Anne of Bohemia and Hungary
This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. (December 2009)
|Anne of Bohemia and Hungary|
|Queen consort of Germany|
|Queen consort of Bohemia and Hungary|
Archduchess consort of Austria
|Born||23 July 1503|
Buda, Kingdom of Hungary
|Died||27 January 1547 (aged 43)|
Prague, Kingdom of Bohemia
|Father||Vladislaus II of Hungary|
|Mother||Anne of Foix-Candale|
Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (23 July 1503 – 27 January 1547), sometimes known as Anna Jagellonica, was Queen of Germany, Bohemia, and Hungary and Archduchess of Austria as the wife of King Ferdinand I (later Holy Roman Emperor).
She was the oldest child and only daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary (1456–1516) and his third wife Anne of Foix-Candale. King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia was her younger brother. Her paternal grandparents were King Casimir IV of Poland (of the Jagiellon dynasty) and Elisabeth of Austria, one of the heiresses of the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Duchy of Luxembourg and the Duchy of Kujavia. Her maternal grandparents were Gaston de Foix, Count of Candale, and Catherine de Foix, an Infanta of the Kingdom of Navarre.
Anne was born in Buda (now Budapest). The death of Vladislaus II on 13 March 1516 left both siblings in the care of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilan I. It was arranged for Anna to marry his grandson, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, second son of Queen Regnant Joanna of Castile and her late husband and co-ruler, Philip I of Castile. Anna married Ferdinand on 26 May 1521 in Linz, Austria. At the time, Ferdinand was governing the Habsburg hereditary lands on behalf of his older brother Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. It was stipulated that Ferdinand should succeed Anne's brother Louis in case he died without legitimate male heirs.
Louis died without a legitimate male heir after he was thrown from his horse at the conclusion of the Battle of Mohács against Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire on 29 August 1526. This left the thrones of both Bohemia and Hungary vacant. Ferdinand claimed both kingdoms and was elected King of Bohemia on 24 October of the same year with Anne as his Queen.
Hungary was a more difficult case. Suleiman had annexed much of its lands. Ferdinand was proclaimed King of Hungary by a group of nobles, but another faction of Hungarian nobles refused to allow a foreign ruler to hold that title and elected John Zápolya as an alternative king. The resulting conflict between the two rivals and their successors lasted until 1570 when John's son John Sigismund gave up the title King of Hungary in favor of Ferdinand's son Maximilian as part of the terms of the Treaty of Speyer. In 1531, Ferdinand's older brother Charles V recognized Ferdinand as his successor as Holy Roman Emperor, and Ferdinand was elevated to the title King of the Romans.
Anna and Ferdinand had fifteen children, all of whom were born in Bohemia or Hungary. Both of these kingdoms had suffered for centuries from premature deaths among heirs and a shortage of succession prospects, a predicament resolved by Anne's impressive fertility. Meanwhile, Anna served as Queen Consort of Bohemia and as one of three living Queens of Hungary until her death. She died in Prague, days after giving birth to her last daughter Joanna. In 1556, Charles V abdicated and Ferdinand succeeded as emperor, nine years after Anna's death.
The Belvedere ("Queen Anne's Summer Palace"), one of the most beautiful buildings in Prague, was built for her by her husband Ferdinand on the grounds of Prague Castle starting in 1538. It was not completed in its present form until 1565, long after her death.
|Elisabeth||9 July 1526||15 June 1545||Married the future King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland; no issue|
|Maximilian||31 July 1527||12 October 1576||Married his first cousin Maria of Spain; had issue|
|Anna||7 July 1528||16–17 October 1590||Married Albert V, Duke of Bavaria; had issue|
|Ferdinand||14 June 1529||24 January 1595||Married Philippine Welser; had issue; married his niece Anne Juliana Gonzaga; had issue|
|Maria||15 May 1531||11 December 1581||Married Wilhelm, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg; had issue|
|Magdalena||14 August 1532||10 September 1590||A nun|
|Catherine||15 September 1533||28 February 1572||Married King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland; no issue|
|Eleanor||2 November 1534||5 August 1594||Married William I, Duke of Mantua; had issue|
|Margaret||16 February 1536||12 March 1567||A nun|
|John||10 April 1538||20 March 1539||Died in childhood|
|Barbara||30 April 1539||19 September 1572||Married Alfonso II d'Este; no issue|
|Charles||3 June 1540||10 July 1590||Married his niece Maria Anna of Bavaria; had issue (including Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II)|
|Ursula||24 July 1541||30 April 1543||Died in childhood|
|Helena||7 January 1543||5 March 1574||A nun|
|Joanna||24 January 1547||10 April 1578||Married Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany; had issue|
|Ancestors of Anne of Bohemia and Hungary|
- Previte-Orton 1962, p. 922.
- Priebatsch, Felix (1908), "Wladislaw II.", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 54, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 688–696
- Noubel, P., ed. (1877). Revue de l'Agenais [Review of the Agenais]. 4. Société académique d'Agen. pp. 496–497.
- Casimir IV, King of Poland at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 167 – via Wikisource.
- Potašenko, Grigorijus (2008), Multinational Lithuania: history of ethnic minorities, Šviesa, p. 30, ISBN 9785430052508
- Duczmal, Małgorzata (2012). Jogailaičiai (PDF) (in Lithuanian). Translated by Mikalonienė, Birutė; Jarutis, Vyturys. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos centras. p. 30. ISBN 978-5-420-01703-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- Quirin, Heinz (1953), "Albrecht II.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (in German), 1, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, p. 154; (full text online)
- Wagner, Hans (1959), "Elisabeth", Neue Deutsche Biographie (in German), 4, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, p. 441; (full text online)
- Thompson, Neil D.; Hansen, Charles M. (2012). The Ancestry of Charles II, King of England. pp. 58–63.
- Courteault, Henri (1895). Gaston IV, comte de Foix, vicomte souverain de Béarn, prince de Navarre, 1423–1472 (in French). É. Privat. p. 23.
- Ward, A. W.; Prothero, G. W.; Leathes, Stanley, eds. (1911). The Cambridge Modern History. Macmillan Company. p. 80.
- Previte-Orton, C.W. (1962). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. II. Cambridge at the University Press.
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