Anne Applebaum

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Anne Applebaum
Anne Elizabeth Applebaum.jpg
Applebaum in 2013
Born
Anne Elizabeth Applebaum

(1964-07-25) July 25, 1964 (age 58)[1]
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Citizenship
  • Poland
  • United States
Education
Known forWriting on Soviet Union and its satellite countries
Spouse
(m. 1992)
Children2
Websitewww.anneapplebaum.com Edit this at Wikidata

Anne Elizabeth Applebaum[2][3] (born July 25, 1964) is a Polish-American journalist and historian. She has written extensively about the history of Communism and the development of civil society in Central and Eastern Europe.

She has worked at The Economist and The Spectator,[4] and was a member of the editorial board of The Washington Post (2002–2006).[5] Applebaum won the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction in 2004 for Gulag: A History published the previous year.[6] She is a staff writer for The Atlantic[7] and a senior fellow at The Agora Institute at Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies.[8]

Early life and education[edit]

Applebaum was born in Washington, D.C.[2] Applebaum has stated that she was brought up in a "very reformed" Jewish family.[9] Her ancestors came to America from what is now Belarus.[10] She graduated from the Sidwell Friends School in 1982. Applebaum earned a Bachelor of Arts, summa cum laude, in history and literature from Yale University,[11] where she attended the Soviet history course taught by Wolfgang Leonhard in fall 1982.[12]

As a student, Applebaum spent the summer of 1985 in Leningrad, Soviet Union (now Saint Petersburg, Russia), which, she has written, helped to shape her opinions.[13] She was also elected to Phi Beta Kappa. As a Marshall Scholar at the London School of Economics, she earned a master's degree in international relations (1987).[14] She studied at St Antony's College, Oxford, before becoming a correspondent for The Economist and moving to Warsaw, Poland, in 1988.[15]

In November 1989, Applebaum drove from Warsaw to Berlin to report on the collapse of the Berlin Wall.[16]

Career[edit]

As foreign correspondent for The Economist and The Independent, she covered the fall of the Berlin Wall and the fall of communism. In 1991 she moved back to England to work for The Economist, and was later hired as the Foreign and later Deputy Editor of The Spectator, and later the Political Editor of the Evening Standard.[17]

In 1994, she published her first book Between East and West: Across the Borderlands of Europe, a travelogue that described the rise of nationalism across the new states of the former Soviet Union.[18] In 2001, she interviewed prime minister Tony Blair.[19] She also undertook historical research for her book Gulag: A History (2003) on the Soviet prison camp system, which won the 2004 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction.[6][20][21] It was also nominated for a National Book Award, for the Los Angeles Times book award and for the National Book Critics Circle Award.[22]

External video
video icon Booknotes interview with Applebaum on Gulag, May 25, 2003, C-SPAN
video icon Q&A interview with Applebaum on Iron Curtain, December 16, 2012, C-SPAN

She has been a member of The Washington Post editorial board.[5] She wrote about a wide range of United States policy issues, including healthcare, social security and education. She also wrote a column for The Washington Post which continued for seventeen years.[23] Applebaum was an adjunct fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank.[24]

Her second history book, Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944–56, was published in 2012 by Doubleday in the US and Allen Lane in the UK; it was nominated for a National Book Award, shortlisted for the 2013 PEN/John Kenneth Galbraith Award.[25]

From 2011 to 2016, she created and ran the Transitions Forum at the Legatum Institute, an international think tank and educational charity based in London. Among other projects, she ran a two-year program examining the relationship between democracy and growth in Brazil, India and South Africa,[26] created the Future of Syria[27] and Future of Iran projects[28] on future institutional change in those two countries, and commissioned a series of papers on corruption in Georgia,[29] Moldova[30] and Ukraine.[31]

Together with Foreign Policy magazine she created Democracy Lab, a website focusing on countries in transition to, or away from, democracy[32] and which has since become Democracy Post[33] at The Washington Post. She also ran Beyond Propaganda,[34] a program examining 21st century propaganda and disinformation. Started in 2014, the program anticipated later debates about "fake news". In 2016, she left Legatum because of its stance on Brexit following the appointment of Euroskeptic Philippa Stroud as CEO[35] and joined the London School of Economics as a Professor of Practice at the Institute for Global Affairs. At the LSE, she ran Arena, a program on disinformation and 21st century propaganda.[36] In the autumn of 2019 she moved the project to the Agora Institute at Johns Hopkins University.[8]

In October 2017, she published her third history book, Red Famine: Stalin's War on Ukraine, a history of the Holodomor. The book won the Lionel Gelber Prize[37] and the Duff Cooper Prize[38] for the second time, making her the only author to ever win the award twice.[39]

In November 2019, The Atlantic announced that Applebaum was joining the publication as a staff writer starting in January 2020.[23] She was included in the 2020 Prospect list of the top-50 thinkers for the COVID-19 era.[40]

External video
video icon Presentation by Applebaum on Twilight of Democracy, July 21, 2020, C-SPAN

In July 2020, Twilight of Democracy: The Seductive Lure of Authoritarianism was published. Partly a memoir and partly political analysis, it was a Der Spiegel[41] and New York Times bestseller.[42]

Also in July 2020, Applebaum was one of the 153 signers of the "Harper's Letter" (also known as "A Letter on Justice and Open Debate") that expressed concern that "the free exchange of information and ideas, the lifeblood of a liberal society, is daily becoming more constricted."[43]

In November 2022, Applebaum was one of 200 US citizens sanctioned by Russia for "promotion of the Russophobic campaign and support for the regime in Kyiv."[44]

Positions[edit]

Russia[edit]

Applebaum has been writing about Russia since the early 1990s. In 2000, she described the links between the then-new president of Russia, Vladimir Putin, with the former Soviet leader Yuri Andropov and the former KGB.[45] In 2008, she began speaking about "Putinism" as an anti-democratic ideology, though most at the time still considered the Russian president to be a pro-Western pragmatist.[46]

Applebaum has been a vocal critic of Western conduct regarding the Russian military intervention in Ukraine. In an article in The Washington Post on March 5, 2014, she maintained that the US and its allies should not continue to enable "the existence of a corrupt Russian regime that is destabilizing Europe", noting that the actions of President Vladimir Putin had violated "a series of international treaties".[47] On March 7, in another article on The Daily Telegraph, discussing an information war, Applebaum argued that "a robust campaign to tell the truth about Crimea is needed to counter Moscow's lies".[48] At the end of August, she asked whether Ukraine should prepare for "total war" with Russia and whether central Europeans should join them.[49]

In 2014, writing in The New York Review of Books she asked (in a review of Karen Dawisha's Putin's Kleptocracy) whether "the most important story of the past twenty years might not, in fact, have been the failure of democracy, but the rise of a new form of Russian authoritarianism".[50] She has described the "myth of Russian humiliation" and argued that NATO and EU expansion have been a "phenomenal success".[51] In July 2016, before the US election, she wrote about connections between Donald Trump and Russia[52] and wrote that Russian support for Trump was part of a wider Russian political campaign designed to destabilize the West.[53] In December 2019, she wrote in The Atlantic that "in the 21st century, we must also contend with a new phenomenon: right-wing intellectuals, now deeply critical of their own societies, who have begun paying court to right-wing dictators who dislike America."[54]

Central Europe[edit]

Applebaum has written about the history of central and eastern Europe, Poland in particular. In the conclusion to her book Iron Curtain, Applebaum argued that the reconstruction of civil society was the most important and most difficult challenge for the post-communist states of central Europe; in another essay, she argued that the modern authoritarian obsession with civil society repression dates back to Vladimir Lenin.[55] She has written essays on the Polish film-maker Andrzej Wajda,[56] on the dual Nazi–Soviet occupation of central Europe,[57] and on why it is inaccurate to define "Eastern Europe" as a single entity.[58]

Applebaum has described Poland's governing party, Law and Justice (PiS), as xenophobic and nationalist.[59]

Middle East[edit]

On October 1, 2002, Applebaum wrote an article for Slate entitled, "You Can't Assume a Nut Will Act Rationally," in which she argued that Saddam Hussein is not a rational agent in a manner comparable to Adolf Hitler and claimed Saddam had weapons of mass destruction (WMDs).[60]

During the Second Intifada, a Palestinian rebellion against Israel, Applebaum defended the Israeli bombing of Palestinian radio and TV studios.[61]

Disinformation, propaganda and fake news[edit]

In 2014, Applebaum and Peter Pomerantsev launched Beyond Propaganda, a program examining disinformation and propaganda, at the Legatum Institute.[62] Applebaum wrote that a 2014 Russian smear campaign aimed at her when she was writing heavily about the Russian annexation of Crimea. She stated that dubious material posted on the web was eventually recycled by semi-respectable American pro-Russian websites.[63] Applebaum argued in 2015 that Facebook should take responsibility for spreading false stories and help "undo the terrible damage done by Facebook and other forms of social media to democratic debate and civilized discussion all over the world".[64]

Nationalism[edit]

In March 2016, eight months before the election of President Donald Trump, Applebaum wrote a Washington Post column asking, "Is this the end of the West as we know it?", which argued that "we are two or three bad elections away from the end of NATO, the end of the European Union and maybe the end of the liberal world order".[65] Applebaum endorsed Hillary Clinton's campaign for president in July 2016 on the grounds that Trump is "a man who appears bent on destroying the alliances that preserve international peace and American power".[66]

Applebaum's March 2016 Washington Post column prompted the Swiss newspaper Tages-Anzeiger and the German magazine Der Spiegel to interview her. The articles appeared in December 2016[67][68] and January 2017. She argued very early on that the movement had an international dimension, that populist groups in Europe share "ideas and ideology, friends and founders", and that, unlike Burkean conservatives, they seek to "overthrow the institutions of the present to bring back things that existed in the past—or that they believe existed in the past—by force."[69] Applebaum has underlined the danger of a new "Nationalist International", a union of xenophobic, nationalist parties such as Law and Justice in Poland, the Northern League in Italy, and the Freedom Party in Austria.[70]

In January 2022, Applebaum was invited to testify before the US House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee hearing entitled "Bolstering Democracy in the Age of Rising Authoritarianism".[71]

Affiliations[edit]

Applebaum is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.[72] She is on the board of the National Endowment for Democracy and Renew Democracy Initiative.[73][74] She was a member of the Institute for War and Peace Reporting's international board of directors.[75] She was a Senior Adjunct Fellow at the Center for European Policy Analysis (CEPA) where she co-led a major initiative aimed at countering Russian disinformation in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE).[76] She was on the editorial board for The American Interest[77] and the Journal of Democracy.[78][when?]

Personal life[edit]

In 1992, Applebaum married Radosław Sikorski, who later served as Poland's Defence Minister, Foreign Minister, and Marshal of the Sejm. He is a member of the European Parliament. The couple have two sons, Aleksander and Tadeusz.[79] She became a Polish citizen in 2013.[80] She speaks Polish and Russian in addition to English.[81]

Awards and honors[edit]

Lectures and podcasts[edit]

  • 2008 American Academy in Berlin lecture: Putinism, the Ideology[99]
  • 2012–2013 Applebaum held the Phillip Roman chair at the London School of Economics and gave four major lectures on the history and contemporary politics of eastern Europe and Russia[100]
  • 2015 Munk debates[101]
  • 2016 Intelligence Squared[102]
  • 2017 Sam Harris: The Russian Connection,[103] The Path to Impeachment[104]
  • Jay Nordlinger: Putin and the Present Danger[105]
  • 2017 Georgetown School of Foreign Service Commencement Speech[106]
  • 2012 – 2022 (six separate interviews): Fresh Air[107]

Bibliography[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Between East and West: Across the Borderlands of Europe, Pantheon, 1994, reprinted by Random House, 1995; Penguin, 2015; and Anchor, 2017, ISBN 0679421505
  • Gulag: A History, Doubleday, 2003, 677 pages, ISBN 0-7679-0056-1; paperback, Bantam Dell, 2004, 736 pages, ISBN 1-4000-3409-4
  • Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1944–1956, Allen Lane, 2012, 614 pages, ISBN 978-0-713-99868-9 / Doubleday ISBN 978-0-385-51569-6
  • Gulag Voices : An Anthology, Yale University Press, 2011, 224 pages, ISBN 9780300177831; hardback
  • From a Polish Country House Kitchen, Chronicle Books, 2012, 288 pages, ISBN 1-452-11055-7; hardback
  • Red Famine: Stalin's War on Ukraine, Penguin Randomhouse, 2017[108][109]
  • Twilight of Democracy: The Seductive Lure of Authoritarianism, Doubleday, 2020, 224 pages, ISBN 978-0385545808; hardback
  • Wybór (Choice), Agora, 2021, 320 pages, ISBN 978-8326838569; hardback

Selected articles[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Petrone, Justine. "Interview with Anne Applebaum". City Paper. Baltic News Ltd. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
  2. ^ a b "Weddings: Anne Applebaum, Radek Sikorski". The New York Times. June 28, 1992.
  3. ^ @anneapplebaum (December 11, 2021). "Elizabeth is indeed my middle name though I can't imagine that it is important" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  4. ^ Cohen, Nick (July 12, 2020). "Anne Applebaum: how my old friends paved the way for Trump and Brexit". The Observer. London. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Anne Applebaum". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  6. ^ a b "'The Known World' Wins Pulitzer Prize for Fiction". The New York Times. April 5, 2004. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  7. ^ "Anne Applebaum Joins The Atlantic as Staff Writer". The Atlantic. November 15, 2019. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Anne Applebaum: Stavros Niarchos Foundation SNF Agora Institute at Johns Hopkins". snfagora.jhu.edu. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  9. ^ Lazareva, Inna (January 4, 2013). "Through a (communist) looking glass, then and now". Haaretz. Retrieved December 11, 2021.
  10. ^ Гурневіч, Дзьмітры (September 23, 2018). ""Беларусі трэба нацыяналізм". Ляўрэатка "Пулітцэра" пра радзіму прадзедаў і выхад з тупіку гісторыі". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  11. ^ "Anne Applebaum – internationales literaturfestival berlin". Literaturfestival.com (in German). Archived from the original on March 2, 2017. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  12. ^ Applebaum, Anne (2012). Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944–1956. New York USA: Doubleday. p. 282,508. ISBN 9780385515696.
  13. ^ Anne, Applebaum. "Russia and the Great Forgetting". Commentary. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  14. ^ "Anne E. Applebaum to Wed in June". The New York Times. December 8, 1991. Retrieved April 23, 2008. ... is a summa cum laude graduate of Yale University, where she was elected to Phi Beta Kappa.
  15. ^ "Anne Applebaum". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
  16. ^ Ivan Krastev (August 15, 2020). "The Tragic Romance of the Nostalgic Western Liberal". Foreign Policy. Retrieved November 15, 2022. On Nov. 10, 1989, Applebaum, then a young reporter, jumped in a car in the company of her soon-to-be husband—future Polish Foreign and Defense Minister Radek Sikorski—and drove from Warsaw to Berlin to see with her own eyes the collapse of the Berlin Wall. 1989 was the point of departure of everything that Applebaum did in the following three decades. Her much-praised history books about the Soviet Gulag and the establishment of the communist regimes in Central Europe were her historical introduction to the inevitability of 1989.
  17. ^ "Anne Applebaum". The Nine Dots Prize. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  18. ^ Hopley, Claire (July 23, 2017). "Book Review: 'Between East and West: Across the Borderlands of Europe'". The Washington Times. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  19. ^ Applebaum, Anne (March 19, 2001). "I am still normal". The Telegraph. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  20. ^ "From concentration camps to cotton". Idaho Mountain express and guide. Express publishing inc. March 25, 2005. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
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  22. ^ Award Winning Books[permanent dead link], Random House website
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  24. ^ Leonard, Brooke (May 8, 2008). "Turning Abkhazia into a War". National Interest. New York City. Archived from the original on January 13, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2008.
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  35. ^ "Londoner's Diary: Love's Legatum Lost in battle over Brexit". Evening Standard. December 8, 2016. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
  36. ^ "People". London School of Economics. Retrieved April 13, 2020.[permanent dead link]
  37. ^ Prize, The Lionel Gelber. "Anne Applebaum's Red Famine Wins the 2018 Lionel Gelber Prize". newswire.ca. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  38. ^ "Past Winners of The Duff Cooper Prize – The Duff Cooper Prize". theduffcooperprize.org. Archived from the original on September 12, 2019. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  39. ^ Cowdrey, Katherine (May 11, 2018). "Applebaum wins Duff Cooper Prize for a second time". The Bookseller. Retrieved March 15, 2022.
  40. ^ "The world's top 50 thinkers for the Covid-19 age" (PDF). Prospect. 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 7, 2020. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
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  43. ^ "A Letter on Justice and Open Debate | Harper's Magazine". Harper's Magazine. July 7, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
  44. ^ "Russia Bans Entry To Biden's Siblings, US Senators". Agence France Press. Barrons. November 11, 2022. Retrieved November 13, 2022. The [Russian] foreign ministry said the 200 US nationals included officials and legislators, their close relatives, heads of companies and experts "involved in the promotion of the Russophobic campaign and support for the regime in Kyiv" ... [including] US writer and Russia expert Anne Applebaum
  45. ^ Anne, Applebaum (April 10, 2000). "Secret Agent Man". Weekly Standard. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  46. ^ "American Academy".[dead link]
  47. ^ Applebaum, Anne (March 5, 2014). "Russia's Western enablers". The Washington Post.
  48. ^ Applebaum, Anne (March 7, 2014). "Russia's information warriors are on the march – we must respond". The Daily Telegraph.
  49. ^ Applebaum, Anne (August 29, 2014). "War in Europe". Slate. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  50. ^ Applebaum, Anne (December 18, 2014). "How He and His Cronies Stole Russia". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  51. ^ Applebaum, Anne (October 17, 2014). "The myth of Russian humiliation". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  52. ^ Applebaum, Anne (July 21, 2016). "How a Trump presidency could destabilize Europe". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  53. ^ Applebaum, Anne; Lucas, Edward (May 6, 2016). "The danger of Russian disinformation". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  54. ^ Applebaum, Anne (December 12, 2019). "The False Romance of Russia". The Atlantic. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  55. ^ Applebaum, Anne (October 19, 2015). "The Leninist Roots of Civil Society Repression". Journal of Democracy. 26 (4): 21–27. doi:10.1353/jod.2015.0068. ISSN 1086-3214. S2CID 146420524.
  56. ^ Applebaum, Anne. "A Movie That Matters". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  57. ^ Applebaum, Anne. "The Worst of the Madness". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  58. ^ Anne, Applebaum. "Does Eastern Europe still exist?". Prospect Magazine. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  59. ^ Applebaum, Anne (January 15, 2019). "The anti-Europeans have a plan for crippling the European Union". The Washington Post.
  60. ^ Applebaum, Anne (October 1, 2002). "You Can't Assume a Nut Will Act Rationally". Slate. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  61. ^ Applebaum, Anne (January 21, 2002). "Kill the Messenger". Slate.
  62. ^ "Beyond Propaganda". li.com. Archived from the original on July 6, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  63. ^ Applebaum, Anne (December 20, 2016). "I was a victim of a Russian smear campaign. I understand the power of fake news". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  64. ^ Applebaum, Anne (December 10, 2015). "Mark Zuckerberg should spend $45 billion on undoing Facebook's damage to democracies". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  65. ^ Applebaum, Anne (March 4, 2016). "Is this the end of the West as we know it?". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  66. ^ Applebaum, Anne (July 28, 2016). "Why we need a President Clinton". The Washington Post.
  67. ^ Cassidy, Alan; Loser, Philipp (December 27, 2016). "Ähnlich wie in den 1930er-Jahren". Tages-Anzeiger (in German). ISSN 1422-9994. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  68. ^ Scheuermann, Christoph; Repinski, Gordon (January 20, 2017). "Historian Anne Applebaum on Trump: 'Protest Is Insufficient'". Der Spiegel. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  69. ^ Applebaum, Anne (November 4, 2016). "Trump is a threat to the West as we know it, even if he loses". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  70. ^ Anne, Applebaum (January 15, 2019). "The anti-Europeans have a plan for crippling the European Union". The Washington Post.
  71. ^ "Roundtable: Bolstering Democracy in the Age of Rising Authoritarianism". House Foreign Affairs Committee. January 20, 2022. Retrieved January 18, 2022.
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  77. ^ "The American Interest". The American Interest. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  78. ^ "Editorial Board and Staff". Journal of Democracy. November 29, 2016. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  79. ^ "Minister of Foreign Affairs Radosław Sikorski". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland. April 23, 2008. Archived from the original on April 11, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2008. Radosław Sikorski is married to journalist and writer Anne Applebaum, who won the 2004 Pulitzer prize for her book "Gulag: A History". They have two sons: Aleksander and Tomasz.
  80. ^ "Anne Applebaum. Żona Radosława Sikorskiego to dziś jedna z najbardziej wpływowych Polek". Portal I.pl. Times of Polska. August 31, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2013. Anne Applebaum jest już pełnoprawną Polką.
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  107. ^ "Applebaum, Anne, 1964– (Interviews with Terry Gross)". freshairarchive.org. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
  108. ^ Red Famine by Anne Applebaum | PenguinRandomHouse.com.
  109. ^ Fitzpatrick, Sheila (August 25, 2017). "Red Famine by Anne Applebaum review – did Stalin deliberately let Ukraine starve?". The Guardian. Retrieved August 25, 2017. For scholars, the most interesting part of the book will be the two excellent historiographical chapters in which she teases out the political and scholarly impulses tending to minimise the famine in Soviet times ('The Cover-Up') and does the same for post-Soviet Ukrainian exploitation of the issue ('The Holodomor in History and Memory')

General references[edit]

External links[edit]