Anoa (armoured personnel carrier)

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Pindad APS-3 "Anoa" 6x6
Pindad Panser1.jpg
First production model of the Anoa APC.
TypeArmoured personnel carrier
Place of originIndonesia
Service history
In service2009–Present (Indonesian service)
Used byIndonesia - Indonesian Army
WarsUNIFIL
Production history
DesignerPindad
Designed2006
ManufacturerPindad
Produced2008–Present
No. built300+ (Anoa) & 14 (Badak)[1][2]
VariantsSee Variants
Specifications
Mass12.5 tonnes, 14.5 tons (combat)
Length6 m
Width2.5 m
Height2.17 m hull top / 2.9 m turret top (FSV variant)
Crew3 + 10 passengers

ArmorMonocoque Armoured, STANAG 4569 level 3
Main
armament
12.7 mm HMG/ 7.62 mm GPMG/ 40 mm AGL
Secondary
armament
2x3 66 mm smoke grenade projectors
EngineRenault MIDR 062045 inline 6 cylinder turbo-charged diesel, Behr cooling pack
320 HP at 2500 rpm
Power/weight22,85 HP/ton
TransmissionAutomatic, ZF S6HP502, 6 forward, 1 reverse
SuspensionIndependent suspension, torsion bar
Ground clearance40 cm
Fuel capacity200 litres
Operational
range
600 km
Speed± 80 km/h (safety speed recommendation)

The Anoa is a 6x6 armoured personnel carrier developed by PT Pindad of Indonesia. The vehicle is named after the Anoa, which is a type of buffalo indigenous to Indonesia. The prototype was first unveiled at the 61st anniversary of TNI on October 5, 2006 in TNI HQ at Cilangkap, east of capital Jakarta.[3][4] The Anoa resembles the French VAB,[5] which is also in service with Indonesia.[6]

History[edit]

The Anoa had been officially unveiled to the public under the designation APS-3 (Indonesian: Angkut Personel Sedang, English: Medium Personnel Carrier) at the Indo Defence & Aerospace 2008 exhibition from November 19 to November 22, 2008[7][8] after being shown in a TNI parade on October 5, 2008.[9] On August 30, 2008, 10 APS-3s have been produced[10] with the plan of having 150 vehicles to be produced for the Indonesian Army[11][12] in time for their first deployment in 2009.[13]

20 of the Pansers were handed over to the Indonesian government through the Defense Ministry, part of a deal from the initial 150 vehicles to 40 due to the economic crisis.[14] 40 Pansers were delivered as part of PT Pindad's commitment to the total delivery of 154 Pansers.[15] 33 Pansers were eventually submitted to the Ministry of Defence on January 13, 2010.[16] Pindad had received loans from state-owned Bank Mandiri, Bank BNI 46 and Bank BRI as part of payments for the manufacture of the Pansers.[14]

The Anoas were officially placed into Indonesian military service on July 2009.[17] They were publicly seen in service with the Mechanical TNI Battalion Task Force Garuda Contingent in Lebanon.[4][18]

The Anoa made its first appearance overseas when it was publicly display in BRIDEX 2011 in Brunei.[17] It was also displayed at DSA 2012 in Malaysia where a planned Malaysian-only marketed Anoa called the Rimau was unveiled to the public.[19]

Development[edit]

The development history of the Pindad Panser was started in 2003 as a result of increased military intervention in the Aceh province. During the conflict, the Indonesian Army put forward urgent requirements for an armored personnel carrier for troop transport.[20]

Pindad responded to this requirement in 2004, with the APR-1V (Angkut Personel Ringan) a light 4x4 armored vehicle based on a commercial Isuzu truck chassis,[21] 14 vehicles were built by Pindad and were sent to Aceh for evaluation and combat trials. However, the follow-on orders for another 26 vehicles were canceled following the 2004 tsunami.[22]

Pindad then continued the APC development program with assistance from the Agency For Assessment and Application of Technology or BPPT in 2004.[23] The resulted prototype was the APS-1 (Angkut Personel Sedang), a 6x4 design that was again based on a commercial Perkasa truck platform by PT. Texmaco.[24]

Although it was not selected for production, the experience gained in developing the APS-1 convinced the Indonesian Army to give Pindad the go-ahead to develop the next generation of Panser vehicles, the APS-2 at a production cost of IDR 600 million per unit. The APS-2 however, also failed to continue for mass production.

Together with BPPT in 2006, Pindad started new development of APS-3 from the development data of APS-2 which resulted in a production of the initial 4x4 prototype and followed by a more refined 6x6 prototype. The 6x6 prototype first undergoing testing and trials on the beginning of 2007 and then officially unveiled to the public during Indo Defence & Aerospace 2008 exhibition on November 19, 2008.[10]

Design[edit]

Pindad Anoa at Indo Defence & Aerospace 2008 exhibition.

The APS-3 differed from its predecessors which had been based on commercial truck platforms. Instead, the "Anoa" used a monocoque hull design consisting of armored steel (RHA). The steel was made by PT. Krakatau Steel to STANAG 4569 Level 3 standard to withstand 5.56 and 7.62 mm bullets.[18] A new torsion bar suspension system was also developed for the Panser. The engine are imported from France with a Renault MIDR 062045 six-cylinder turbo-charged diesel engine fitted with ZF S6HP502 automatic transmission from Germany. The transmission consist of six forward gears and one reverse. The wheels are equipped with run-flat insert type super single 14.00 - R20 tires from Continental HSO-lineup and hydro-pneumatic controlled disc brake system on all wheels while the drive train of the vehicle comes in 6x6 configuration.[25][26]

The crew enters the front compartment through two side doors. The driver sits on the right side of the vehicle while the vehicle commander sits on the left. The gunner sits behind commander inside the open turret beside the engine. The engine located in the middle (behind the driver), while the remaining space on the left of the engine (behind the commander) are fitted with a open turret for machine gun or automatic grenade launcher. Two additional hatches at the roof of the front compartment provide emergency exits for driver and commander. Two-banks (three each) of smoke grenade projectors were placed slightly behind the front side doors on each side.

The window and vision blocks are bullet-proof with the front windows also further protected by armored shutters, which can be shut entirely, leaving a small observation slit for vision. A total of twelve vision blocks were placed on the Anoas with one on each of the front side door, four on the each side of troop compartment, and two on the hydraulic ramp door. A hydraulic ramp door at the rear provide access to troop compartment, there are also a single built-in door that could be opened manually in case of hydraulic system failures. The crew and mounted infantry both get direct access to the vehicle air-conditioning system. Two inward-facing benches, provide seating for five troops each (ten-troops total). Communications equipment include VHF/FM radios, crew intercom system, and GPS transceiver.[20]

Pindad Anoa 2 at 2013 Trade Expo Indonesia with UNIFIL signature paint-scheme.

Emergency exit doors are present on either sides of the Anoas troop compartment as well as three roof hatches with one rear-facing light machine gun mounting can be seen on the right hatch, to be equipped and operated by the mounted infantries machine gunner. There are also tear-shaped firing port on the Anoas; with four port on each side of the troop compartment, two port on rear hydraulic ramp door, and one port on each of the front side doors, all of them located just below the vision blocks with total numbers of twelve firing ports fitted around the vehicle. A video camera was also placed at the rear of the vehicle to help driver while reversing the vehicle.[27]

Several Anoas has been known to be equipped with locally produced Battlefield Management System (BMS) known as BMS CY-16H, developed and made by PT. Hariff Daya Tunggal Engineering (DTE) together with Army Communication Directorate (Dithubad) since 2012.[28]

On June 1, 2018, Pindad announced that it has entered into a partnership with Bhukhanvala Industries to research and develop a ceramic-based protection system for the Anoas.[29]

In April 2019, Pindad announced that the Anoa 3 or Anoa Desert, will be developed and sold to countries with desert terrain.[30]

Anoa 2[edit]

Pindad Anoa 2 hull construction. (note the emergency exit door at the rear)

The Anoa 2 was officially revealed to the public in Indo Defence & Aerospace 2010. It was seen equipped with small waterjet propellers to swim in shallow water (replaced with additional storage bin for the mass produced version).[22] It is also equipped with an optional RCWS machine gun.[31]

Some differences from the first generation of the Anoa include rounded roof hatches and re-positioning of the smoke grenade projectors from the sides of the vehicle to directly in front of the driver and commander hatches,[22] modification to the armored shutters which in previous version of Anoas required the crew to open and close them from the outside manually and only fitted to the front window now can be safely closed from inside and it also now present on each individual vision blocks, improved crew intercom systems, redesign of vehicles exhaust system from previously rounded muffler with long exhaust pipes now into rectangular muffler with short exhaust pipes mounted on the side, and reduction of vision blocks and firing ports in troop compartment from four on each side to three. Modification on the troop compartment also features individual roof/wall-suspended blast mitigation seat for ten troops and manual override for rear hydraulic ramp. Some vehicle also fitted with camera featuring night-vision capabilities at the front of the vehicle.[31]

Badak FSV[edit]

A prototype of Anoa fire-support version (FSV) using a Alvis AC 90 turret with the Cockerill 90mm MkIII M-A1 gun was first unveiled at Indo Defence & Aerospace 2008,[32] it was announced that the APS-3 fire-support version would be deployed into the Indonesian Army services by 2010.[33]

Badak FSV during live-fire test.

The final, definitive version of the fire support variant was then unveiled at Indo Defence & Aerospace 2014 known as the Badak. The Badak featured a new design with all-welded monocoque steel hull with STANAG 4569 Level 3 protection, a new 340 hp power pack located at the front left and the driver now seated on the right side (beside the engine), leaving the remainder of the hull clear for the installation of the turret. The suspension also utilizes double wishbone independent suspension (as opposed to torsion bar on the Anoa) for better stability while firing the 90mm canon. The CMI Defence CSE 90LP two-person turret has a baseline protection of up to STANAG 4569 Level 1 (upgradable to Level 4) and is armed with a 90mm low-pressure rifled gun. In addition, there is a 7.62mm co-axial machine gun, with another 7.62mm machine gun mounted on the left side of the turret roof for use in the limited air and self-defence roles, and also two-banks (four each) of 76mm smoke grenade projectors on either side of the turret.[34][35]

Pindad Anoa during 2014 armed forces anniversary parade.

PT Pindad has signed a contract with Ireland's Timoney Technologies during IDEX 2017 at Abu Dhabi, UAE for a customized Timoney modular drive-line, transfer case, and steering system to upgrade the Badak 6×6 fire support vehicle drive train.[36]

Armament[edit]

The baseline vehicle is fitted with a small manually-operated open turret on the left of the vehicle and armed with a 12.7 mm heavy machine gun, 7.62 mm general purpose machine gun, or a 40 mm automatic grenade launcher and also 2x3 66 mm smoke grenade projectors. There is one rear-facing 5.56 mm light machine gun mounting in front of right roof hatch in troop compartments for mounted infantry use.[18][22] In Indo Defence & Aerospace 2010, the Anoa 2 was shown to the public with a RCWS installed.[4][31]

Variants[edit]

Pindad Anoa FSV Prototype with a Cockerill 90 mm MkIII M-A1 gun on Alvis AC 90 turret on display at Indo Defence & Aerospace 2008.

The following variants are produced by Pindad:[19][37][38][39]

  • APC
  • Up-armoured variants (Fitted with add-on ceramic/composite armour)
  • Ambulance
  • Command
  • Logistics (Modular design for fuel/ammunition carrier)
  • VIP variant (Used by Paspampres)
  • Armored Recovery
  • Reconnaissance/Surveillance
  • 81mm Mortar Carrier
  • Anoa 2
  • Rimau (Proposed Anoa 2 variant for Malaysia with Mercedes-Benz engine)
  • Badak FSV
  • APS-3 4x4 [Prototype]
  • Anoa FSV [Prototype]
  • Panser 20mm (Fitted with Denel LCT20 turret) [Prototype]
  • Anoa 2 Amphibious (Fitted with trim-vane, flotation kit, bilge-pump and large propeller) [Prototype]

Operators[edit]

Map of Anoa operators in blue.

Current operators[edit]

Potential operators[edit]

  •  Brunei: In 2018, Brunei has addressed to purchase the 45 Anoas alongside SS2s after holding informal talks back in 2015.[40][41][42] A previous contact was signed in 2011.[43]
  •  Bangladesh: A visit by a Bangladeshi trade delegation to the Pindad office has expressed interest in possible acquisition of the Panser.[44]
  •  Iraq: Iraq has expressed interest in buying the Anoa, taking the geography into account, during several meetings between Iraqi and Indonesian officials.[45][46]
  •  Malaysia: In April 2012, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi confirmed that while the Anoa had been evaluated, no decision had been made on the acquisition.[47] There are 2 options for the machine to use, Mercedes Benz or Renault both with capacities 7,000 cubic-centimeter equivalent with 320 horse power.[48] The said order was for 32 Anoa's to be purchased.[49] There is no signed deal available.[50]
  •    Nepal: Nepal was reported to have shown interest for 28 6x6 versions of the Panser for its UN peacekeeping missions.[51] There is no signed deal available.[50]
  •  Oman: Unconfirmed reports of 200 units will be order.[52] There is no signed deal available.[50]
  •  Pakistan:[53]
  •  Timor Leste: Announced interested to purchases the Anoa.[54]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  47. ^ "Zahid: Don't confuse folk with armoured car issue". Retrieved 2012-04-23.
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  53. ^ "Indonesia offers defense equipment to Pakistan". Antara. September 20, 2016. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  54. ^ "Timor Leste Pesan Panser Anoa ke Pindad" (in Indonesian). ASEAN News. 2012-09-07. Archived from the original on 2013-01-18. Retrieved 2013-01-17.

External links[edit]