Ann Yearsley, 1787
|Born||8 July 1753|
|Died||6 May 1806 (aged 52)|
|Resting place||Clifton, Bristol|
Ann Yearsley, née Cromartie (8 July 1753 – 6 May 1806), was an English poet and writer from a lowly social background. The poet Robert Southey wrote a biography of her.
Born in Bristol to John and Anne Cromartie, Ann worked in childhood as a milkwoman, just like her mother. She received no formal education, learning how to write from her brother. Ann married John Yearsley, a yeoman, in 1774. A decade later the family were rescued from destitution by the charity of Hannah More and others. She was among the noted Bristol women to campaign against the Bristol slave trade. Yearsley's politics have been described as conservative.
Hannah More called her first encounter with Yearsley positive, saying her writing "excited [her] attention" because it "breathed the genuine spirit of poetry, and [was] rendered still more interesting by a certain natural and strong expression of misery that seemed to fill the head and mind of the author". More organized subscriptions for Yearsley to publish Poems, on Several Occasions (1785), but its success led to a quarrel between them over access to the trust in which its profits were held. Yearsley included her account of the quarrel in an "Autobiographical narrative" appended to a fourth, 1786 edition of the poems.
Now supported by Frederick Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol, Yearsley published Poems, on Various Subjects in 1787. A Poem on the Inhumanity of the Slave-Trade appeared in 1788. The latter was seen by many critics to rival a similar poem by her ex-patron Hannah More, entitled "Slavery: A Poem".
Yearsley then turned to drama, with Earl Goodwin: an Historical Play (performed in 1789; printed in 1791) and to fiction, with The Royal Captives: a Fragment of Secret History, Copied from an Old Manuscript (1795). Her final poetry collection, The Rural Lyre, appeared in 1796.
Robert Southey wrote a biography of Ann Yearsley in 1831, calling it an "introductory essay on the lives and works of our uneducated poets". It describes the first encounter that Hannah More had with Ann Yearsley and her general impressions of her capacity as a writer and poet.
As Southey notes, Yearsley based her style, grammar and spelling on the limited amounts of literature she had read, which included some Shakespeare plays, Paradise Lost, and Night-Thoughts. More describes Yearsley as not even having seen a dictionary or knowing anything of grammatical rules, and being bound to "ignorant and vulgar" syntax, yet using language full of metaphor, imagery and personification. More described herself as striving to save Yearsley from the vanity of fame, and was more concerned about providing food for her than making her known. Their eventual disagreement over money left the two estranged. According to Rose, More was repeatedly startled when the milkmaid drew on classical sources for a work. Plebeian poets were confined to the ghetto of folk poetry in this time of strong class prejudice.
Southey described Yearsley as a writer "gifted with voice," yet she "had no strain of her own whereby to be remembered." He also stated that for a time before her death she was reported to be deranged, though there is no other corroboration of this.
- Poems, on Several Occasions (1st edition, with a preface by Hannah More, 1785) (Etexts)
- Poems, on Several Occasions (4th edition, with a new preface by Yearsley, 1786)
- Poems, on Various Subjects (1787)
- A Poem on the Inhumanity of the Slave Trade (1788) (Etext)
- Stanzas of Woe (1790)
- Earl Godwin: An Historical Play (performed 1789; printed 1791)
- The Royal Captives: a Fragment of Secret History, Copied from an Old Manuscript (4 vols., 1795)
- The Rural Lyre: a Volume of Poems (1796)
- "PortCities Bristol". discoveringbristol.org.uk. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
- Leporati, Matthew (Summer 2018). "Ann Yearsley's 'Brutus' and the Evangelical Epic Poem". Studies in Romanticism. 57 (2): 265–300. doi:10.1353/srm.2018.0012.
- "Ann Yearsley (1752–1806)".
- Rose, Jonathan (2001). The Intellectual Life of the British Working Classes. London: Yale University Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-300-08886-8.
- Waldron, Mary (1996). Lactilla, Milkwoman of Clifton: The Life and Writings of Ann Yearsley. London: University of Georgia Press. pp. 37–46.
- "Ann Yearsley". Virginia Tech.
- Kerri Andrews (2013) Ann Yearsley and Hannah More, patronage and poetry : the story of a literary relationship. London: Pickering & Chatto. ISBN 9781848931527. OCLC 859159190
- Mary Waldron (1996), Lactilla, milkwoman of Clifton: the life and writings of Ann Yearsley, 1753–1806
- Ann Yearsley (2014), The Collected Works of Ann Yearsley. ed. Kerri Andrews. London: Pickering and Chatto. ISBN 9781851966387. OCLC 863174134
- Ann Yearsley at the Eighteenth-Century Poetry Archive (ECPA)
- Mary Waldron, 'Yearsley, Ann (bap. 1753, d. 1806)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 12 November 2006 The first edition of this text is available at Wikisource: . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
- Brycchan Carey, British Abolitionists – Ann Yearsley: biography and bibliography
- Works by or about Ann Yearsley in libraries (WorldCat catalog)