An animal shelter or pound is a place where stray, lost, abandoned or surrendered animals, mostly dogs and cats, and sometimes sick or wounded wildlife are kept and rehabilitated. While no-kill shelters exist, it is sometimes policy to euthanize sick animals, and any animal that is not claimed quickly enough by a previous or new owner. In Europe, of 30 countries included in a survey, all but four (Czech republic, Germany, Greece, and Italy) permitted the killing of healthy stray dogs. Critics believe the new term "animal shelter" is generally a euphemism for the older term "pound". The word "pound" had its origins in the animal pounds of agricultural communities, where stray livestock would be penned or impounded until claimed by their owners. Some shelters even have sick tropical animals.
In the United States there is no government-run organization that provides oversight or regulation of the various shelters on a national basis. However, many individual states do regulate shelters within their jurisdiction. One of the earliest comprehensive measures was the Georgia Animal Protection Act of 1986. The law was enacted in response to the inhumane treatment of companion animals by a pet store chain in Atlanta. The Act provided for the licensing and regulation of pet shops, stables, kennels, and animal shelters, and established, for the first time, minimum standards of care. The Georgia Department of Agriculture was tasked with licensing animal shelters and enforcing the new law through the Department's newly created Animal Protection Division. An additional provision, added in 1990, was the Humane Euthanasia Act, which was the first state law to mandate intravenous injection of sodium pentothal in place of gas chambers and other less humane methods. The law was further expanded and strengthened with the Animal Protection Act of 2000.
Currently it is estimated that there are approximately 5,000 independently run animal shelters operating nationwide. Shelters have redefined their role since the 1990s. No longer serving as an until-death repository for strays and drop-offs, modern shelters have taken the lead in controlling the pet population, promoting pet adoption, and studying shelter animals' health and behavior. In order to prevent animal euthanization, shelters offer behavioral assessments of animals and training classes to make them more adoptable to the public. Shelters also provide medical care that includes spaying and neutering, which will prevent overpopulation.
Shelters, and shelter-like volunteer organizations, responded to cat overpopulation with trap-neuter-return (TNR) programs that reduced feral cat populations and reduced the burden on shelters.
In the United States, many government-run animal shelters operate in conditions that are far from ideal. In the wake of the financial crisis of 2007-2008 many government shelters have run out of adequate space and financial resources. Shelters unable to raise additional funds to provide for the increased number of incoming animals have no choice but to euthanize them, sometimes within days. In 2012, approximately four million cats and dogs died in U.S. shelters.
In Canada, the government-run Humane Society shelters specialize in dogs, cats, and small rodents.
Some shelters will also keep reptiles and parrots.
In Quebec, there are four types of animal shelters:
- SPCA (in French, 'Société pour la prévention de la cruauté envers les animaux')
- SPA (in French, 'Société protectrice des animaux')
- Non lucrative private animal shelters
- Animal services centers which consists of an animal shelter, an adoption center, emergency services, animal registering, cage renting, animal transport and management of lost animals.
In the United Kingdom, animal shelters are more commonly known as rescue or rehoming centers, and are run by charitable organizations. The most common rescue and rehoming organizations are the RSPCA, Cats Protection, and the Dogs Trust.
Larger cities in Germany either have a city shelter for animals or contract with one of the very common non-profit animal organizations throughout the country, which run their own shelters. Most shelters are populated by dogs, cats, and a variety of small animals like mice, rats, and rabbits. Additionally there are so-called Gnadenhöfe ("mercy-farms") for larger animals. They take cattle or horses from private owners who want to put them down for financial reasons.
German animal protection law prohibits killing of vertebrates without proper reason. Generally, permissive reasons are slaughtering or hunting for food production (cats and dogs are excepted from this), control of infectious diseases, painless killing "if continued life would imply uncurable pain or suffering", or if an animal poses a danger to the general public. The latter will only be reason for euthanasia, if an authority concerned with public safety orders it based on an investigation. Because of this ruling, all German animal shelters are practically no-kill shelters. Facilities are required to be led by a person certified in handling of animals. Most shelters have contract Veterinarians to provide medical care.
Across India, various animal shelters are run by the followers of Jainism. The Lal Mandir, a prominent Jain temple in Delhi, is known for the Jain Birds Hospital in a second building behind the main temple.
- Abandoned pets
- Black dog bias
- Cat colony
- Dog camp
- Goshala, cow shelters in India
- No-kill shelter
- Overpopulation in companion animals
- Pet adoption
- Shelter Dogs, a controversial 2003 documentary film
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