|Queen consort of England|
|Tenure||26 June 1483 – 16 March 1485|
|Coronation||6 July 1483|
|Spouse||Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales
Richard III of England
|Issue||Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales|
|Father||Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick|
|Mother||Lady Anne de Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick|
11 June 1456|
Warwick Castle, Warwickshire
|Died||16 March 1485
|Burial||Westminster Abbey, London|
Lady Anne Neville (11 June 1456 – 16 March 1485) was an English queen, the daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (the "Kingmaker"). She became Princess of Wales as the wife of Edward of Westminster and then Queen of England as the wife of King Richard III.
As a member of the powerful House of Neville, she played a critical part in the Wars of the Roses fought between the House of York and House of Lancaster for the English crown. Her father Warwick betrothed her as a girl to Edward, Prince of Wales, the son of Henry VI. The marriage was to seal an alliance to the House of Lancaster and continue the civil war between the two houses of Lancaster and York.
After the death of Edward, the Dowager Princess of Wales married Richard, Duke of Gloucester, brother of Edward IV and of George, Duke of Clarence, the husband of Anne Neville's older sister Isabel. Anne Neville became queen when Richard III ascended the throne in June 1483, following the declaration that Edward IV's children by Elizabeth Woodville were illegitimate. Anne Neville predeceased her husband by five months, dying in March 1485. Her only child was Edward of Middleham, who predeceased her.
Anne Neville was born at Warwick Castle, the younger daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, and Anne de Beauchamp. Her father was one of the most powerful noblemen in England, and the most important supporter of the House of York. Her grandfather's sister, Cecily Neville, was the wife of Richard, Duke of York, who claimed the crown for York.
Much of Anne Neville's childhood was spent at Middleham Castle, one of her father's properties, where she and her elder sister, Isabel, met the Duke's two younger sons, Richard duke of Gloucester the future Richard III and George, Duke of Clarence. Richard especially attended his knighthood training at Middleham since mid 1461 until at least the spring of 1465, or possibly since 1465 until late 1468. It is possible that even at this early stage a match between the Earl's daughters and the young dukes was being considered. The Duke of York was killed on 30 December 1460 but, with Warwick's help, his eldest son became King Edward IV in March 1461. In July 1469, Lady Isabel married Clarence, while in July 1470, after the Earl of Warwick's flight to France and change of allegiance, Anne Neville was betrothed and, by the end of the same year, married to Edward of Westminster, the Lancastrian heir to the throne of England.
Princess of Wales
Warwick had been for some time at odds with Edward IV, resenting the rise in the king's favour of the new queen's family, the Woodvilles. In 1469 the Earl had tried to put his son-in-law George on the throne, but had met the Parliament's resistance. After a second rebellion against King Edward in early 1470 failed, he was forced to flee to France where he allied himself with the ousted House of Lancaster in 1470. With King Henry VI imprisoned in the Tower of London, the de facto Lancastrian leader was his consort, Margaret of Anjou, who was suspicious of Warwick's motives. To quell these suspicions, Anne Neville was formally betrothed to Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou's son, Edward of Westminster, at the Château d'Amboise in France. They were married in Angers Cathedral, probably on 13 December 1470 making Anne Neville the Princess of Wales.
Warwick had restored Henry VI to the throne in October 1470, however Edward IV returned to the country in March 1471 and quickly secured London and the person of Henry VI. The mentally troubled Henry VI was taken by Edward IV as a prisoner to the Battle of Barnet where Warwick was killed on 14 April 1471. Edward IV then incarcerated Henry VI in the Tower of London and following the decisive Yorkist victory at Tewkesbury on 4 May Henry was reported to have died of "pure displeasure and melancholy" although "The Great Chronicle of London" reported that Richard, Duke of Gloucester was responsible. As Constable of England he probably delivered King Edward's order to kill Henry to the Constable of the Tower.
Margaret of Anjou had returned to England with Anne Neville and Prince Edward in April, bringing additional troops. At the Battle of Tewkesbury on 4 May 1471, Edward IV crushed this last Lancastrian army. Prince Edward was killed in or shortly after the battle and Anne Neville was taken prisoner. She was taken first to Coventry and then to her brother-in-law the Duke of Clarence's house in London, while her mother Anne Beauchamp, Warwick's wife, had sought sanctuary in Beaulieu Abbey. When the crisis settled down and the Countess wished to be restored to her estates, Edward IV refused her safe conduct to plead her case and she wrote to Queen Elizabeth and several others to no avail.
Anne, now widowed, became the subject of some dispute between George of Clarence and his brother Richard of Gloucester, who still wanted to marry her. Anne Neville and her sister, the Duchess of Clarence, were heiresses to their parents' vast estates. Clarence, anxious to secure the whole inheritance, treated her as his ward and opposed her getting married, which would strengthen her position to claim a share.
There are various accounts of what happened subsequently, including the story that Clarence hid her in a London cookshop, disguised as a servant, so that his brother may not know where she was. Gloucester is said to have tracked her down and escorted her to sanctuary at the Church of St Martin le Grand. In order to win his brother George’s final consent to the marriage, Richard of Gloucester renounced most of Warwick’s land and property including the earldoms of Warwick (which the Kingmaker had held in his wife’s right) and Salisbury and surrendered to Clarence the office of Great Chamberlain of England.
Duchess of Gloucester
The exact date of the wedding of Anne Neville and Richard, Duke of Gloucester is not known, although most sources agree for a ceremony in the spring of 1472 in Westminster Palace's chapel of St Stephen. They made their marital home in the familiar surroundings of Middleham Castle, Gloucester having been appointed Governor of the North on the king's behalf. Upon her marriage, she was styled Duchess of Gloucester. They had only one child, Edward, born at Middleham allegedly sometime in 1473, more probably in 1476. Anne's mother, the dowager Countess of Warwick, joined her daughter's household in 1473 after Richard obtained the King's permission to release his mother-in-law from her guarded sanctuary
In 1478 Anne Neville inherited the Lordship of Glamorgan. The title had been held by her father and on his death had passed to Anne's elder sister Isabel Neville. Females could not exercise the Lordship in their own right so the title immediately transferred to Isabel's husband, the Duke of Clarence. On his death in February 1478 the title passed to Anne and was henceforth exercised by her husband, Richard of Gloucester until his death, when it passed to the new King, Henry VII.
Queen of England
On 9 April 1483, Edward IV died. Gloucester was named Lord Protector for his 12-year-old nephew Edward V. However, on 25 June 1483, Edward V and his siblings were declared illegitimate, and Gloucester ascended the throne as King Richard III. Anne Neville was crowned alongside her husband on 6 July 1483 by Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, the first joint coronation after 175 years. The queen’s train was borne by Margaret, Countess of Richmond whose son would become Henry VII after defeating Richard at the battle of Bosworth. Almost the entire peerage of England was present at what was a magnificent spectacle. Richard and Anne's son Edward of Middleham was created Prince of Wales in York Minster on 8 September 1483 following their Royal Progress across England.
She was on good terms with her mother-in-law (who was also her grandaunt), Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, with whom she discussed religious works, such as the writings of Mechtilde of Hackeborn.
Edward of Middleham died suddenly in April 1484, at Sheriff Hutton, while his parents were in Nottingham on their way to visit him. Both Richard and Anne were overwhelmed with grief at this news. Anne was particularly heartbroken and she fell gravely ill only a few months later.
After the death of her son, Anne Neville effectively adopted Edward, Earl of Warwick, the mutual nephew of Richard III and Anne Neville. Richard III made the boy his heir presumptive, probably in deference to Anne Neville's wishes. Edward of Warwick was later described as "simple-minded" in Tudor records, and after Anne Neville died, Richard promptly named another nephew, John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, as his heir presumptive.
Anne Neville died on 16 March 1485, probably of tuberculosis, at Westminster. The day she died, there was an eclipse, which some took to be an omen of her husband's fall from heavenly grace. She was buried in Westminster Abbey, in an unmarked grave to the right of the High Altar, next to the door to the Confessor's Chapel. Richard III is said to have wept at her funeral. Nevertheless, rumours circulated that Richard III had poisoned her in order to marry his niece Elizabeth of York.
Richard sent Elizabeth away from court to Sheriff Hutton and publicly refuted these rumours on 30 March 1485 during an assembly of Lords he summoned at the Hospital of St. John. Addressing them 'in a loud and distinct voice', he 'showed his grief and displeasure aforesaid and said it never came into his thought or mind to marry in such manner wise, nor willing nor glad of the death of his queen but as sorry and in heart as heavy as man might be …'. There is no reason to doubt that Richard's grief over his wife's death was genuine and documents later emerged from the Portuguese Royal archives show that after Anne's death, Richard's ambassadors were sent on a formal errand to negotiate a double marriage between Richard and the Portuguese King's sister Joanna, of Lancastrian descent, and Elizabeth of York and Joana's cousin Duke Manuel (the future Manuel I)
There was no memorial to Queen Anne until 1960, when a bronze tablet was erected on a wall near her grave by the Richard III Society.
Depictions in drama
Anne Neville appears in three scenes in William Shakespeare's Richard III. In Act I, Scene 2, Richard III persuades her to marry him. In Act IV, Scene 1, just before Richard III's coronation, Anne Neville meets Edward IV's widow and laments her own position. In Act V, Scene 3, Anne Neville is one of the ghosts that appear to Richard III.
The role has been played in film by
- Claire Bloom in Richard III (1955 film)
- Kristin Scott Thomas in Richard III (1995 film)
- Winona Ryder in Looking for Richard (1996)
- Faye Marsay in The White Queen (2013)
Depictions in fiction
Anne Neville is a major character in several historical novels.
She is the title character in:
- Gladys Malvern, The Queen's Lady (1963), historical fiction for teen readers
- Jan Westcott, Set Her On A Throne (1972) - for Young Adults
- Frances Irwin, The White Pawn (1972)
- Frances Irwin, The White Queen (1974), sequel to The White Pawn
- Evelyn Hood, The Kingmaker’s Daughter (1974)
- Hilda Brookman Stainer, The Kingmaker’s Daughter (1978)
- Lesley J. Nickell, The White Queen (1978), reprinted in 2014 as "The White Queen of Middleham"
- Maureen Peters, Beggar Maid, Queen (1980)
- Philippa Wiat, The Kingmaker's Daughter (1989)
- Jean Plaidy, The Reluctant Queen: The Story of Anne of York (1990)
- Eleanor Mennim, Anne Neville, Queen of England (1999), a fictional biography
- Anne O'Brien, The Virgin Widow (2010)
- Philippa Gregory, The Kingmaker's Daughter (2012)
- Julie May Ruddock, A Daughter of Warwick (2012)
- Paula Simonds Zabka, Anne of Warwick The Last Plantagenet Queen (2012)
Anne Neville is a main character in:
- Olive Eckerson, The Golden Yoke (Coward-McCann, 1961)
- Margaret Davidson, My Lords Richard (1979)
- Rhoda Edwards, Fortune's Wheel (1978) and The Broken Sword (also titled "Some Touch of Pity", 1977)
- Anne Powers, The Four Queens (1977) (also known as The Royal Consorts (1978) or Queen's Ransom (1986))
- Sharon Kay Penman, The Sunne in Splendour (1982)
- Paula Simonds Zabka, Desire the Kingdom (2002)
- Sandra Worth's The Rose of York trilogy - Love and War (2003), Crown of Destiny (2006), and Fall From Grace (2007)
- Sylvia Charlewwod, King Richard III & Anne Neville: their love story (2015)
Depictions in non-fiction
- Anne Neville: Queen to Richard III by Michael Hicks (2006)
- Anne Neville: Richard III's Tragic Queen by Amy Licence (2013)
- John A. Wagner. Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses, ABC-CLIO, Jan 1, 2001. pg 171.
- Paul Murray Kendall, Richard III, 1955
- David Baldwin, Richard III
- Amy Licence, Anne Neville, 2013, pag. 63: Young aristocrats were often sent away to be raised in households of their intended future partners
- Hilton, Lisa (2008). Queens Consort, England's Medieval Queens. Great Britain: Weidenfeld & Nichelson. p. 444. ISBN 978-0-7538-2611-9.
- Croyland Chronicle (pp. 469-70) Clarence "caused the damsel (Anne) to be concealed in order that it might not be known by his Brother where she was; as he was afraid of a division of the Earl's property, which he wished to come to himself alone in right of his wife, and not be obliged to share it with any other person." Richard however, "discovered the Young lady in the city of London disguised in the habit of a cookmaid; upon which he had her removed to the sanctuary of St. Martin's", as reported in Paul Murray Kendall, Richard III, 1955
- John Cannon, Anne Hargreaves: The Kings and Queens of Britain, p. 246.
- Complete Genealogy of the House of Plantagenet (retrieved 16 June 2014).
- Tewkesbury Abbey Chronicle
- Kendall P.M., Richard III, 1955
- Chrimes, S.B., Henry VII, Yale 1999, p. 248
- The Coronation of Richard III: The Extant Documents by Anne F. Sutton, Rodney W. Hammond
- York City Records
- Hilton, Lisa (2008). p. 456.
- Croyland Chronicle "On hearing the news of this, at Nottingham, where they were then residing, you might have seen his father and mother in a state almost bordering on madness, by reason of their sudden grief"
- "NASA Catalog of Solar Eclipses". Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Michael Hicks, Anne Neville: Queen to Richard III, Tempus, 2006, p.196.
- Court minutes of the Mercer's company March 31st 1485
- Anne Nevile Queen to Richard III by Michael Hicks
- The last days of Richard III by John Ashdown-Hill
- Pinches, John Harvey; Pinches, Rosemary (1974), The Royal Heraldry of England, Heraldry Today, Slough, Buckinghamshire: Hollen Street Press, ISBN 0-900455-25-X
- Turnbull (1985), The Book of the Medieval Knight.
- Mercy Pilkington. "Beebliome Develops Interactive History Novelizations for YA Readers". goodereader.com.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anne Neville.|
- Paul Murray Kendall, Richard III - chapter "Anne", 1955, Norton paperback reissued 2002
- Michael Hicks, Anne Neville: Queen to Richard III, Tempus 2006.
- Amy Licence, Anne Neville, Richard III's Tragic Queen, Amberley 2013
Title last held byElizabeth Woodville
|Queen consort of England
Lady of Ireland
26 June 1483 – 16 March 1485
Title next held byElizabeth of York