A CRRC subway train on the M2 line of the Ankara Metro
|Native name||Ankara Metrosu|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||5|
|Number of stations||56|
|Daily ridership||289,155 (average, 2014)|
|Annual ridership||Ankaray : 37.1 million (2014)|
Metro : 67.0 million (2014)
Total: 104.1 million (2013)
|Began operation||1996 / 1997|
|Operator(s)||Electricity, Gas, Bus General Directorate (EGO)|
|Number of vehicles||432 (108 Bombardier, 324 CSR) |
|System length||64.36 km (39.99 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Electrification||750 V DC Third rail|
The Ankara Metro (Turkish: Ankara Metrosu) is the rapid transit system serving Ankara, the capital of Turkey. At present, Ankara's rapid transit system consists of two metro lines – the Batıkent Metrosu (M1)and the new Keçiören Metrosu (M4) line opened in 2017, along with the light rail Ankaray line. The Ankaray, the M1 and M4 lines, together transported 104.1 million passengers in 2014. That corresponds to a ridership of approximately 289,155 per day. In February 2019 all the lines that used to run M1, M2 and M3 were merged to create one line, M1.
The Kızılay to Atatürk Cultural Center link of M4 is not yet opened and remains under construction. Also, an additional line (approx. 25 km long) between Kuyubaşı and Esenboğa International Airport is in the planning stages and would make up the next phase of expansion of the metro.
The Ankaray (from Turkish: Ankara ray, meaning Ankara rail), a light rail system (Turkish: Hafif Raylı, which literally translates as "Light Rail", though the line does operate as more of a "light metro" line) was the first phase of the modern rapid transit network of the city. The Ankaray was constructed by a consortium headed by Siemens over a period of four years (1992–96). It opened on 20 August 1996. The line runs between AŞTİ (Turkish: Ankara Şehirlerarası Terminal İşletmesi – Ankara Intercity Bus Terminal) and Dikimevi, covering a distance of 8.53 kilometres (5.30 mi), of which 6.68 kilometres (4.15 mi) is through tunnels. The line has 11 stations.
The Ankara Metro has been operating since 29 December 1997, with the opening of its first full metro line, M1, traveling between Kızılay, the city center, and Batıkent. The M2 line, operating from Kızılay, the city center, to Koru, opened 12 February 2014. The M3 line, which serves almost as an extension of the M1 line, operating from Batıkent to Törekent, opened a month later on 13 March 2014. For the first few years of operations on lines M2 and M3, both of them ran separately from the M1 line; since early 2019, the three lines are operated as one continuous service (M1) between Törekent and Koru.
The M4 line, operating from Atatürk Cultural Center to Gazino, opened on 5 January 2017.
The following table lists the five metro lines (including the Ankaray line) currently in service on the Ankara Metro:
|Ankaray||Dikimevi ↔ AŞTİ||1996||8.53 km (5.30 mi)||11|
|M1||Kızılay ↔ Batıkent||1997||14.66 km (9.11 mi)||12|
|Kızılay ↔ Koru||2014 (as M2)||16.59 km (10.31 mi)||12|
|Batıkent ↔ Törekent||2014 (as M3)||15.36 km (9.54 mi)||12|
|M4||Atatürk Cultural Center ↔ Gazino||2017||9.22 km (5.73 mi)||9|
|TOTAL:||64.36 km (39.99 mi)||56|
- Kurtuluş (transfer to: Başkentray (suburban rail))
- Kızılay (transfer to: M1, M2)
- Söğütözü (under construction - to open late 2018) (transfer to: M2)
Batıkent Metrosu (M1)
- Kızılay (transfer to: M2, Ankaray)
- Sıhhiye (transfer to: Başkentray (suburban rail))
- Atatürk Kültür Merkezi
- Yenimahalle (transfer to: Yenimahalle–Şentepe cable car line)
- Batıkent (transfer to: M3)
Koru Metrosu (M2)
- Kızılay (transfer to: M1, Ankaray)
- Milli Kütüphane
- Söğütözü (transfer to: Ankaray)
- Maden Teknik ve Arama
- Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi
- Tarım Bakanlığı/Danıştay
Törekent Metrosu (M3)
- Batıkent (transfer to: M1)
- Bati Merkez
- Istanbul Yolu
- Eryaman 1-2
- Eryaman 5
- Devlet Mah.
- Harikalar Diyari
Keçiören Metrosu (M4)
- Kızılay (under construction) (transfer to: M1, M2, Ankaray)
- Adliye (under construction )
- TCDD Hızlı Tren Garı (under construction)
- Atatürk Kültür Merkezi
- Gazino (Şehitler)
The track width on both subway lines is 1435 mm (normal gauge).
Vehicles of the Canadian type Hawker H6 run on the M1. The trains in Ankara are a modification of the almost identical H6 trains that were used on the Toronto subway. The vehicles were manufactured by Bombardier until the early 1990s. The structure is made of riveted aluminum[circular reference] and has a gray color. There is an orange stripe around the windows. There are four entrances on each side of each car. In the three-car units, the first and third cars are railcars, the middle car has no separate drive.
The underground trains used on the Ankaray line were built by the Italian wagon manufacturer AnsaldoBreda in Naples in cooperation with Siemens. Only one of the three-car units has an engine (railcar), the other two cars are not driven (sidecar). The cars are white with orange applications around the windows.
The trains for the new subway lines under construction are being built by CRRC in China.
Ankaray vehicles on the Ankaray line are Siemens-Adtranz-Ansaldobreda, S.P.A. (AnsaldoBreda) M1, M2, and M3 trains, which have a top speed of 80 km/h (50 mph) (operational speed: 38 km/h (24 mph)), and are equipped with regenerative braking.
The system is served by 11 trainsets. Each trainset comprises 3 sets of 2 cars paired together. Each pair of cars is 29-metre (95 ft) long, with 60 seats, and can transport a maximum of 308 passengers; thus each trainset is approximately 90-metre (300 ft) long and can transport 925 passengers per train. The current passenger volume capacity on the Ankaray line is 27,000 passengers per hour per direction (PPHPD).
The original vehicles used on the M1 line are Bombardier Transportation-built modified versions of the sixth-generation H-series trains used on the Toronto subway. The Toronto trains on which they were based on were built in 1986 by the Urban Transportation Development Corporation (UTDC), a company later purchased by Bombardier. There are a total of 108 of these cars, which are usually configured as 18 six-car trainsets. The car's seats are made of rigid plastic, and are all arranged longitudinally. There are no forward- or rear-facing seats, and no seats at the front or rear of each car.
Construction of the following metro lines are under construction or planned:
|Ankaray||AŞTİ ↔ Söğütözü||0.78 km (0.48 mi)||1||Under Construction|
|M4||Atatürk Cultural Center ↔ Kızılay||3.3 km (2.1 mi)||3||Under Construction|
|M5||Kuyubaşı ↔ Esenboğa International Airport||25 km (16 mi)||7||Planned|
|TOTAL:||29.08 km (18.07 mi)||11|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ankara Metro.|
- "RAYLI SİSTEM İŞLETMELERİ 2014 YILI TOPLAM YOLCU SAYILARI" [PASSENGER RAIL SYSTEM TOTAL NUMBER OF OPERATIONS FOR THE YEAR 2014] (PDF) (in Turkish). EGO General Directorate. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-03-13 – via http://www.ego.gov.tr/tr/sayfa/61/istatistikler.
- Barrow, Keith. "Ankara opens metro Line M4". Retrieved 2017-01-05.
- "Ankaray" (in Turkish). Ankaray LRT. Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
- "TEKNİK ÖZELLİKLER" [TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS] (in Turkish). Ankaray LRT. Archived from the original on 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-03-13.
- "Aktarmasız metro seferleri başladı" [Full metro services started]. Hürriyet. 16 February 2019. Archived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
- "Ankara Raylı ve Kablolu Sistemler" [Ankara Raylı ve Kablolu Sistemler]. ego.gov.tr (in Turkish). EGO Genel Müdürlüğü. Retrieved 2017-12-31.
- H series (Toronto subway)
- Barrow, Keith. "Ankara opens metro Line M4". Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- Ankara metro construction resumes soon in:  February 2012