Anomodont

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Anomodonts
Temporal range: Middle Permian-Late Triassic, 270–201 Ma (Possible Early Cretaceous record.)[1]
Lystrosaurus 1.JPG
Mounted skeleton of Lystrosaurus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Order: Therapsida
Clade: Neotherapsida
Suborder: Anomodontia
Owen, 1859
Subgroups

See text

Anomodontia is an extinct group of non-mammalian therapsids containing many species from the Permian and Triassic periods (possibly continuing into the Early Cretaceous),[2] most of which were toothless, possibly endothermic[3][4][5] herbivores.[6] Anomodonts were very diverse during the Middle Permian, including primitive forms like Anomocephalus and Patranomodon and groups like Venyukovioidea, Dromasauria, and Dicynodontia. Of these, only the dicynodonts survived beyond the Middle Permian. Dicynodonts became the most successful and abundant of all herbivores in the Late Permian and Triassic, filling ecological niches ranging from large browsers down to small burrowers. Few dicynodont families survived the Permian–Triassic extinction event, but one lineage evolved into large, stocky forms that remained the dominant terrestrial herbivores right until the Late Triassic, when changing conditions caused them to decline.

Classification[edit]

Taxonomy[edit]

Phylogeny[edit]

Cladogram modified from Liu et al. (2009):[2]

Therapsida 
unnamed

Biarmosuchia

Gorgonopsia

unnamed

Dinocephalia

 Anomodontia 

Biseridens

unnamed

Anomocephalus

unnamed
 Venyukovioidea 

Otsheria

unnamed

Ulemica

Suminia

 Chainosauria 

Patranomodon

unnamed

Galeops

Eodicynodon

Below is a cladogram from Kammerer et al. (2013).[7] The data matrix of Kammerer et al. (2013), a list of characteristics that was used in the analysis, was based on that of Kammerer et al. (2011), which followed a comprehensive taxonomic revision of Dicynodon.[8] Because of this, many of the relationships found by Kammerer et al. (2013) are the same as those found by Kammerer et al. (2011). However, several taxa were added to the analysis, including Tiarajudens Eubrachiosaurus, Shaanbeikannemeyeria, Zambiasaurus and many "outgroup" taxa (positioned outside Anomodontia), while other taxa were re-coded. As in Kammerer et al. (2011), the interrelationships of non-kannemeyeriiform dicynodontoids are weakly supported and thus vary between the analyses.[7]

Biseridens

Anomocephalus

Tiarajudens

Patranomodon

 2 

Suminia

Otsheria

Ulemica

 3 

Galepus

Galechirus

Galeops

 4 

"Eodicynodon" oelofseni

Eodicynodon oosthuizeni

Colobodectes

Lanthanostegus

Chelydontops

Endothiodon

Pristerodon

 5 
 6 
 7 

Diictodon

Eosimops

Prosictodon

Robertia

 8 

Emydops

 9 
 10 

Dicynodontoides

Kombuisia

Myosaurus

 11 

Cistecephalus

Cistecephaloides

Kawingasaurus

 12 

1 Anomodontia, 2 Venyukovioidea, 3 Chainosauria, 4 Dicynodontia, 5 Therochelonia, 6 Diictodontia, 7 Pylaecephalidae, 8 Emydopoidea, 9 Kistecephalia, 10 Kingoriidae, 11 Cistecephalidae, 12 Bidentalia
12 
 13 

Keyseria

Daqingshanodon

 14 

Oudenodon

Tropidostoma

Australobarbarus

Odontocyclops

Idelesaurus

 15 

Rhachiocephalus

Kitchinganomodon

 16 

Syops

 17 

Aulacocephalodon

Pelanomodon

Geikia elginensis

Geikia locusticeps

 18 

Interpresosaurus

Elph

Katumbia

Gordonia

Basilodon

Sintocephalus

Dicynodon lacerticeps

"Dicynodon" huenei

Delectosaurus

Vivaxosaurus

Daptocephalus

Dinanomodon

Peramodon

Jimusaria

Turfanodon

 19 

Euptychognathus

Lystrosaurus murrayi

"Lystrosaurus" declivus

"Lystrosaurus" curvatus

"Lystrosaurus" maccaigi

"Lystrosaurus" hedini

TSK 2

Kwazulusaurus

 20 

12 Bidentalia, 13 Cryptodontia, 14 Oudenodontidae, 15 Rhachiocephalidae, 16 Geikiidae, 17 Geikiinae, 18 Dicynodontoidea, 19 Lystrosauridae, 20 Kannemeyeriiformes
20 

Angonisaurus

 21 

Tetragonias

Vinceria

Shansiodon

Rhinodicynodon

Dinodontosaurus

Shaanbeikannemeyeria

Kannemeyeria lophorhinus

Kannemeyeria simocephalus

Parakannemeyeria

Xiyukannemeyeria

Dolichuranus

Rechnisaurus

Uralokannemeyeria

Rabidosaurus

Sinokannemeyeria

Rhadiodromus

Wadiasaurus

 22 
 23 

Zambiasaurus

Moghreberia

Placerias

 24 

Stahleckeria

Eubrachiosaurus

Sangusaurus

Jachaleria

Ischigualastia

20 Kannemeyeriiformes, 21 Shansiodontidae, 22 Stahleckeriidae, 23 Placeriinae, 24 Stahleckeriinae

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ *Thulborn, T.; Turner, S. (2003). "The last dicynodont: an Australian Cretaceous relict". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 270 (1518): 985–993. doi:10.1098/rspb.2002.2296. JSTOR 3558635. PMC 1691326. PMID 12803915.
  2. ^ a b Liu, J.; Rubidge, B.; Li, J. (2009). "A new specimen of Biseridens qilianicus indicates its phylogenetic position as the most basal anomodont". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 277 (1679): 285–292. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0883. PMC 2842672. PMID 19640887.
  3. ^ Bakker 1975
  4. ^ BOTHA-BRINK, Jennifer; ANGIELCZYK, Kenneth D. (2010). "Do extraordinarily high growth rates in Permo-Triassic dicynodonts (Therapsida, Anomodontia) explain their success before and after the end-Permian extinction?". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 160 (2): 341–365. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00601.x.
  5. ^ Bajdek, Piotr; Qvarnström, Martin; Owocki, Krzysztof; Sulej, Tomasz; Sennikov, Andrey G.; Golubev, Valeriy K.; Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz (2016). "Microbiota and food residues including possible evidence of pre-mammalian hair in Upper Permian coprolites from Russia". Lethaia. 49 (4): 455–477. doi:10.1111/let.12156.
  6. ^ Chinsamy-Turan, A. (2011) Forerunners of Mammals: Radiation - Histology - Biology, p.39. Indiana University Press, ISBN 0253356970. Retrieved May 2012
  7. ^ a b Kammerer, C. F.; Fröbisch, J. R.; Angielczyk, K. D. (2013). Farke, Andrew A, ed. "On the Validity and Phylogenetic Position of Eubrachiosaurus browni, a Kannemeyeriiform Dicynodont (Anomodontia) from Triassic North America". PLoS ONE. 8 (5): e64203. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064203. PMC 3669350. PMID 23741307.
  8. ^ Kammerer, C.F.; Angielczyk, K.D.; Fröbisch, J. (2011). "A comprehensive taxonomic revision of Dicynodon (Therapsida, Anomodontia) and its implications for dicynodont phylogeny, biogeography, and biostratigraphy". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (Suppl. 1): 1–158. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.627074.