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Anosmin-1 is a secreted, EM associated glycoprotein found in humans and other organisms responsible for normal development, which is expressed in the brain, spinal cord and kidney. Absence or damage to the protein results in Kallmann syndrome in humans, which is characterized by loss of olfactory bulbs and GnRH secretion leading to anosmia and hypothalamic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Anosmin-1 is coded by the KAL-1 gene, which is found on the X chromosome. Anosmin-1 is 100 kilodaltons and is expressed on the outside of cells. Because of this and because of its contribution to normal migration of nerve cells, a role in the extracellular matrix has been postulated.

During neural crest cell development, anosmin-1 plays a role in cranial neural cell formation by spatiotemporal regulation. Secreated anosmin-1 enhances FGF activity by promoting FGF8-FGFR1 complex formation, whereas inhibits both BMP5 and WNT3A activities. As a results, orchestrated regulation of FGF, BMP, and WNT by anosmin-1 control EMT and MET during neural crest cell development. In human retinal pigment epithelial cell(RPE), the expression of anosmin-1 is regulated by TGF-β which remain to be investigated.


Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 308700

Endo, Yukinori; Kenneth M. Yamada (August 2012). "Extracellular matrix protein anosmin promote neural crest formation and regulates FGF, BMP, and WNT activities". Developmental Cell. 23: 305–16. PMC 3422507Freely accessible. PMID 22898776. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2012.07.006. 

Raju, Raghavan; Chandrasekharam N. Nagineni (25 Jan 2013). "Transforming growth factor-β regulates the expression of anosmin (KAL-1) in human retinal pigment epithelial cells". Cytokine. S1043-4666(12)00829-0. 61 (3): 724–7. PMC 3595383Freely accessible. PMID 23357298. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2012.12.019.