The Anmatyerre are said to speak a version of Upper Arrernte.
In 1974 the traditional lands of the Anmatyerre people in N.B. Tindale's Aboriginal Tribes of Australia were described as covering an area of 11,200 square miles (29,000 km2). he specifies its central features as encompassing the Forster Range, Mount Leichhardt(Arnka), Conistan, Stuart Bluff Range to the east of West Bluff; the Hann and Reynolds Ranges (Arwerlt Atwaty); the Burt Plain north of Rembrandt Rocks and Connor Well. Their eastern frontier went as far as Woodgreen. To the northeast, their borders lay around central Mount Stuart (Amakweng) and Harper Springs.
Anmatyerre communities located within the region include Nturiya (Old Ti Tree Station), rural township of Ti Tree Pmara Jutunta (6 Mile), Willowra, Laramba (Napperby Station) and Alyuen. What is today known as the Anmatyerre region has significant overlap with Warlpiri, Arrernte and Alyawarr language communities. Many people come from two or three different language groups. The Utopia community, 250km north east of Alice Springs, and set up in 1927, is partly on Alyawarre land, partly on land of the Anmatyerre.
As a specialist in Arandic culture and language T. G. H Strehlow also worked with Anmatyerr people throughout his career, recording much of their ceremonial traditions.
- Unmatjera (mainly an Aranda exonym)
- Janmadjara/Janmadjari (Warlpiri exonym)
- Janmatjiri. (Pintupi exonym)
- Yanmedjara, Yanmadjari.
- Kathleen Petyarre is an Alyawarre / Eastern Anmatyerre artist
- Gwoya Jungarai, aka One Pound Jimmy, was the first named Aboriginal person to appear on an Australian stamp, in 1950.
- Emily Kngwarreye was an Anmatyerr artist that lived at Utopia community.
- Kathleen Petyarre and Gloria Petyarre, Emily Kngwarreye's nieces, are two of the most famous living Australian Aboriginal artists.
- Gwoya Jungarai's stepsons, Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri and Tim Leura Tjapaltjarri were Anmatyerr artists credited as leaders of the Contemporary Indigenous Australian art movement.
- Minnie Pwerle was an artist from Alyawarre and Anmatyerre language groups.
- Meggitt, M. J. (September 1955). Notes on the Malngjin and Gurindgi aborigines of Limbunya, Northern Territory. Volume 5. Sydney: Mankind. pp. 45–50.
- Meggitt, M. J. (August 1961). The Bindibu and Others. Volume 61. Man. p. 143. JSTOR 2796739.
- Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred (1911). Marriage and descent in North Australia. 13-14. Sydney: Science of Man. pp. 63–64, 81–82.
- Spencer, Sir Baldwin; Gillen, Francis J. (1904). Northern Tribes of Central Australia (PDF). Macmillan Publishers.
- Strehlow, T. G. H. (1947). Aranda traditions. Melbourne University Press.
- Strehlow, T. G. H. (1965). "Culture, social structure, and environment". In Berndt, R. M.; Berndt, C. H. Aboriginal Man in Australia. Angus & Robertson. pp. 121–145.
- Tindale, Norman Barnett (1974). "Anmatjera (NT)". Aboriginal Tribes of Australia: Their Terrain, Environmental Controls, Distribution, Limits, and Proper Names. Australian National University Press. ISBN 978-0-708-10741-6.