Anipemza

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Anipemza
Անիպեմզա
community
The ruins of Yererouk Basilica in Anipemza
The ruins of Yererouk Basilica in Anipemza
Anipemza is located in Armenia
Anipemza
Anipemza
Coordinates: 40°26′55″N 43°36′15″E / 40.44861°N 43.60417°E / 40.44861; 43.60417Coordinates: 40°26′55″N 43°36′15″E / 40.44861°N 43.60417°E / 40.44861; 43.60417
Country  Armenia
Marz (Province) Shirak
Area
 • Total 6,7 km2 (26 sq mi)
Elevation 1,430 m (4,690 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Total 523
Time zone   (UTC+4)
Anipemza at GEOnet Names Server

Anipemza (Armenian: Անիպեմզա,Russian: Анипемза) is a village and rural community in the Shirak Province of Armenia. The National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia (ARMSTAT) reported its population was 523 in 2010,[1] up from 349 at the 2001 census.[2]

Anipemza is located on Armenia-Turkey border on a bank of Akhurian River on which opposite coast there are ruins of the ancient Armenian city of Ani in Turkey. In 7 km to the north from village there is Ry station 'Ani' of Armenian Railway. Anipemza was founded in 4th century by Kamsarakan princes. The village Anipemza is well known for ruins of Yererouk basilica of 4th-5th century. Near to village the industrial complex of building materials (processing of Pumice, Tuff, Andesite) is located.

The oral witness obtained by interviewing the residents have established that the new Anipemza, since 1926, was a village for the orphans of 1915 genocide and then has been also a penal colony for forced labor for the dissidents of the Soviet regime in Armenia.

Population[edit]

Population per years is the following.[3]

Year 1831 1873 1931 1959 1972 1979 2001 2004
Pop. 647 2359 529 1119 710 558 349 405

Men make up 49% and women 51% of the population. The age percentage of the population is: children 32%, able to work 53%, adult 15%. The population occupation is ranching and seasonally mines in the industrial complex near the village.[4]

Climate[edit]

The climate in the village is temperate mountainous. The winter is long and cold with constant snow cover, the summer is hot and moist. Annual precipitation amount is 500/600 mm. The highest temperature in summer is 30°C and the lowest temperature in winter is -20°C. Downfalls amount is 450mm.[5]

History[edit]

Anipemza is one of the first industrial cities founded during the Soviet period. It is related to the foundation of the factory in 1926. The founders are mainly the habitants of the neighbour Zagha village destroyed after Anipemza's foundation. According to the testimonials of the older interviewed inhabitants of Anipemza, Zagha was a village who hosted the orphans of 1915 genocide from some villages of the west Armenia (mainly Kars) and from Gyumri (Alexandropol at that time) in 1916 to 1920. Americans took the population from orphanage of Leninakan to work in mine. With the opening activities of the industrializing quarry, specialists were coming with their families from other nearby villages and cities too in order to work there. The settlement was almost completed in 1936, when the factory had more workers and specialists. After the administrative-territorial division of the area in provinces, in 1936 Anipemza was included in province of Ani, and in 1996, according to the division by the Republic of Armenia, it was announced as a village and was included in Shirak’s province.

Some orphans who were moved from Greece during the genocide, have moved to work in Anipemza in 1934. The salary of mineworkers was very high; people were working on 3 shifts. There was a lot of work. They should load 100 wagons for Kaspi, Ararat, and other sites. The citizens said that during the Soviet period, life in Anipemza was perfect because of the wealth and the possibility to have a job; also the residents of other villages were coming to work there.

The village had many facilities: hospital, pharmacy, kindergarten, laborers’ canteen, library, house of culture and cine-theatre, garden etc. There was also a hotel for the businessperson (now it is residential). The garden, visible from the main street, is enclosed by fence and nowadays is used as a private vegetable garden and orchard. There are three shops which serve Gyumri too.

In the village there was also a forced labor settlement camp for Armenian dissidents during the Soviet period. The area of the prisoners was fenced and thet were working in mine. The prisoners were not in contact with regular people without permission and they lived in the building in front of cultural house. In the Soviet period the village was protected but never had an enclosure, only a toll bar as a frontier village. The entrance was possible only with special pass until 1985. In that period there were so many people that in a single apartment there was more than one family because there was not place enough to live for all.

Now Anipemza appears as a company town or a garden city and today it is protected by national governments or even by UNESCO for its historical significance sociological and cultural as well as urban and architectural.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Marzes of the Republic of Armenia and Yerevan City in Figures, 2010" (PDF). National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia (ARMSTAT). 
  2. ^ Report of the results of the 2001 Armenian Census, National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia
  3. ^ "Dictionary of Armenian residences (Հայաստանի հանրապետության բնակավայրերի բառարան), page 21" (PDF). Retrieved April 18, 2014. 
  4. ^ With the coordination of Arch. Francesco Augelli, chapter made by Francesco Augelli (DASTU), Alessandro Marcone, Matteo Rigamonti, Paola Bertò, Angelo Rossi, Lousineh e Arin Khachatourian, with the collaboration of the Mayor Harutyun Tarlanyan (2015). "Anipemza: from genocide orphans village to workers village. First proposals for conservation, valorisation and improvement of an interesting architectural settlement example and of a rich history site in Armenia". Scientific Papers of National University of Architecture & Construction of Armenia. IV Architecture, Urban Planning, Construction. Yerevan. p. 15. ISSN 1829-4200. 
  5. ^ With the coordination of Arch. Francesco Augelli, chapter made by Francesco Augelli (DASTU), Alessandro Marcone, Matteo Rigamonti, Paola Bertò, Angelo Rossi, Lousineh e Arin Khachatourian, with the collaboration of the Mayor Harutyun Tarlanyan (2015). "Anipemza: from genocide orphans village to workers village. First proposals for conservation, valorisation and improvement of an interesting architectural settlement example and of a rich history site in Armenia". Scientific Papers of National University of Architecture & Construction of Armenia. IV Architecture, Urban Planning, Construction. Yerevan. p. 15. ISSN 1829-4200. 
  6. ^ With the coordination of Arch. Francesco Augelli, chapter made by Francesco Augelli (DASTU), Alessandro Marcone, Matteo Rigamonti, Paola Bertò, Angelo Rossi, Lousineh e Arin Khachatourian, with the collaboration of the Mayor Harutyun Tarlanyan (2015). "Anipemza: from genocide orphans village to workers village. First proposals for conservation, valorisation and improvement of an interesting architectural settlement example and of a rich history site in Armenia". Scientific Papers of National University of Architecture & Construction of Armenia. IV Architecture, Urban Planning, Construction. Yerevan. pp. 17–18. ISSN 1829-4200.