Anjar, India

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Anjar
Town
Anjar is located in Gujarat
Anjar
Anjar
Location in Gujarat, India
Coordinates: 23°08′N 70°01′E / 23.13°N 70.02°E / 23.13; 70.02Coordinates: 23°08′N 70°01′E / 23.13°N 70.02°E / 23.13; 70.02
Country  India
State Gujarat
District Kutch
Established 805 AD
Founded by Ajepal
Elevation 81 m (266 ft)
Languages
 • Official Gujarati, Kutchi, Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 370110
Vehicle registration GJ 12

Anjar is a town, a tehsil and a municipality in Kutch district in the state of Gujarat, India. It is a town of historic importance, located in Southern Kutch, around 40 km away from one of the biggest ports in India - Kandla Port. With nearly 1,400 years of history, founded around 650 AD, Anjar is claimed to be the oldest town in Kutch.

History[edit]

The history of the town is shrouded in mysteries due to lack of written evidences or documentation. Popular stories say that a group of early settlers led by warrior Ajay Pal (also called Ajepal), brother of King of Ajmer, Rajasthan arrived and settled there around AD 650 or 805 (Samvat 862).[1] Slowly the settlement flourished and became a center of trade and commerce. Due to its prosperity and wealth it was often target of invasion of Khalifa clan warriors. As the founder of the settlement, and later the ruler of the town, Ajay Pal dedicated his life to protect the town. It's believed that he established the first coastal security center in Kutch somewhere near Anjar. Ajay Pal died due to a mortal wound suffered while fighting Khalifas in Vikram Samvat 741 (around AD 685). Due to his efforts in protecting the town and surrounding area from invaders, and his selfless sacrifice, he is worshiped as a saint and his tomb (also called Samadhi in Hinduism) and temple is located on the outskirts of the town. He is fondly known as the ruler of the town till date.

In the course of history, Chauhan clan lost the power in Anjar. At different points of time in history, the town was ruled by various clans such as Solanki, Vaghela, Chawda, before finally it went to the more powerful warrior clan Jadeja who gained control of whole Kutch region. The town was declared capital of the Kingdom of Kutch in 1545 by King Khengarji I. The town was fortified by Desalji early in the eighteenth century. The fort wall was sixteen feet high and six feet thick. In 1800 the town, port, and dependencies of Anjar were granted to Fateh Muhammad, who busied himself in extending its trade and establishing the harbour of Tuna.[1] The town served as the Capital of the Kutch region on and off, until finally a nearby settlement namely Bhuj permanently became the capital city of the region. Anjar then served as second largest settlement in the region, and was pushed to the third rank after the rise of the Kandla Port and nearby Gandhidham city which serves as the powerhouse for the regional economy at present.

On the 25th December 1815, Anjar was attacked under Colonel East of British East India Company, and Tuna was occupied on the next day. In the following year the fort and dependent villages were made over to the British and held by them till 1822.[1][2] Anjar suffered severely from an earthquake in 1819, which destroyed a large number of houses, and thousands of lives.[1][2] The population shortly afterwards was about 10,000.[2] In 1822, the company government transferred the power of the region back to the Jadeja Rulers in exchange for annual fee.[2] The payments were a burden on the local treasury and the entire burden (including arrears) were paid on its behalf by the British government.[2] The population was 18,014 in 1901.[3]

Due to social segregation, complex social structure and cultural restrictions in the ancient times, most of these clans established their separate wards or neighborhoods (locally known as 'fariyas') within the town, so that in any neighborhood of the town you would find houses of only people of a certain clan. However, today the culture has opened up and you might find people of different clans living side by side.

Kutch region, and specifically Anjar suffered several big and small earthquakes in addition to the one in 1819. At an interval of nearly 50 years, there have been small and big earthquakes in the region. Anjar also experienced strong earthquake on 21 July 1956, which had its epicenter near the town[4] and another major earthquake on 26 January 2001, which caused large scale destruction of houses and population. As per records more than 1350 houses were destroyed.[5] Most of the damage occurred to the older constructions in the fortified area of the town where buildings and houses were hundreds of years old.[6][7] The earthquake claimed more than 1500 lives, and left many more injured.[8][9] After a decade of rehabilitation work, the town has now recovered from the loss and destruction inflicted by 2011 earthquake. [10]

Demographics[edit]

Most Anjaris are Hindus Jains, or Muslims. These major religious groups are further divided into subgroups (called Jātis), including

Later on Mulsims, and the African slaves (locally known as Sidis) of the rulers of Jadeja clan also settled in the town.

Geography[edit]

Anjar is located at 23°06′48″N 70°01′40″E / 23.113424°N 70.027744°E / 23.113424; 70.027744[11] and has an average elevation of 81 meters (270 ft). The land in Anjar is mainly dry and arid flatland. The town is around 75 kilometers (50 mi) away from the Great Rann (the Desert of Kutch), which is a seasonal salt marshland in the north. At the beginning of the 20th century, the city was only 10 miles (16 km) from the Gulf of Kutch to the south,[2][3] but it is now 40 kilometers (20 mi) away. There are 3 small lakes in different parts of the town which often dry up in the long harsh summers. On the eastern side of the town there's a river named 'Saang' which often dries up in the summer, too.

Climate[edit]

Climate in Anjar is very dry due to its vicinity to the Desert of Kutch. There are three distinct seasons observed in Anjar: Winter, Summer, and Rainy Season (locally better called monsoon). Winters in Anjar could be harsh with temperatures dropping down to 4 degree Celsius, and summers could be equally harsh with scorching temperatures soaring up to 47 - 48 degree Celsius, whereas rain-fall is very scarce with average annual rainfall of around 400 mm only. Anjar often experiences droughts.

Summer is the longest season, which lasts from around mid-March to July or sometimes until mid-August. Brutal heat-waves in summer often claim lives of humans and animals in this region. Rainy season lasts from around July to September. During the rainy season the sky is mostly cloudy, with bursts of brief showers or sweltering hot days with highly humid air blowing from the Gulf of Kutch in south. Winter starts from November and may last up to February.

Temples[edit]

The Madhavrai temple, a Vaishnav shrine 67 feet by 64 and about 62 high, with a domed hall and black and white marble floor, The image of black marble is placed on a table overlaid with silver. The shrine doors, also plated with silver, bear an inscription dated Samvat 1869 (1812 AD). Some of the eight pilasters that support the dome are carved mermaids and Naga figures. Mohanrai's temple, smaller and plainer, with a neatly carved wooden door, is also a Vaishnav shrine, the idols being Krishna with Radha on his left, and Chaturbhuj, the four-armed Vishnu, on his right. This temple was rebuilt between 1814 and 1824. Amba Mata's shrine and the monastery close by are built of fragments of older temples. Over the enclosure gateway is a door of hard reddish stone, carved all round, which from the repetition of Devi on the jambs and lintels may have belonged to a Vaishnav Shakta temple ; sculptured slabs also lie about, and are built into the walls.[1]

The adjoining monastery belongs to the Atits of Ajepal. Ajepals shrine, outside the town walls, is a small modern domed room, with images of Ajepal on horseback and of Ganpati. At the door is an inscription dated 1842. The Atits are Shaiv, the sacred bull with brass horns holding a prominent place on the platform at the entrance to the shrine. Their headnien, pirs or gurus, are buried around, and the small cells over their remains are marked by the linga. Their patron saint is a Chauhan king of Ajmer, who gave up his throne, became an ascetic, and ended his days by a voluntary death.[1]

Kalya Mahadev's temple, outside the walls, is comparatively modern, with a dancing yogini as its goddess. Vankal Mata's temple, to the north-west of the town, is dedicated to a form of Bhavani. Bhareswar at some distance to the south-east has an old shrine and spire and a modern hall. To the west of the town is a temple of Dvarkanath, and close to it an unfinished one to Bahuchar Mata, with three shrines on as many sides of the entrance hall.[1] On the outskirts of the town is the ancient Hindu temple of Shiva, namely Bhadeshwar Mahadev Temple.

To the east of Ajepal's monastery, is a small tiled shed with tombs of Muslim pattern sacred to Jesar or Jesal, a Jadeja, and Turi or Toral, a Kathi. The temple is locally known as Jesal Toral ni Samadhi, which literally means 'the tomb of Jesal and Toral'. The shrine at Anjar is under the charge of the Ajepal monastery.[1]

Legend of Jesal-Toral

In the middle of the fourteenth century Jesar, grandson of Jam Lakha Jadeja, became an outlaw laid waste fields and villages, killed the people, and carried off the cattle. At that time a Kathi woman, Turi or Toral by name, was famous for her devotion and her skill in making hymns, and still more famous for her beauty. She lived with an ascetic called Savasdhir, who did not regard her as his wife but as one who would bring him salvation. The fame of her beauty reached Jesar, who tried to carry her off by force but failed. Going back in the guise of an ascetic he was well received, and arranged to seize her at some midnight worship. His plans were found out, and, on his confessing, the sect whose rule was to grant the wish of every asker gave him Turi on condition that ho became an ascetic. Jesar agreed, but, soon tiring of the restraint, again tried to carry on Turi by force. She foiled him and in time changed him into a model ascetic. Settling at Anjar, Jesar died and Turi was buried alive close by his tomb. His descendants the Jesar' Rajputs have, in each of the twelve villages, a shrine of Jesar and Turi.[1]

There is Swaminarayan's temple located on the outskirts of the old fortress on the Eastern side of the town. Swaminarayan Sect is a relatively modern sect in Hinduism established by Swaminarayan in the 19th century. It is believed that Swaminarayan visited Anjar during his lifetime, and a temple was constructed at the place where he stayed.

Cuisine[edit]

Anjar is famous for gher all over India even though the world gher procession only passed in middle of the city. Anjar is also well known for its cuisine, specifically Bhikha ni Dabeli. This Dabeli is so revered that its fans stretch out all the way to the state of Maharashtra and even outside India to certain countries in the Persian Gulf. Moreover, one can find the real taste of Kesar Keri called Kesar Hagu in Anjar. Anjar is also well known for the Kharek. Local people love to drink buttermilk locally known as Chhash. Other local famous items are Kutchi Pakwan, Kutchi Khaja, Pedas and farsan, etc. Pedha, Gulab Paak and Kharibhat are famous in local as well Mumbai region.

Economy[edit]

The town has strong trade and social links with neighboring Adipur, Bhuj, Gandhidham and Kandla. The GIDC (Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation) estate is situated here. Anjar is known for its ethnic clothes, handicrafts and metal-crafts. Swords and knives made in Anjar and nearby villages are popular and are exported outside India.

Culture[edit]

The people of Anjar come from many different backgrounds and have lived in peace for centuries. Cultural programs held many times in Anjar. Festivals like Holi, Sharad Purnima, Ram Navami, Navaratri, Hindola Mahotsava, Diwali, Eid are celebrated in town

Notable Persons[edit]

Meghaji Sheth of Anjar, took leadership during princely state and when Kachchh was administered by Rao Raydhan (i.e. in 1786 A.D.) Rao Raydhan was keen to covert all Hindus. At that time, Meghaji Sheth went to Bhuj and imprisoned Rao and gave administration in the hands of 12 persons called Barbhaya Raj i.e. first Democracy in India.

Among the many persons of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya or Mistri community of Anjar, who were noted for Sea-trading, architect & Railway Contracts. Manji Daya Vegad of Anjar and Lakhu Devji Vegad of Anjar during 1887-1912 built Pamban Bridge & lines from Rameshwaram. Narshi Bechar Khodiyar son of Bechar Hardas of town was given title of Rai Sahib by British for Railway Engineering in 1920.[12]

Jagmal Pitambar Rathod of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya of Anjar was Gaidher of Kutch Raaj in 1750. His son Gajdhar Jagmal Rathod & his son Ruda Gajdhar Rathod & his son Jairam Ruda Gajdhar Rathod all of Anjar were for four generations Gaidher for the Kingdom of Kutch and all constructions of Kutch Raaj the forts of Anjar, Bhuj, Mandvi, Aina Mahal, Prag Mahal, Vijay Vilas Palace, Sharad Bag Palace, Ashapura Temple, Dhrang Temple, Suralbhit Mahadev Temple, etc. have been done by Mistris of Kutch under their super-vision. The Assistant Gaidher to them were from Khedoi.[13]

Vrajlal R. Vora was an astrologer of Kachchh. He written two books on astrology. Sheth Khatau Makanji Sethia, one of the founder of Khatau Group also hailed from the city.

Education[edit]

The most famous schools in Anjar are sahyog saraswati madhyamik vidhya mandir "Swami Vivekananda Vidhyalaya", "Smt. K. G. Manek School", "Sheth D. V. High School", Sheth Khatau Mavji Sethia H.S. School. There is also a different school for girls' higher education named 'K. K. M. S. Girls' High School started by Chhagan Bapa, Welspun Vidya Mandir, Muralidhar High school, Dungrasi Gangaji Thacker vidyalay, Rabari Samaj School. St. Elizabeth's School is an English medium school, which is affiliated to Gujarat State Board and is situated in Nagalpar village. There are 20 primary schools handled by Municipal Corporation of Anjar. And Shree Sahyog Sarswati Vidyamandir. Recently Govt. Started an I.T.I. in Anjar City. Anjar Education society has started one college named Smt Hiraben Bhanukant Palan college of arts and commerce. Second college for P.G.D.H.R.M. Moreover Cdec center and M.Sc. I.T. Jamiyate ulema e hind has started college of pharmacy and P.T.C. college for girls. SRK institute of Management and Computer Science

Anjar as Taluka[edit]

The following villages belong to this taluka: Nagalpar, Nani Nagalpar, Sinugra, Pantiya, Khedoi, Lovariya, Chandiya, Chandroda, Mindiyana, khambhra, Sinugra, Devaliya, Vidi, Meghpar, Bhadroi, Varsamedi,Chandaroda,Bhalot,Lovariya, Pantiya,Dudhai, Lakhapar,Satapar,Ambapar,Tappar,Bhimasar,Modvadar,Ajapar,Bhadroi,Ratnal,Modsar,Sugaria Jaru,Khokhara,Chandarani,Vidi,naga,Bita and Vira valadia,Devaliya,Kumbhariya, Joganinar,Sanghad,RAmpar,Tuna,Sapeda,Maringana,Ningal,Kotada,Hirapar,Navagam,Amarapar,Dhamadaka, etc.Total there are 67 Villages.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Cutch, Palanpur, and Mahi Kantha. Printed at the Government Central Press. 1880. pp. 210–211. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f EB (1878).
  3. ^ a b EB (1911).
  4. ^ Another earthquake in Rann of Kutch took place on July 21, 1956 at a place called Anjar 80 miles south east of Allah Band and caused great damage to life and property.
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ he impact of the 2001 earthquake was particularly spectacular in the city of Anjar in certain well-defined areas of the city, and striking differences were observed in the damage distribution. The most damaged area was the old Anjar city (Gamtal area; see Figure 1), which was completely destroyed, while recently constructed buildings located across the street from the old city limits (mainly to the east and northeast) experienced only slight or no damage (AFPS 2001)
  7. ^ Some cities were completely destroyed, like Anjar or Bachau. The city of Bhuj, located at around 20 km from the epicenter, suffered important losses.
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ More than 5 percent of the populations of Anjar and Bhachau died
  10. ^ "Anjar Pin Code". citypincode.in. Retrieved 2014-04-08. 
  11. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Anjar
  12. ^ Nanji Bapa ni Nondh-pothi published in Gujarati in year 1999 from Vadodara.It is a diary of Railway Contracts done by KGK community noted by Nanji Govindji Tank of Hajapar/Jamshedpur, complied by Dharsibhai Jethalal Tank of Nagalpar/Tatanagar. This book was given Aank Sidhhi award by Kutch Shakti at Mumbai in year 2000. Railway Contractors from Anjar, Lakhu Devji Vegad & Manji Daya Vegad (Pamban Bridge), Moti Murji,etc and Life-sketch of Bechar Hardas Khodiyar & Narshi Bechar Khodiyar
  13. ^ Nanji Bapa ni Nondh-pothi published in Gujarati in year 1999 from Vadodara.It is a diary of Railway Contracts & architects built by KGK community noted by Nanji Govindji Tank of Hajapar/Jamshedpur, complied by Dharsibhai Jethalal Tank of Nagalpar/Tatanagar. This book was given Aank Sidhhi award by Kutch Shakti at Mumbai in year 2000.Pages:3-5 On Gaidhers of Anjar :Pitambar Sava, Jagmal Pitambar, Gajdhar Jagmal, Ruda Gajdhar & Jairam Ruda Gajdhar (Rathor) became Gaidher during reign of Rao Pragmalji & continued till reign of Maharao Shri Khengarji Bawa...

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]