South Face of Annapurna I (Main)
|Elevation||8,091 m (26,545 ft) |
|Prominence||2,984 m (9,790 ft) |
|Parent peak||Cho Oyu|
|Isolation||34 km (21 mi)|
|Location||Gandaki Zone, Nepal|
|First ascent||3 June 1950|
Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal
(First winter ascent 3 February 1987 Jerzy Kukuczka and Artur Hajzer)
|Easiest route||northwest face|
Annapurna (/ - -/; Sanskrit, Nepali, Newar: अन्नपूर्ण) is a massif in the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes one peak over 8,000 metres (26,000 ft), thirteen peaks over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft), and sixteen more over 6,000 metres (20,000 ft). The massif is 55 kilometres (34 mi) long, and is bounded by the Kali Gandaki Gorge on the west, the Marshyangdi River on the north and east, and by Pokhara Valley on the south. At the western end, the massif encloses a high basin called the Annapurna Sanctuary. The highest peak of the massif, Annapurna I Main, is the tenth highest mountain in the world at 8,091 metres (26,545 ft) above sea level. Maurice Herzog led a French expedition to its summit through the north face in 1950, making it the first of the eight-thousanders to be climbed and the only 8,000 meter-peak to be conquered on the first try.
The entire massif and surrounding area are protected within the 7,629-square-kilometre (2,946 sq mi) Annapurna Conservation Area, the first and largest conservation area in Nepal. The Annapurna Conservation Area is home to several world-class treks, including Annapurna Sanctuary and Annapurna Circuit.
Historically, the Annapurna peaks have been among the world's most treacherous mountains to climb with the particular case of the extremely steep south face of Annapurna I Main - a wall of rock that rises 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) - making it one of the most difficult climbs in the world. By March 2012, there had been 191 summit ascents of Annapurna I Main, and 61 climbing fatalities on the mountain. This fatality-to-summit ratio (1:3.1, or 32%) is the highest of any of the eight-thousanders.
In October 2014, at least 43 people were killed as a result of snowstorms and avalanches on and around Annapurna, thus resulting in Nepal's worst ever trekking disaster. The most recent report of human casualty has been that of January 17, 2020, due to an avalanche triggered by heavy snowfall.
The mountain is named after Annapurna, the Hindu goddess of food and nourishment, who is said to reside there. The name Annapurna is derived from the Sanskrit-language words purna ("filled") and anna ("food"), and can be translated as "everlasting food". Many streams descending from the slopes of the Annapurna Massif provide water for the agricultural fields and pastures located at lower elevations.
The Annapurna massif contains six prominent peaks over 7,200 m (23,620 ft) elevation:
|Annapurna I (Main)||8,091 m (26,545 ft)||10th||2,984 m|
|Annapurna II||7,937 m (26,040 ft)||16th||2,437 m|
|Annapurna III||7,555 m (24,786 ft)||42nd||703 m|
|Annapurna IV||7,525 m (24,688 ft)||47th||225 m|
|Annapurna South||7,219 m (23,684 ft)||101st||775 m|
|Gangapurna||7,455 m (24,457 ft)||59th||563 m|
Less prominent and other peaks in the Annapurna Himal include:
- Annapurna I Central 8,051 m (26,414 ft)
- Annapurna I East 8,010 m (26,280 ft)
- Annapurna Fang 7,647 m (25,089 ft)
- Khangsar Kang 7,485 m (24,557 ft)
- Tarke Kang 7,202 m (23,629 ft)
- Lachenal Peak 7,140 m (23,425 ft)
- Tilicho Peak 7,135 m (23,409 ft)
- Nilgiri Himal North 7,061 m (23,166 ft), Central 6,940 m (22,769 ft) and South 6,839 m (22,438 ft)
- Machhapuchchhre 6,993 m (22,943 ft)
- Hiunchuli 6,441 m (21,132 ft)
- Gandharba Chuli 6,248 m (20,499 ft)
Annapurna I was the first 8,000-metre (26,200 ft) peak to be climbed. Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, of the French Annapurna expedition led by Herzog (including Lionel Terray, Gaston Rébuffat, Marcel Ichac, Jean Couzy, Marcel Schatz, Jacques Oudot, Francis de Noyelle), reached the summit on 3 June 1950. Ichac made a documentary of the expedition, called Victoire sur l'Annapurna. Its summit was the highest summit attained for three years, until the first successful ascent of Mount Everest (although higher non-summit points - at least 8,500 metres (27,900 ft) - had already been attained on Everest in the 1920s).
The south face of Annapurna was first climbed in 1970 by Don Whillans and Dougal Haston also without using supplementary oxygen, members of a British expedition led by Chris Bonington that included the alpinist Ian Clough, who was killed by a falling serac during the descent. They were, however, beaten to the second ascent of Annapurna by a matter of days by a British Army expedition led by Colonel Henry Day.
In 1978, the American Women's Himalayan Expedition, a team led by Arlene Blum, became the first United States team to climb Annapurna I. The first summit team, composed of Vera Komarkova and Irene Miller, and Sherpas Mingma Tsering and Chewang Ringjing, reached the top at 3:30 pm on 15 October 1978. The second summit team, Alison Chadwick-Onyszkiewicz and Vera Watson, died during this climb.
In 1981 Polish expedition Zakopane Alpine Club set a new route on Annapurna I Central (8051 m). Maciej Berbeka and Bogusław Probulski reached the summit on 23 May 1981. The route called Zakopiańczyków Way was recognized as the best achievement of the Himalayan season in 1981.
On 8 and 9 October 2013 Swiss climber Ueli Steck soloed the Lafaille route on the main and highest part of the face; this was his third attempt on the route and has been called "one of the most impressive Himalayan climbs in history", with Steck taking 28 hours to make the trip from Base Camp to summit and back again.
Annapurna I has the greatest fatality rate of all the 14 eight-thousanders: as of March 2012, there have been 52 deaths during ascents, 191 successful ascents, and nine deaths upon descent. The ratio of 34 deaths per 100 safe returns on Annapurna I is followed by 29 for K2 and 21 for Nanga Parbat. Climbers killed on the peak include Britons Ian Clough in 1970 and Alex MacIntyre in 1982, Frenchman Pierre Béghin in 1992, Kazakh Russian Anatoli Boukreev in 1997, Spaniard Iñaki Ochoa in 2008, and Korean Park Young-seok in 2011.
Gangapurna was first climbed May 6, 1965, by a German expedition led by Günther Hauser, via the East Ridge. The summit party comprised 11 members of the expedition.
Annapurna South (also known as Annapurna Dakshin, or Moditse) was first climbed in 1964 by a Japanese expedition, via the North Ridge. The summit party comprised S. Uyeo and Mingma Tsering.
Hiunchuli (6,441 m/21,126 ft) is a satellite peak extending east from Annapurna South, Hiunchuli was first climbed in 1971 by an expedition led by U.S. Peace Corps Volunteer Craig Anderson.
Mount Machhapuchchhre (6,993 m or 22,943 ft), named after its resemblance to a fish-tail, is another important peak, though it just misses the 7,000 metre mark. Mount Machhapuchchhre and Hiunchuli are prominently visible from the valley of Pokhara. These peaks are the "gates" to the Annapurna Sanctuary leading to the south face of Annapurna I. Mount Machhapuchchhre was climbed in 1957 (except the final 50 metres for its local religious sanctity) by Wilfrid Noyce and A. D. M. Cox. Since then it has been off limits.
The Annapurna Conservation Area (7,629 km2) is a well known trekking region. There are three major trekking routes in the Annapurna region: the Jomson Trek to Jomsom and Muktinath (increasingly disturbed by a road-building project); the Annapurna Sanctuary route to Annapurna base camp; and the Annapurna Circuit, which circles the Annapurna Himal itself and includes the Jomsom route. The town of Pokhara usually serves as a starting point for these treks, and is also a good starting place for other short treks of one to four days, such as routes to Ghorepani or Ghandruk.
The Mustang district, a former kingdom bordering Tibet, is also geographically a part of the Annapurna region, but treks to upper Mustang are subject to special restrictions. Mustang is also increasingly becoming popular for mountain biking because of the construction of roads undertaken by the Nepali government in the region.
About two-thirds of all trekkers in Nepal visit the Annapurna region. The area is easily accessible, guest houses in the hills are plentiful, and treks here offer incredibly diverse scenery, with both high mountains and lowland villages. Also, because the entire area is inhabited, trekking in the region offers unique cultural exposure and experience. Trekkers are required to purchase a special permit for trekking from the Nepal Immigration Office, with the permit generally being valid for ten days.
2014 trekking disaster
In October 2014, at least 43 people were killed, and some 175 injured, as a result of snowstorms and avalanches on and around Annapurna, including trekkers from Nepal, Israel, Canada, India, Slovakia and Poland. Between 10 and 50 people were thought likely to be missing. It was believed that about 100 trekkers had left a guest house at 4,800 metres (15,700 ft), to climb to the top of Thorong La pass and then descend.
The authorities were criticized for not giving sufficient warning of the approaching bad weather. By 18 October, some 289 people were reported as having been rescued. An official from the Nepal Ministry of Tourism said on 18 October that helicopters were looking for survivors and bodies in snowy areas at up to 5,790 metres (19,000 ft), and were trying to reach 22 hikers stranded at Thorong La. The incident was said to be Nepal's worst-ever trekking disaster.
The Annapurna massif, seen from Poon Hill
Millet fields in the Annapurna region play a major part in local agriculture.
A wide panoramic view of the Annapurna peaks from north near Manang
Thorong La pass
- "Annapurna". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
- "Nepal/Sikkim/Bhutan Ultra-Prominences". peaklist.org. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
- "Annapurna". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- "Annapurna". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- H. Adams Carter (1985). "Classification of the Himalaya" (PDF). American Alpine Journal. 27 (59): 127–9. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- "The Eight-Thousanders".
- "Complete ascent — fatalities statistics of all 14 main 8000ers". 8000ers.com. 19 June 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "Stairway to heaven". The Economist. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "Nepal Annapurna: Climbing disaster toll reaches 39". BBC News. 18 October 2014.
- "Rescue operation called off to find those missing in Annapurna avalanche".
- Julie Loar (2011). Goddesses for Every Day: Exploring the Wisdom and Power of the Divine Feminine Around the World. New World Library. pp. 287–. ISBN 978-1-57731-950-4.
- Edith Rogovin Frankel (15 September 2003). Walking in the Mountains: A Woman's Guide. Derrydale Press. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-4617-0829-2.
- Herzog, 1953, p. 257.
- Blum, 1980.
- "8000m Peak". summitpost.org. Archived from the original on 19 May 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- "New Alpine Solo Route on the South Face of Annapurna". russianclimb.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- "Climbing Annapurna: Tomaz Humar". Outside. 29 January 2008. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- "Tomaz Humar klettert solo durch die Annapurna Südwand" (in German). Bergsteigen.at. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- Von: Text: adidas eyewear (26 November 2007). "Tomaz Humar glückt Erstbegehung am Annapurna im Alpinstil - Climbing.de - Alle Infos für Bergsteiger und Kletterer" (in German). Climbing.de. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "Annapurna South Face Routes", russianclimb.com, accessed 13 October 2013.
- "Ueli Steck and Annapurna: the interview after his South Face solo", planetmountain.com, accessed 14 October 2013.
- "Steck Solos Annapurna South Face", ukclimbing.com, accessed 13 October 2013.
- "Annapurna South Face Solo - 28 Hours", ukclimbing.com, accessed 13 October 2013.
- "It's over: Iñaki Ochoa lost on Annapurna". mounteverest.net. 23 May 2008. Archived from the original on 15 October 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- Woo, Jaeyeon (31 October 2011). "With Park Gone, Korea Loses Its Trailblazer". Korea Real Time (blog). The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- Hauser, Günther (1966). "The German Himalayan Expedition, 1965" (PDF). alpinejournal.org. Translated by Hugh Merrick. Alpine Journal. pp. 89–97. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
- Stacy Tasman (27 May 2011). "Nepal's shrinking Annapurna Circuit".
- "Austin Pick: Circling the Abode of Snow". Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2008.
- "How to Hike the Annapurna Circuit". 13 June 2013. Archived from the original on 26 August 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
- "Annapurna Circuit Trek". Retrieved 23 August 2016.
- "Permit fees of Nepal". Retrieved 16 May 2019.
- "Nepal trekking disaster: Britons still 'missing' after severe snow storm". The Telegraph. 19 October 2014.
- "Nepal blizzard: survivor tells of friends' deaths on Annapurna circuit". The Guardian. 16 October 2014.
- Blum, Arlene (1980). Annapurna: A Woman's Place. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books. ISBN 0-87156-236-7.
- Herzog, Maurice (1951). Annapurna: First Conquest of an 8000-meter Peak. Translated by Nea Morin; Janet Adam Smith. New York: E.P Dutton & Co.
- Herzog, Maurice (1952). Annapurna. Jonathan Cape.
- Neate, Jill. High Asia: An Illustrated History of the 7000 Metre Peaks. Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-89886-238-8.
- Ohmori, Koichiro (1998). Over the Himalaya. Cloudcap Press. ISBN 0-938567-37-3.
- Terray, Lionel (1963). Conquistadors of the Useless. Victor Gollancz Ltd. ISBN 0-89886-778-9. Chapter 7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Annapurna.|