Anne Applebaum

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Anne Applebaum
Anne Elizabeth Applebaum.jpg
Applebaum in 2013
Born
Anne Elizabeth Applebaum[1]

(1964-07-25) July 25, 1964 (age 54)[2]
ResidenceWarsaw, Poland
NationalityAmerican and Polish
EducationSidwell Friends School
Alma materYale University
London School of Economics
OccupationJournalist and author
Known forWritings on former Soviet Union and its satellite countries
Spouse(s)
Children2
Websitewww.anneapplebaum.com Edit this at Wikidata
Notes

Anne Elizabeth Applebaum (born July 25, 1964) is an American journalist and historian who is also a citizen of Poland.[4] A winner of the Pulitzer Prize, she has written extensively about Marxism-Leninism and the development of civil society in Central and Eastern Europe. She is a visiting Professor of Practice at the London School of Economics, where she runs Arena, a project on propaganda and disinformation. She has also been an editor at The Economist and The Spectator, and a member of the editorial board of The Washington Post (2002–06).[5]

Early life[edit]

Applebaum was born in Washington, D.C. Her parents are Harvey M. Applebaum, a partner in the Covington and Burling law firm, and Elizabeth (Bloom) Applebaum, of the Corcoran Gallery of Art. Applebaum has stated that she was brought up in a "very reformed" Jewish family.[6] Her ancestors came to America from what is now Belarus.[7] She graduated from the Sidwell Friends School (1982). She earned a BA (summa cum laude) in history and literature at Yale University[8] (1986), where she was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. As a Marshall Scholar at the London School of Economics she earned a master's degree in international relations (1987).[9] She studied at St Antony's College, Oxford, before moving to Warsaw, Poland, in 1988 as a correspondent for The Economist.[10]

Journalism and literary career[edit]

From 1988, Applebaum wrote about the collapse of communism from Warsaw. Working for The Economist and The Independent, she provided front-page and cover stories of important social and political transitions in Central and Eastern Europe, both before and after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. In 1994 she published her first book, Between East and West, a travelogue describing the rise of nationalism in the Western republics of the Soviet Union. The book was awarded an Adolph Bentinck Prize in 1996.

Applebaum worked briefly as the Africa editor of The Economist in 1992. In 1993, she left the paper and became the foreign editor and then the deputy editor at The Spectator, where she wrote about British and international politics, writing cover stories from Brussels, Moscow, Washington and Milan as well as London. She also wrote regular columns for both The Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph in London. In 1996 and 1997 Applebaum wrote exclusively about Britain, and in particular the victory of Tony Blair's Labour Party, as the political columnist for London's Evening Standard newspaper.

Applebaum returned to Poland in 1998, where she continued to write for the Sunday Telegraph and other newspapers. In 2001 she did a major interview with prime minister Tony Blair.[11] She also began doing historical research for her book Gulag: A History (2003) on the Soviet concentration camp system, which won the 2004 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction.[12][13][14] It was also nominated for a National Book Award, for the LA Times book award and for the National Book Critics Circle Award.[15] It was eventually translated into more than 25 languages.

From 2001 to 2005, Applebaum lived in Washington where she was a member of The Washington Post editorial board.[16] She wrote about a wide range of US policy issues, including healthcare, social security and education. She also began writing a column for The Washington Post, which continues to the present. Applebaum was also briefly an adjunct fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, a think tank.[17]

Returning to Europe in 2005, Applebaum was a George Herbert Walker Bush/Axel Springer Fellow at the American Academy in Berlin, Germany, in 2006.[18]

Her second history book, Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944–56, was published in 2012 by Doubleday in the US and Allen Lane in the UK; it was nominated for a National Book Award, shortlisted for the 2013 PEN/John Kenneth Galbraith Award[19] and won the Cundill Prize for Historical Literature as well as the Duke of Westminster Medal.

From 2011 to 2016, she created and ran the Transitions Forum at the Legatum Institute, an international think tank and educational charity based in London. Among other projects, she ran a two-year program examining the relationship between democracy and growth in Brazil, India and South Africa,[20] created the Future of Syria[21] and Future of Iran projects[22] on future institutional change in those two countries, and commissioned a series of papers on corruption in Georgia,[23] Moldova[24] and Ukraine.[25]

Together with Foreign Policy magazine she created Democracy Lab, a website focusing on countries in transition to, or away from, democracy[26] and which has since become Democracy Post[27] at The Washington Post. She also ran Beyond Propaganda,[28] a program examining 21st century propaganda and disinformation. Started in 2014, the program anticipated later debates about "fake news".

At the end of 2016, she left Legatum because of its stance on Brexit following the appointment of Euroskeptic Philippa Stroud as CEO[29] and joined the London School of Economics as a Professor of Practice at the Institute for Global Affairs. At the LSE she runs Arena, a program on disinformation and 21st century propaganda.[30]

2014 Crimean crisis[edit]

On February 21, 2014, Applebaum wrote in The Daily Telegraph, documenting the breakdown in law and order in Ukraine over the previous fortnight. She concluded that it "is not a war, or even a conflict which either side can win with weapons. It will have to be solved through negotiations, elections, political debate; by civic organisations, political parties and political leaders, both charismatic and otherwise; with the participation of other European states and Ukraine's other neighbors".[31]

Applebaum has been a vocal critic of Western conduct regarding the 2014 Crimean crisis. In an article in The Washington Post on March 5, she maintained that the US and its allies should not continue to enable "the existence of a corrupt Russian regime that is destabilizing Europe", noting that the actions of President Vladimir Putin had violated "a series of international treaties".[32] On March 7, in another Telegraph article, discussing an information war, Applebaum argued that "a robust campaign to tell the truth about Crimea is needed to counter Moscow's lies".[33] At the end of August she asked whether Ukraine should prepare for "total war" with Russia and whether central Europeans should join them.[34]

Views and opinions[edit]

In October 2002, Applebaum wrote that Americans "should be prepared" for a war with Iraq. She also wrote that "Although I dislike the modern tendency to compare every mad dictator to Hitler, in this narrow sense, the comparison to Saddam might be apt. Are you sure Saddam would not risk the destruction of his country, if he thought, for some reason, that he or his regime was in danger? Do you want to wait and find out?"[35]

In 2004, Applebaum wrote that "President Bush's declaration of opposition to Palestinians' "right of return" to Israel is realistic... Nor, finally, is this solution necessarily illegal, even by the narrow terms of international law. Israel occupies Gaza and the West Bank, after all, as a result of the 1967 war, which Israel did not start".[36]

Populism[edit]

In March 2016, six months before the election of President Donald Trump, she wrote a column asking, "Is this the end of the West as we know it?", which argued that "we are two or three bad elections away from the end of NATO, the end of the European Union and maybe the end of the liberal world order".[37] Considered unduly gloomy at the time, the column inspired the Swiss magazine Tagesanzeiger and the German magazine Der Spiegel to interview Applebaum in December 2016[38][39] and January 2017. She argued very early on that the movement had an international dimension, that populist groups in Europe share "ideas and ideology, friends and founders", and that, unlike Burkean conservatives, they seek to "overthrow the institutions of the present to bring back things that existed in the past—or that they believe existed in the past—by force."[40] Applebaum has underlined the danger of a new "Nationalist International," a union of xenophobic, nationalist parties such as Law and Justice in Poland, the Northern League in Italy, and the Freedom Party in Austria.[41]

Russia[edit]

Applebaum has been writing about Russia since the early 1990s. In 2000, she described the links between the then-new president of Russia, Vladimir Putin, with the former Soviet leader Yuri Andropov and the old KGB.[42] In 2008, she began speaking about "Putinism" as an anti-democratic ideology, though most at the time still considered the Russian president to be a pro-Western pragmatist.[43] Applebaum has also focused on Russia's failure to come to terms with the legacy of the USSR and of Stalin, both in her Gulag book and in other writing and speeches.[44] In 2014, she asked whether “the most important story of the past twenty years might not, in fact, have been the failure of democracy, but the rise of a new form of Russian authoritarianism."[45] She has described the "myth of Russian humiliation" and argued that NATO and EU expansion have been a "phenomenal success".[46] In July 2016, before the US election, she was one of the first American journalists to write about the significance of Russia's ties to Donald Trump[47] and to point out that Russian support for Trump was part of a wider Russian political campaign designed to destabilize the West.[48] She has also written that a summer spent as a student in Leningrad, Soviet Union in 1985 has helped shape her views.[49]

Central Europe[edit]

Applebaum has written extensively about the history of central and eastern Europe, Poland in particular. In the conclusion to her book Iron Curtain, Applebaum argued that the reconstruction of civil society was the most important and most difficult challenge for the post-communist states of central Europe; in another essay, she argued that the modern authoritarian obsession with civil society repression dates back to Lenin.[50] More broadly, she has written essays on the Polish film-maker Andrzej Wajda,[51] on the dual Nazi-Soviet occupation of central Europe,[52] and on why it is inaccurate to define “Eastern Europe” as a single entity.[53]

Disinformation, propaganda and fake news[edit]

In 2014, Applebaum and Peter Pomerantsev launched Beyond Propaganda, a program examining disinformation and propaganda, at the Legatum Institute.[54] In 2016, they expanded the program, renamed it Arena, moved it to the LSE and began piloting solutions to the problem.[55] Applebaum has written that a 2014 Russian smear campaign, aimed at her, first taught her the techniques of modern Russian propaganda. That campaign was promoted by Wikileaks.[56] Applebaum argued in 2015 that Facebook should take responsibility for spreading false stories and help "undo the terrible damage done by Facebook and other forms of social media to democratic debate and civilized discussion all over the world."[57]

Affiliations[edit]

Applebaum is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.[58] She is on the board of the National Endowment for Democracy and Renew Democracy Initiative.[59][60] She was a member of the Institute for War and Peace Reporting's International Board of Directors.[61] She is a Senior Adjunct Fellow at the Center for European Policy Analysis (CEPA) where she co-leads a major initiative aimed at countering Russian disinformation in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE).[62] She is on the editorial board for The American Interest[63] and the Journal of Democracy.[64]

Personal life[edit]

In 1992 Applebaum married Radosław Sikorski, who would later serve as Poland's Defence Minister, Foreign Minister, and Marshal of the Sejm. They have two sons, Aleksander and Tomasz.[65] She became a Polish citizen in 2013.[66] She speaks Polish and Russian in addition to English.[67] Applebaum endorsed Hillary Clinton's campaign for president in July 2016 on the grounds that Trump is "a man who appears bent on destroying the alliances that preserve international peace and American power."[68]

Awards and honors[edit]

Lectures and podcasts[edit]

  • 2008 American Academy in Berlin lecture: Putinism, the Ideology[81]
  • 2012-2013 Applebaum held the Phillip Roman chair at the London School of Economics and gave four major lectures on the history and contemporary politics of eastern Europe and Russia[82]
  • 2015 Munk debates[83]
  • 2016 Intelligence Squared[84]
  • Sam Harris: The Russian Connection[85]
  • Jay Nordlinger: Putin and the Present Danger[86]
  • 2017 Georgetown School of Foreign Service Commencement Speech[87]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Applebaum, Anne (1994). Between East and West: Across the Borderlands of Europe. Pantheon Books.
  • Gulag: A History, Doubleday, 2003, 677 pages, ISBN 0-7679-0056-1; paperback, Bantam Dell, 2004, 736 pages, ISBN 1-4000-3409-4
  • Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1944–1956, Allen Lane, 2012, 614 pages, ISBN 978-0-713-99868-9 / Doubleday ISBN 978-0-385-51569-6
  • Gulag Voices : An Anthology, Yale University Press, 2011, 224 pages, ISBN 9780300177831; hardback
  • From a Polish Country House Kitchen, Chronicle Books, 2012, 288 pages, ISBN 1-452-11055-7; hardback
  • Red Famine: Stalin's War on Ukraine, Penguin Randomhouse, 2017[88][89]
  • — (November 6, 2017). "100 years later, Bolshevism is back. And we should be worried". The Washington Post.
  • — (October 2018). "A Warning From Europe: The Worst Is Yet to Come". The Atlantic.

Critical studies and reviews of Applebaum's work[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]