|Anne Isabella, Lady Byron|
Anne Isabella Milbanke in 1812 by Charles Hayter
|Born||Anne Isabella Milbanke
17 May 1792
Elemore Hall, County Durham, England
|Died||16 May 1860(aged 67)|
|Cause of death||Breast cancer|
|Resting place||Kensal Green Cemetery|
|Spouse(s)||George Gordon Byron, Lord Byron (m. 1815; div. 1816)|
|Children||Ada, Countess of Lovelace|
|Parent(s)||Sir Ralph Milbanke, 6th Bt.
Hon. Judith Noel
Anne Isabella Noel Byron, 11th Baroness Wentworth and Baroness Byron (17 May 1792 – 16 May 1860) was the wife of poet George Gordon Byron, more commonly known as Lord Byron.
A highly educated and strictly religious woman, she seemed an unlikely match for the amoral and agnostic poet, and their marriage soon ended in acrimony. Lady Byron’s reminiscences, published after her death by Harriet Beecher Stowe, revealed her fears about an alleged incest Byron had with his half-sister. The disclosure of Lady Byron's suspicions ultimately prompted Byron to leave England.
Their daughter Ada worked as a mathematician with Charles Babbage, precursor of computer science. Lady Byron had felt that an education in mathematics and logic would counteract any possible inherited tendency towards Lord Byron's insanity and romantic excess.
Her names were unusually complex. She was born Anne Isabella Milbanke, the only child of Sir Ralph Milbanke, 6th Baronet, and his wife the Hon. Judith Milbanke, sister of Thomas Noel, Viscount Wentworth. When Lord Wentworth died, a few months after Anne's marriage to Lord Byron, Judith and her cousin Lord Scarsdale jointly inherited his estate. The family subsequently took the surname Noel over Milbanke.
Lord Wentworth had been both a viscount and a baron. Upon his death the viscountcy became extinct, and the barony fell into abeyance between Judith and Lord Scarsdale. After their deaths, the barony passed to Anne, and she became Baroness Wentworth in her own right; however she did not use the title. She signed her letters "A. I. Noel Byron" and her will as "Baroness Noel-Byron". The world knew her as "Lady Byron", and her friends called her by her nickname "Annabella".
She was a gifted child. To cultivate her obvious intelligence, her parents hired as tutor a former Cambridge University professor by the name of William Frend. Under his direction, Byrons's education proceeded much like that of a Cambridge student; her studies involved classical literature, philosophy, science and mathematics, in which she particularly delighted. This fascination led her husband to nickname her his "princess of parallelograms".
Byron developed into a stiff, religious woman with strict morals. She was aware of her strong intellect and was not ashamed to demonstrate it in her social realm. Often described as cold and prim, she seemed an unlikely match for the man who would become her ultimate obsession, the dramatically dark and "morally fractured" poet Lord Byron (George Gordon Byron). Their first meeting occurred in March 1812. She later said to her mother that though she would not venture to introduce herself to George, she would certainly accept his introduction if it were offered.
Although Byron's popularity was soaring following the success of his work Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Byron continually rejected his attentions. Spurned, George committed himself to the pursuit of her and in October 1812, he proposed marriage. In response, Byron wrote a summary of his character and three days later refused him. However, they were plagued with a persistent interest in each other.
Although Byron was well aware of George's shortcomings, telling her mother "“He is a very bad, very good man," she decided it was her religious obligation to support him and improve his behavior.  In August 1813, she contacted George in writing for the first time. The letters continued into the next year, some offering reassurance and support during times when public opinion of him was not favorable, others describing the "imperfect attachment" she felt for him. During this time, he accepted an invitation from Sir Ralph Milbanke to visit Seaham Hall, the family home in County Durham.
When George proposed a second time to Miss Milbanke in September 1814, she accepted. The couple were married privately, and by special licence, at Seaham Hall in County Durham on 2 January 1815 (the officiating clergyman was her illegitimate cousin, the Rev. Thomas Noel of Kirkby Mallory, natural son of her uncle, Viscount Wentworth). The couple lived at Piccadilly Terrace in London.
George was then in extreme financial distress. He rejected payments offered for his written works, as he believed the sums were insufficient. He was having difficulty selling his estates at Newstead Abbey and Rochdale to clear his debt. During the summer of 1815, he began to unleash his anger and hostility on his wife. His moods were dark and he began to drink heavily. In a letter to his half-sister, Augusta Leigh, he stated his suspicions that his wife had broken the lock on his desk and searched it. Later in the year he began an affair with Susan Boyce, a London chorus girl.
Byron became increasingly upset. In the late stages of pregnancy, she feared George might be going mad. In November 1815, she wrote to Leigh and told her of George's moods and behavior. In answer to her sister-in-law's letter, Leigh traveled to the Byrons' home to assist. Upon her arrival, she became the subject of George's wrath and believed him to be temporarily insane. On 10 December, Byron gave birth to the couple's only child, a daughter whom they named Ada. George's despair seemed to increase.
In January 1816, as the Byrons passed their first anniversary, George suggested they sell the house at Piccadilly Terrace. He recommended that Byron take Ada to her parents' home and stay there temporarily until he settled their finances. In disbelief, Byron sought medical advice as she had become convinced her husband had gone mad. She invited a physician to their home to assess George, who was unaware of the true purpose for the visit. The doctor recommended she do as George requested and move to her parents' estate.
Byron began a detailed documentation of George's behavior, moods, and speech. She contacted his solicitor and friend, John Hanson, and told him her concerns that George would take his life. She also provided Hanson with a pamphlet on hydrocephalus, accompanied by notes that suggested George could be suffering from this particular affliction. Following this conversation, Byron took Ada and travelled to her parents' residence at Kirkby Mallory in Leicestershire. She would not see George again.
During her first month at Kirkby Mallory, Byron wrote to George affectionately, addressing him as "dearest Duck". Her mother wrote to him and invited him to come to their home. However, her concern for Byron soon became paramount, and her parents sought legal counsel. Their attorney recommended a legal separation and sent a letter proposing the separation to George. Augusta, who had remained with George at Piccadilly Terrace since his wife's departure, intercepted the letter, as she feared George would commit suicide if he knew of it. She returned the letter to Kirkby Mallory and communicated her opinion that greater consideration should be taken in the matter of the Byrons' marriage. A week later, however, a messenger sent George the proposal again.
This time it reached him but he refused to believe Byron no longer wanted to be married to him. He asked Augusta to write to her; in addition, he refused to dissolve their marriage. A short while later, when Byron made clear her suspicions that George's relationship with his half-sister Augusta was incestuous, which was not then illegal, and that he had had homosexual relationships and had sodomised her - Byron - which acts were, he changed his mind. He agreed to grant her request if she proved that the request for legal separation was truly hers and not that of her parents. In response, Byron personally communicated her feelings to Leigh. George kept his word, and their separation was made legal in March 1816, in a private settlement.
Following the settlement, Leigh wrote to Byron; the latter's solicitor replied to the private note. George was enraged by such cold treatment of his half-sister. Soon after the dissolution of his marriage, he left England and lived the remainder of his days abroad.
Though she wished to separate from George, Byron was haunted by him until her death. She had tried hard to save his soul and secure him a place in Heaven. In the years following their separation, she came to believe that the time she had spent with George guaranteed he would experience God's embrace upon his death. She kept his letters, copies of her own to him, and letters about him. She carefully documented their relationship, supposedly in preparation for any challenge George may have made for custody of Ada.
He never did seek custody of his daughter, though he sent for both of them shortly before his death in Greece on 19 April 1824. Her obsession with George did not end with his death. Ultimately her relationship with George defined her life, though she committed herself to social causes, such as prison reform and the abolition of slavery. In furtherance of the latter, Byron attended the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention, where she was one of the few women included in its commemorative painting.
As Ada grew, Byron feared she might inherit George's behaviors and dark moods. She schooled Ada in science and mathematics and discouraged literary study. Though her effort was great, it eventually seemed in vain. Ada Lovelace embodied many of her father's rebellious qualities. She is also considered to have been the world's first computer programmer, having written the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine--Charles Babbage's analytical engine.
She married at nineteen years of age, had three children, and amassed considerable gambling debts before dying from cancer on 27 November 1852. Byron attended her daughter's deathbed and, under her influence, Ada underwent a religious transformation. She was thirty-six years old when she died, the same age as George when he died.
Byron died of breast cancer on 16 May 1860, the day before her 68th birthday. She was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery at Kensal Green in London. Prior to her death, she shared the story of her marriage to Byron with Harriet Beecher Stowe, who encouraged Annabella to remain silent.  After George's death, Stowe published the account in 1869. It was the first time anyone had published suspicions of an incestuous relationship between Byron and his half-sister. Stowe was criticized for writing a so-called "indecent" article and lost popularity.  Initially biographers criticized Annabella as "small-minded;" more recent works have provided a fuller picture of her accomplishments.
Byron's barony passed to her grandson Byron King-Noel, Viscount Ockham.
- Joan Pierson, ‘Noel, Anne Isabella, suo jure Baroness Wentworth, and Lady Byron (1792–1860)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Oct 2006 accessed 11 Aug 2011
- Gordon, Charlotte (7 November 2015). "She Walked in Beauty - WSJ". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- Michael & Melissa Bakewell Augusta Leigh Pimlico, London,2002, ISBN 0712665609 p.197.
- The Anti-Slavery Society Convention, 1840, Benjamin Robert Haydon, accessed 19 July 2008
- The others were Elizabeth Pease, Amelia Opie, Anne Knight, Mary Anne Rawson, Mrs John Beaumont, Elizabeth Tredgold, Thomas Clarkson's daughter Mary and right at the back Lucretia Mott.
- MacDonald, Greville (1924). George MacDonald and his Wife. New York: The Dial Press. p. 313.
- Lodge, Edmund, Norroy King of Arms, The Peerage of the British Empire, London, 1858, p. 588, under 'Anne Isabella Noel-Byon, Baroness Wentworth of Nettlested.'
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anne Isabella Byron, Baroness Byron.|
- Anne Isabella Byron at Find-A-Grave
- Archival material relating to Lady Byron listed at the UK National Archives
- A Guide to the Lady Byron Manuscript Material in the Pforzheimer Collection at the New York Public Library
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
|Peerage of England|
(abeyant in 1815)