policy and schedule[edit]

All the major releases are supported for 18 months. This consists of 6 months of active support, during which regularly-scheduled updates and patches are released. It is then followed by 12 months of long-term support (LTS), during which only critical fixes and security patches are released.[28]

Supported Angular Versions
Version Status Released Active Ends LTS Ends Duration
^17.0.0 Active Nov 08, 2023 May 8, 2024 May 15, 2025 1.5 years
^16.0.0 LTS May 3, 2023 Nov 08, 2023 Nov 08, 2024 1.5 years
^15.0.0 LTS Nov 18, 2022 May 3, 2023 May 18, 2024 1.5 years

Angular versions v2 to v14 are no longer under support.[29]

Pros Of Angular[edit]

Comprehensive Framework: Offers a full suite of tools for development, from project setup to testing.

Two-Way Data Binding: Simplifies the synchronization between the UI and the data model.

TypeScript Support: Enhances code quality and maintainability with strong typing.

Modularity and Dependency Injection: Facilitates better code organization and reuse.

Robust Ecosystem: Backed by Google, with extensive libraries and community support.

Cons of Angular[edit]

Steep Learning Curve: Complexity and TypeScript requirement can be challenging for beginners. Verbose and Complex Syntax: Can lead to longer development time for those unfamiliar.

Performance Issues: For very complex applications, performance might lag behind lighter frameworks. Frequent Updates: Rapid evolution of the framework can make it hard to keep projects updated.

Initial Load Time: The size of Angular applications can lead to slower initial load times.[30]

Libraries[edit]

Angular Material[edit]

Angular Material is a UI component library that implements Material Design in Angular.[31]

Angular Elements[edit]

In 2018, Angular 6 introduced Angular Elements that lets you package your Angular components as custom web elements, which are part of the web components set of web platform APIs.[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Angular, version 2: proprioception-reinforcement". blogspot.com. September 14, 2016. Archived from the original on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2017-03-18.
  2. ^ "Release 17.3.0". 13 March 2024. Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  3. ^ "angular/CHANGELOG.md". GitHub. Retrieved 2023-11-15.
  4. ^ "AngularJS and Angular 2+: a Detailed Comparison". 6 April 2018.
  5. ^ "Angular". angular.io. Retrieved 2024-03-26.
  6. ^ "Angular Docs". angular.io.
  7. ^ "What's the difference between AngularJS and Angular?". gorrion.io. September 19, 2017. Retrieved 2018-01-28.
  8. ^ Hamilton, Coman (28 October 2014). "A sneak peek at the radically new Angular 2.0". Retrieved 2015-10-21.
  9. ^ "Ng-Europe schedule". Archived from the original on 2018-04-30. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
  10. ^ Hamilton, Coman (29 October 2014). "Angular 2.0 announcement backfires". Retrieved 2015-10-21.
  11. ^ @angularjs (April 30, 2015). "Angular 2 moves from Alpha to Developer Preview! Dev guide and API docs now available at ... angular.io/docs/js/latest" (Tweet). Retrieved 2015-10-21 – via Twitter.
  12. ^ "Angular: Angular 2 Beta". angularjs.blogspot.it. Archived from the original on 2015-12-18. Retrieved 2016-07-13.
  13. ^ "angular/angular". GitHub. Retrieved 2016-05-04.
  14. ^ "Ok... let me explain: it's going to be Angular 4.0". angularjs.blogspot.kr. Archived from the original on 2017-10-16. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
  15. ^ a b "Angular 4.0.0 Now Available". angularjs.blogspot.ca. Archived from the original on 2018-01-08. Retrieved 2017-03-23.
  16. ^ a b "Version 6.0.0 of Angular Now Available". Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  17. ^ a b Fluin, Stephen (2018-10-18). "Version 7 of Angular — CLI Prompts, Virtual Scroll, Drag and Drop and more". Angular Blog. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
  18. ^ a b Fluin, Stephen (2019-02-08). "A plan for version 8.0 and Ivy". Angular Blog. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
  19. ^ a b c Gechev, Minko (8 November 2023). "Introducing Angular v17". Medium. Angular Blog. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
  20. ^ "Angular: Branding Guidelines for AngularJS". Archived from the original on 2017-02-04. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
  21. ^ Thompson, Mark (4 November 2021). "Angular v13 is now Available". Angular Blog. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  22. ^ Thompson, Mark (2021-05-12). "Angular v12 is now available". Medium. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  23. ^ "Version 11 of Angular Now Available". 4 December 2020.
  24. ^ "Version 10 of Angular Now Available". 25 June 2020.
  25. ^ Fluin, Stephen. "Version 5.0.0 of Angular Now Available". Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  26. ^ "Angular 5 JavaScript framework delayed". 18 September 2017.
  27. ^ Fluin, Stephen (6 February 2020). "Version 9 of Angular Now Available — Project Ivy has arrived!". blog.angular.io. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  28. ^ "Angular". angular.io. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
  29. ^ "Angular". angular.io. Retrieved 2022-06-10.
  30. ^ "Best Front End Frameworks for Web Development". Mar 29, 2024.
  31. ^ "Angular Material". material.angular.io.
  32. ^ "How to create Angular 6 Custom Elements and Web Components". 29 September 2018.

External links[edit]