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Angular distance shows up in mathematics (in particular geometry and trigonometry) and all natural sciences (e.g. astronomy and geophysics). In the classical mechanics of rotating objects, it appears alongside angular velocity, angular acceleration, angular momentum, moment of inertia and torque.
The term angular distance (or separation) is technically synonymous with angle itself, but is meant to suggest the (often vast, unknown, or irrelevant) linear distance between these objects (for instance, stars as observed from Earth).
Since the angular distance (or separation) is conceptually identical to an angle, it is measured in the same units, such as degrees or radians, using instruments such as goniometers or optical instruments specially designed to point in well-defined directions and record the corresponding angles (such as telescopes).
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In order to calculate the angular distance in arcseconds for binary star systems, extrasolar planets, solar system objects and other astronomical objects, we use orbital distance (semi-major axis), , in AU divided by stellar distance in parsecs, per the small-angle approximation for :
- Hour angle
- Central angle
- Angle of rotation
- Angular diameter
- Angular displacement
- Great-circle distance
- Cosine similarity#Angular distance and similarity
- "Coordinate Transformations". www.castor2.ca. Retrieved 2020-02-12.