Dahlström's research focuses on how nerve cells store and transport signals, but she has also published research on many other areas of histology and neuroscience. Dahlström has published over 340 scientific papers. She earned her doctorate at 25 as the youngest Swedish physician to earn a doctorate. She was Professor of Histology and Neuroscience at Gothenburg University from 1983 until her 2008 retirement.
Dahlström has taken part in the debate on the relationship between gender and brain function. In 2007, she published the book Könet sitter i hjärnan (The gender is in the brain), which she described as a concentrate of the last 15 years of international research on the brain and how the brain affects human behavior. This book, mostly referencing studies performed before 1990, has been publicly criticized for inaccuracies.
Her most cited scientific paper, "Evidence for the existence of monoamine-containing neurons in the central nervous system," was cited over 5,500 times as of 2013.
- Tucek, S. Neurochemistry with Microscopes: Homage to Annica Dahlstrom. Neurochemical Research, Vol. 22, No. 8, 1997, pp. 909-910.
- Linnér, Carin. "Könet sitter i din hjärna" Archived 2011-10-12 at the Wayback Machine. Expressen, 2009-04-23.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-06. Retrieved 2012-10-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Danielsson, Anna. "Kvinnor är mer lämpade som ledare". Svenska Dagbladet, 2008-03-30.
- Nordlund, Susanne. Den stoppade intervjun med Annica Dahlström Archived December 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Dagens Nyheter, 2005-02-10.
- Abrahamsson, Maria. Elitfeminister beter sig som män. Svenska Dagbladet, 2007-11-02.
- Dahlström, Annica. "Långt färre kvinnliga än manliga genier" Archived December 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Dagens Nyheter, 2007-02-20.
- Chrapowska, A., Kleberg, J. L., Melchior, L., Wold, A. "Påhittade fakta om könsbiologi utgör missbruk av forskarroll". Dagens Nyheter, 2007-02-18.
- Google Scholar: Annica Dahlström