Born in Yerevan, her family settled in Belaya Kalitva, Russia at the end of Soviet Union. She had previously announced that she will retire after the 2013 World Championships in Moscow, after 14 years at the top, but has since continued to jump. After her second world silver in 2009, Chicherova already announced her retirement, but after giving birth in 2010, she made her come back in 2011.
In 1999, she won her first major title when she was only 16, with the world youth championships in Bydgoszcz. Chicherova was among the world leading high jumpers for several years until she missed the 2010 season due to pregnancy. After returning in 2011 she established herself as the world leading female high jumper displacing Blanka Vlašić. Her personal best jump and the Russian national record is 2.07 metres, achieved on her 29th birthday at the Russian track and field championships of 2011. Her best indoors was achieved at the Hochsprung mit Musik meeting 2012 in Arnstadt with 2.06 m. She thereby improved her Russian indoor national record by two centimeters. Chicherova is among the top ten high jumpers of all time both indoor and outdoor.
Chicherova is currently in the Russian Army Athletics Club based in Moscow, where she is coached by Yevgeni Zagorulko. She is married to Gennadiy Chernovol. She was absent for the 2010 season due to pregnancy and had her first child, Nika, in September that year.
With her victories in Daegu and London, Chicherova became only the third female high jumper in history (after Stefka Kostadinova & Heike Henkel) to win at both the Olympic Games and the World Championships.