Anholt Offshore Wind Farm

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Anholt Offshore Wind Farm
Anholt September 2014.jpg
Country Denmark
Location Kattegat near Norddjurs
Coordinates 56°36′0″N 11°12′36″E / 56.60000°N 11.21000°E / 56.60000; 11.21000Coordinates: 56°36′0″N 11°12′36″E / 56.60000°N 11.21000°E / 56.60000; 11.21000
Status Operational
Construction began 2012
Commission date 4 September 2013
Construction cost 10 billion Danish kroner
Owner(s) DONG Energy
Wind farm
Max. water depth 14–17 m (46–56 ft)
Distance from shore 21 km (13 mi)
Power generation
Units operational 111
Make and model Siemens Wind Power: SWT-3.6-120[1]
Nameplate capacity 400 MW
Capacity factor 48.7 %[2]

Anholt Offshore Wind Farm is a Danish offshore wind power wind farm in the Kattegat, between Djursland and Anholt island. With a nameplate capacity of 400 megawatts (MW), it is one of the largest offshore wind farm in the world (along with BARD Offshore 1) and the largest in Denmark. A cable from the wind farm to Anholt replaces most of the diesel-powered electricity on the island.[4]

Project[edit]

Economy[edit]

The project was conceived in February 2008, as part of the Danish government's Energy Policy Agreement.[5] The wind farm costs an estimated 10 billion Danish kroner (€1.35 bn, US$1.65 bn). During operation, DONG receives a feed-in tariff of 1.051 DKK/kW·h (17 US¢/kW·h) for the first 20 TW·h (about 12–13 years of production),[6] whereas the 207 MW Rødsand 2 receives 0.629 DKK/kW·h for 10 TW·h.[7]

DONG Energy was the only bidder for the project, and received the license to build it in 2010.[8][9] Newsmedia and politicians suggest a tight schedule with tough sanctions as reasons for the single bid and higher price,[10][11] and the subsequent Horns Rev 3 offshore wind farm had 4 bidders in 2015 and costs 0.77 DKK/kW·h, well below the 105 øre at Anholt.[12]

Technology[edit]

DONG contracted Siemens Wind Power to supply 111 3.6 MW wind turbines for the project,[13] placed in 14 metres (46 ft) water depth.[3]

A platform holds 3 transformers which increase voltage from 33 to 220 kV for transporting the alternating current power 25 kilometres (16 mi) to land through a single 3-conductor cable (diameter 26 cm or 10 in)[14] and a further 56 km (35 mi)[15] to Trige (near Aarhus) where a 400 kV main power hub can distribute the power.[16][17] There are switchyard reactors along the cable to provide reactive power to compensate for line capacitance.[18]

The agreement required first power to be produced before the end of 2012, and be fully commissioned before the end of 2013.[3] In March 2011, DONG Energy sold 50% of the Anholt wind farm to a consortium consisting of PensionDanmark (30%) and PKA (Pensionskassernes Administration, 20%) for DKK 6 billion (US$1.14 billion) payable in 4 rates between 2011 and 2013.[19][20]

Usually, turbines are placed in a grid pattern of lines and rows. But the turbines of AOWF are placed in an unusual pattern, governed by two principles: put most of them along the edges, and put most in undisturbed airflow from the main direction, which is West-southwest. This would increase production by 1.5%, a lifetime value of more than 100m DKK.[21]

Construction[edit]

On 31 December 2011, the heavy lift vessel (HLV) Svanen placed the first foundation monopile.[22]

Official construction of the wind farm started on 13 January 2012.[23]

The first turbine was installed on 3 September and connected to the Danish power grid on 21 September.[24]

In May 2013, AOWF became Denmark's largest wind farm when 59 turbines were grid connected, totalling 212MW and surpassing Horns Rev 2. The vessel Sea Installer managed to erect a complete tower (saving time), and installed a wind turbine in 7 hours.[25]

On 19 May 2013, the installation vessel Sea Power erected the last of the 111 turbines at Anholt Offshore Wind Farm.[26]

The wind farm achieved full power in June 2013,[27][28] and was inaugurated and commissioned on 4 September 2013.[10][29]

Operation[edit]

The connection cable has been out of service two times; first the land cable failed for a week in 2014 costing Energinet.dk 9 million DKK in compensation to DONG. In February 2015 the sea cable failed, and Anholt island reverted to its diesel engines.[30]

As of 2015, the farm has produced 4,427 GWh.[2]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

External media
Images
Location and grid connection
Video
Plug-in wind – from offshore wind turbine to consumer
Help for wind turbines
Race against time
Halfway through
Erecting monopile and turbine
Official video on YouTube

Official website

References[edit]

  1. ^ Siemens - Offshore wind power projects Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ a b "Capacity factors at Danish offshore wind farms". energynumbers.info/. 2014-09-23. Retrieved 2014-11-09. 
  3. ^ a b c "Djursland Anholt". 4C Offshore Limited. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 
  4. ^ Anholt offshore wind farm Archived 8 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. (in Danish) Danish Energy Agency. Accessed: 27 November 2010.
  5. ^ Backwell, Ben (1 May 2009). "Denmark launches Anholt offshore wind farm tender". Recharge. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  6. ^ Hanne, Windemuller. Anholt Offshore Wind Farm will be the largest in Denmark Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Danish Energy Agency, 2 July 2010. Accessed: 27 November 2010.
  7. ^ Pia C. Jensen & Steen Hartvig Jacobsen. "Wind turbines in Denmark Archived 23 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.", page 26. Danish Energy Agency, November 2009. Accessed: 4 September 2013.
  8. ^ "Anholt - tender of 400MW". Danish Energy Agency. Archived from the original on 20 October 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  9. ^ Bjartnes, Anders (22 June 2010). "Dong gets green light for 400MW Anholt despite high prices". Recharge. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  10. ^ a b Jan Bjerre Lauridsen & Søren Andersen. "Queen says Good Wind to giant turbines" (in Danish) Berlingske, 4 September 2013. Accessed: 4 September 2013.
  11. ^ Erik Holm & Sanne Wittrup. "We should learn from Anholt" (in Danish) Ingeniøren, 8 April 2010. Accessed: 4 September 2013.
  12. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. "Svenske Vattenfall skal bygge Danmarks næste havmøllepark " Ingeniøren, 26 February 2015. Accessed: 26 February 2015.
  13. ^ van Loon, Jeremy (22 June 2010). "Siemens Wins 111 Offshore Wind-Turbine Order in Denmark From Dong Energy". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  14. ^ Kvarts, Thomas. About the seacable (in Danish) Energinet.dk. Accessed: 27 November 2010.
  15. ^ Kvarts, Thomas. About the landcable Archived 29 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. (in Danish) Energinet.dk. Accessed: 27 November 2010.
  16. ^ Damgaard, Poul. About the transformator platform Archived 29 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. (in Danish) Energinet.dk, 20 August 2010. Retrieved: 24 October 2010.
  17. ^ Gaardestrup, Rikke Bille. Connection of offshore wind farm Anholt Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Energinet.dk, 30 November 2009. Retrieved: 24 October 2010.
  18. ^ "Nettilslutning af havmøller ved Anholt". Energinet.dk. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  19. ^ "PensionDanmark and PKA to become co-owners of Denmark's largest offshore wind". DONG Energy. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011. 
  20. ^ Pedersen, Lars Dalsgård. DONG sells half of Anholt wind farm Energy Supply, 28 March 2011. Accessed: 10 December 2011.
  21. ^ Sanne Wittrup. "Bonus for new pattern of turbines" (in Danish) Ingeniøren, 2 May 2011. Accessed: 4 September 2013.
  22. ^ "Anholt Offshore Wind Farm Newsletter, January 2012". DONG Energy. January 2012. Archived from the original on 10 June 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012. 
  23. ^ "Today we start construction of Anholt Offshore Wind Farm" (Press release). DONG Energy. 13 January 2012. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2012. 
  24. ^ "First power from Anholt offshore wind farm" (Press release). DONG Energy. 21 September 2012. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  25. ^ Newsletter-May2013 Archived 8 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ "All turbines are erected at Anholt Offshore Wind Farm" (Press release). DONG Energy. 15 May 2013. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  27. ^ "All turbines at Anholt Offshore wind farm now operational" (Press release). DONG Energy. 20 June 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  28. ^ Anholf Offshore wind farm in 4C Offshore Retrieved 27 August 2013
  29. ^ "VIPs cut ribbon at 400MW Anholt" Recharge News, 4 September 2013. Accessed: 4 September 2013.
  30. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. "Fejl på søkabel stopper Anholt Havmøllepark i tre uger " Ingeniøren, 23 February 2015. Accessed: 23 February 2015.