Anna of Russia

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Anna
Louis Caravaque, Portrait of Empress Anna Ioannovna (1730).jpg
Portrait by Louis Caravaque
Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias
Reign 30 January 1730 – 28 October 1740
Coronation 28 April 1730
Predecessor Peter II
Successor Ivan VI
Born (1693-02-07)7 February 1693
Moscow
Died 28 October 1740(1740-10-28) (aged 47)
Saint Petersburg
Burial Peter and Paul Cathedral
Spouse Frederick William, Duke of Courland
Full name
Anna Ivanovna Romanova
House House of Romanov
Father Ivan V of Russia
Mother Praskovia Saltykova
Religion Russian Orthodoxy

Anna Ioannovna (Russian: Анна Иоанновна; 7 February [O.S. 28 January] 1693 – 28 October [O.S. 17 October] 1740), also spelled Anna Ivanovna[1] and sometimes anglicized as Anne,[2] was regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and then ruled as empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.

Early life[edit]

Anna was born in Moscow as the daughter of Tsar Ivan V by his wife Praskovia Saltykova. Although Anna's father was himself Tsar of Russia and co-ruler with his brother Peter I, he was mentally disabled and incapable of administering the country. Therefore, his younger brother and co-ruler was effectively the autocrat of all the Russias. Anna's father Ivan V died in February 1696, when Anna was only three years old, and her uncle became the sole ruler of Russia.

Although Anna was the fourth child of her parents, she had only one surviving elder sister, Catherine, and one younger sister, Praskovya. The three girls were raised in a disciplined and austere manner by their widowed mother, a very stern lady of sterling character. Born into a family of relatively modest means, Praskovia Saltykova had been an exemplary wife to a mentally challenged man, and expected her daughters to live up to her own high standards of morality and virtue.[3] Anna grew up within a milieu which cherished womanly virtue and domesticity above all else, and strongly emphasized thrift, charity and religious observances.[4] Her education consisted of French, German, religious texts and folklore, leavened with some music and dancing.[5] As she grew older, she developed into an obstinate girl, with a mean streak, earning her the nickname "Iv-anna the Terrible".[citation needed] Anna was famed for her big cheek, "which, as shown in her portraits," says Thomas Carlyle, "was comparable to a Westphalian ham".

In time, her uncle Peter the great ordered the family to move from Moscow to St. Petersburg. This meant a change of not just location but also society, and this had a significant effect on Anna. She greatly enjoyed the splendor of court and the lavishness of high society, which was very different from the austerity preferred by her mother.[6]

Wedding and widowhood[edit]

In 1710, Peter the Great arranged for the 17-year-old Anna to marry Frederick William, Duke of Courland, who was the same age as her[7] Her wedding was held on a grand scale, as per her own inclinations, and her uncle gave her a fabulous dowry of 200,000 roubles.[8] At the feast which followed the wedding, two dwarfs performed a parody by jumping out of enormous pies and dancing on the tables.[9]

The newly wedded couple spent several weeks in Russia before proceeding to Courland. Only twenty miles out of St. Petersburg, on the road to Courland, Duke Frederick died. The cause of death was uncertain - it has been attributed variously to a chill or to the effects of alcohol.[10]

After her husband died, Anna proceeded to Jelgava, the capital of Courland (now western Latvia) and ruled that province for almost twenty years, from 1711 to 1730. During this period, the Russian resident, Peter Bestuzhev, was her adviser (and sometimes lover). She never remarried after the death of her husband, but her enemies said she conducted a love affair with Ernst Johann von Biron, a prominent courtier, for many years.

Accession[edit]

Imperial Monogram

In 1730, Tsar Peter II (grandson of Peter the Great) died childless at a young age. His death made extinct the main line of the Romanov dynasty, which had ruled Russia for over a century, since 1613. Possible candidates for the throne were the three surviving daughters of Ivan V, namely Catherine (b.1691), Anna (b.1693) and Praskovya (b.1694), and the two surviving daughters of Peter the Great, namely Anna (b.1708) and Elizabeth (b.1709).

Ivan V had been the older brother of Peter the Great and co-ruler with him, and by that reckoning, his daughters may be considered to have the prior right. However, if seen from the perspective that the successor should be the nearest kin of the most recent monarch, then the daughters of Peter the great were nearer to the throne, because they were the aunts of the recently deceased Tsar Peter II. The dilemma was made greater because the daughters of Peter the Great had been born out of wedlock, and had been legitimized later by him, after he formally married their mother Catherine I, who had previously been a maid in his household. On the other hand, Praskovia Saltykova, the wife of Ivan V, had been a nobleman's daughter and a devoted wife and mother; moreover, she had been a lady greatly respected for her many virtues, not least her chastity.

Coinage of Anna of Russia
Empress Anna abrogates the "Conditions"

Finally, the Russian Supreme Privy Council led by Prince Dmitri Golitzyn selected Anna, the second daughter of Ivan V, to be the new Empress of Russia. She was selected in preference to her elder sister Catherine even though Catherine was at that time resident in Russia whereas Anna was not. There were some reasons for this: Anna was a childless widow and there was no immediate danger of an unknown foreigner wielding power in Russia; she also had some experience of government, because she had been administering her late husband's duchy of Courland for almost two decades. Catherine, on the other hand, was married to the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; she was now separated from him and living in Russia, but this was in itself disgraceful; and whether her husband was present or absent, his existence could raise problems at her very coronation. His intervention at some later point could hardly be prevented, especially since Catherine had a daughter by him; and being a ruling prince of ancient lineage, he would not be as amenable to the council's advice as a Russian princess. Also, the fact that Catherine had a daughter already would provide a certainty of succession which the nobles perhaps preferred not to have.

The Supreme Privy Council preferred the childless and widowed Duchess of Courland. They hoped that she would feel indebted to the nobles and remain a figurehead at best, and malleable at worst. To make sure of that, the Council convinced Anna to sign a declaration of "Conditions" to her accession, modeled after a Swedish precedent, which stated that Anna was to govern according to their counsel and was not permitted to start war, call for peace, create new taxes or spend the revenue generated by the state without their consent.[1] She could not punish nobility without trial, could not make grants of estates or villages, could not appoint high officials, and could not promote anyone, whether foreigners or Russians, to court offices without the consent of the Council.[11]

Anna signed the document of "Conditions" on 18 January 1730 at her capital, Jelgava in Courland (then known as Mitau), and proceeded to the Russian capital. On 20 February 1730, shortly after her arrival, Empress Anna exercised her prerogative to do away with her predecessor's Privy Council and dissolved that body. The Supreme Privy Council which had stipulated those onerous "Conditions" had been composed largely of the families of the princes Dolgorouki and Galitzin. Within a matter of days, another faction rose at court which was opposed to the domination of these two families. On 7 March 1730, a group of people belonging to this faction (numbering between 150 and 800 people, depending on source) arrived at the palace and petitioning the empress to repudiate the "Conditions" and assume the autocracy of her predecessors.[1] Among those who urged Anna to do so was her elder sister Catherine. Anna duly repudiated the document of Conditions, and for good measure sent some of the framers of the document to the scaffold, and many others to Siberia.[1] She then assumed autocratic powers and ruled as an absolute monarch, in the same fashion as her predecessors.

Policies[edit]

Cabinet Ministers of Empress Anna Ivanovna, painting by Valery Jacobi.[n 1]
Court jesters of Empress Anna Ioanovna. Painting by Valery Jacobi.

Anna continued lavish architectural advances in St. Petersburg.[12] She completed a waterway that began construction under Peter the Great and called for seafaring ships to accompany this new canal and continue naval expansion.[13]

Cadet Corps[edit]

Anna founded the Cadet Corps in 1731, one year after coming to the throne. The Cadet Corps was a group of young boys starting at the age of eight being trained for the military. There was a very rigorous training program and this also included all the schooling that was necessary for someone to be in an important position in the military. As time went on though, the program was later improved by other emperors and empresses, such as Catherine the Great. They began to include the arts and sciences into their schooling, rather than just the knowledge that is considered necessary for only a career in the military.

Academy of Science[edit]

Started by Peter the Great, Anna continued to fund the Russian Academy of Science.[14] The point of this school was to further the sciences in Russia and to help bring the country that was so far behind up to where the Western Countries were. Some of the sciences that were taught were mathematics, astronomy, and botany. The Academy of Science was also responsible for a lot of the expeditions, specifically to the Bering Sea.[15] The Bering Sea Expedition is one of the more famous ones that was done by the Academy of Science. While they were trying to find out if America and Asia had been at one point connected, they also studied Siberia and its people, these studies were used long after they returned from Siberia.[16] But there were also some troubles for the scientists. Oftentimes, the government and the church would meddle in their funding and their experiments, changing the data to how they wanted to see it.[17] This school of science was very small, never exceeding a population of twelve students in the university and barely over a hundred in the secondary school. But still it was a huge step forward for education in Russia. Many of the teachers and professors were imported from Germany bringing more of a Western feeling to what the students were learning about. Some of the students to learn from these German professors later became advisors or teachers to some of the future leaders, such as Catherine the Great’s tutor, Adodurov.[18] During Anna’s reign, the Academy of Science began to include the Arts into their program. For not only was there not a school for the arts yet, but Anna was a firm supporter of the arts. Theater, architecture, engraving, and journalism were all added to the curriculum.[19] During this time, the foundations of what is now the world-famous Russian Ballet was laid down as well.[20]

The Secret Office of Investigation[edit]

There have been many rumors since the time of Anna’s reign that Biron had a large impact on this office, but truly it was run by the senator A. I. Ushakov. This office was resurrected during Anna’s reign to punish those for political crimes mostly, but sometimes they would take cases that were not as political.[21] The punishments that came from the crimes that were committed, were often very painful and disgusting. For example, some people that had supposedly been plotting against the government had their noses slit as well as being beaten with the knout.[22] Russian authorities listed a total of around 20,000 Russians—including some of the highest native nobility—fell victim to Biron and Anna's police.[1]

Nobility[edit]

Anna gave many privileges to those that were considered the nobility. In 1730, she made sure that the law of Peter the Great that outlawed states from being subdivided, the primogeniture law, was repealed. Starting in 1731, landlords were responsible for their serfs' taxes, and their economic bondage was tightened again. In 1736, when the age of service changed to 20 with a 25-year service time, Anna and her government also determined that if the family had more than one son, one could stay behind so that he could work the estate.[23]

Westernization[edit]

Westernization continued after Peter the Great’s reign in areas of prominent Western culture such as the Academy of Science, cadet corps education, and imperial culture including theater and opera.[24] Although not at the fast-paced speed of Westernization under her Uncle Peter’s reign, it is evident that a culture of the expansion of knowledge continued during Anna’s rule and affected mostly nobility. It is argued that this success in Westernization is due to the efforts of the German court nobility; the foreigners’ impacts are viewed both positively and negatively.[25]

Anna’s reign is different from that of other imperial Russian rulers in one respect: her court was almost entirely made up of foreigners, the majority of whom were German. Some observers have argued that historians isolate her rule from Russian history due to their long-term prejudice towards Germans, towards whom Anna seems to have had a soft corner.[26]

There is a lot of mention of Germans throughout the reign of Anna. For example, she often gave them ruling positions in her cabinet and other important decision making positions. This was because she had very little trust in the Russians. It was because of this strong German influence in government that many Russians came to resent them.[27]

Foreign affairs[edit]

During Anna’s reign, Russia became involved in two major conflicts, the War of the Polish Succession and the Turkish wars.[2] In the former, Russia worked with Austria to support Augustus II's son Augustus against the candidacy of Stanisław Leszczyński, who was dependent on the French and amiable with Sweden and Turkey.[2] Russia's involvement with the conflict was quickly over, however, and the 1736–39 Crimean War was much more important.[2]

In 1732, Nader Shah had forced Russia to return the lands in northern mainland Persia that had been taken during Peter the Great's Russo-Persian War; this Treaty of Resht furthermore permitted an alliance against the Ottoman Empire,[28] the common enemy, and, in any case, the provinces of Shirvan, Ghilan, and Mazanderan had been a net drain on the imperial treasury for the entirety of their occupation.[1] Three years later in 1735, conforming to the Treaty of Ganja, the remainder of the territories taken more than a decade earlier from Persia in the North Caucasus and South Caucasus were returned as well.

The war against the Turks took four and a half years, a hundred thousand men, and millions of rubles;[2] its burdens caused great stress on the people of Russia;[29] and it only gained Russia the city of Azov and its environs.[2] Its effects, however, were greater than they first appeared. Osterman's policy of southern expansion prevailed over the 1711 Peace of Pruth signed by Peter the Great;[30] Münnich had given Russia its first campaign against Turkey that had not ended in crushing disaster and dissipated the illusion of Ottoman invincibility;[2] he had further shown that Russia's grenadiers and hussars could defeat twice their number of janissaries and spahis.[2] The Tatar hordes of the Crimea had been exterminated and Russia's signal and unexpected successes greatly increased its prestige within Europe.[2][n 2]

The Russians also established a protectorate over the khan of the Kirghiz, sending officers to assist his short-lived conquest of Khiva.[1]

A Chinese embassy to her court at St Petersburg was the only one ever dispatched to Europe through the late 19th century.[1]

Relationship with Biron[edit]

Ernest Johann Biron

After being widowed weeks after her wedding, Anna never remarried; as empress of Russia she enjoyed the power she held over all men, and may have thought that marriage would undermine her power and position. Nevertheless, Anna’s reign is often referred to as “The Age of Biron” (Bironovschina), after her German lover Ernst Johann Biron.[31] Historians aver that Biron not only had a strong influence on Anna’s domestic and foreign policies, but also that at times, he wielded power solely, without reference to the Empress. Anna was attracted to Biron’s personal charm and he proved to be a good companion to her, but his name became synonymous with cruelty and terror. In public perception, these negative qualities became the hallmark of Anna’s reign.[32]

Death and succession[edit]

As her health declined, Anna declared her grandnephew, Ivan VI, should succeed her, and appointed Biron as regent. This was an attempt to secure the line of her father, Ivan V, and exclude the descendants of Peter the Great from inheriting the throne.[2] It was recorded that she had an ulcer on her kidneys.[33] She continued having attacks of gout, and as her condition worsened, her health began to fail.

Anna died on October 17, 1740, from a terrible kidney stone that made for a slow and painful death.[34] The tsaritsa’s final words focused on Biron.[35] She died at the age of 47 of kidney disease. Ivan VI was only a two-month-old baby at the time, and his mother, Anna Leopoldovna, was detested for her German counsellors and relations. As a consequence, shortly after Anna's death Elizabeth Petrovna, Peter I's legitimized daughter managed to gain the favor of the populace, locked Ivan VI in a dungeon, and exiled his mother. Anna was buried three months later on January 15, 1741, leaving behind uncertainty for the future of Russia.[36]

Legacy[edit]

Anna Ioanovna. Sculpture by George S. Stuart

In the West, Anna's reign was traditionally looked on as a continuation of the transition from the old Muscovy ways to the European court envisioned by Peter the Great.[1] Her government, on the whole, was prudent, beneficial and even glorious; but it was undoubtedly severe and became at last universally unpopular.[2] Within Russia, Anna's reign is often referred to as a “dark era”.[citation needed] The issue with Anna’s reign derives from her personality flaws. Even considering the need of Russian rulers to avoid displays of weakness, Anna's rule involved questionable acts towards her subjects. She was known to enjoy hunting animals from the palace windows and on more than a few occasions humiliated individuals with disabilities.[citation needed] There were continued issues with serfdom, peasant and low class slavery, taxation, dishonesty, and rule through constant fear.[37] Her empire was described by Lefort, the Saxon minister, as being “comparable to a storm-threatened ship, manned by a pilot and crew who are all drunk or asleep. . . with no considerable future.”[38] Anna’s war with Turkey, economic issues, and conspiracy revolving around her accession all bring to light an ominous glow of the empress’s reign.[39] She restored the courts in St. Petersburg and brought Russia’s political atmosphere back to where Peter the Great had intended progress;[40] the grandeur was almost unmatched in Europe or Asia;[41] but such lavish court life was overshadowed by the thousands of men slaughtered in war. It is undeniable she had a vast impact in science and culture, but it came with a price. The positive aspects of Anna’s reign are typically ignored, though it is important to note that she had no more influence on domestic and foreign relations and policies than any other 18th-century ruler.[citation needed]

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In Jacobi's ironic and critical historical pastiche, the thoroughly Frenchified ministers, their weaknesses symbolized by crutches and a rolling invalid's chair, are dominated by the absent presence of the Empress, through her empty seat at table and her shadowed portrait looming on the wall; at right a courtier behind the screen eavesdrops on the proceedings.
  2. ^ The English minister Claudius Rondeau noted soon after that “This court begins to have a great deal to say in the affairs of Europe”.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i EB (1878).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l EB (1911).
  3. ^ Philip Longworth. The Three Empresses: Catherine I, Anna and Elizabeth of Russia. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972. 79.
  4. ^ Longworth, 80, 81.
  5. ^ Longworth, 81.
  6. ^ Longworth, 81
  7. ^ Longworth, 82.
  8. ^ Longworth, 82
  9. ^ Longworth, 83.
  10. ^ Longworth, 83.
  11. ^ Mini Curtiss. A Forgotten Empress: Anna Ivanovna and Her Era. New York: Frederick Unga Publishing Co., 1974.
  12. ^ Longworth, 111.
  13. ^ Longworth, 112.
  14. ^ Alexander Lipski, "Some Aspects of Russia's Westernization during the Reign of Anna Ioannovna, 1703- 1740," American Slavic and East European Review, 18, no. 1 (1959): 2, http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/10.2307/3001041.pdf?acceptTC=true (accessed December 11, 2013).
  15. ^ Lipski, “Some Aspects of Russia,” 3.
  16. ^ Lipski, “Some Aspects of Russia,” 2.
  17. ^ Lipski, “Some Aspects of Russia,” 2.
  18. ^ Lipski, “Some Aspects of Russia,” 4.
  19. ^ Lipski, "Some Aspects of Russia," 5.
  20. ^ Alexander Lipski, "A Re-Examination of the "Dark Era" of Anna Ioanovna," American Slavic and East European Review, 15, no. 4 (1956): 488, http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/10.2307/3001306.pdf?acceptTC=true (accessed December 13, 2013).
  21. ^ Lipski, “A Re-Examination,” 481.
  22. ^ Lipski, “A Re-Examination,” 482.
  23. ^ Richard Pipes, “Under the Old Regime,” 133.
  24. ^ Lipski, Alexander. "Some Aspects of Westernization during the Reign of Anna Ioannovna, 1730-1740." American Slavic and East European Review. no. 1 (1950): 1-11.
  25. ^ Lipski.
  26. ^ Curtiss, 72.
  27. ^ Lipski, “A Re- Examination,” 488.
  28. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol. II, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 729.
  29. ^ Lipski, “A Re- Examination,” 479.
  30. ^ Lipski, “A Re- Examination,” 487.
  31. ^ Curtiss, 72.
  32. ^ Curtiss, 84.
  33. ^ Curtiss, 286.
  34. ^ Curtiss, 288.
  35. ^ Curtiss, 289.
  36. ^ Curtiss, 290-293.
  37. ^ Curtiss, 231-232.
  38. ^ Curtiss, 232.
  39. ^ Curtiss, 232-233.
  40. ^ Curtiss, 120.
  41. ^ Curtiss, 163

External links[edit]

Anna of Russia
Preceded by
Elisabeth Sophie
Duchess consort of Courland
11 November 1710 – 21 January 1711
Succeeded by
Johanna Magdalene
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Peter II
Empress of Russia
29 January 1730 – 28 October 1740
Succeeded by
Ivan VI