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AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro

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AnsaldoBreda/Ansaldo STS Driverless Metro
In service 2002–present
Manufacturer AnsaldoBreda(Hitachi)-Ansaldo STS
Number built 34 (as of 2010)
Formation 2–6 cars
Operator(s) Brescia Metro
Copenhagen Metro
Milan Metro
Rome Metro
Thessaloniki Metro
Taipei Metro
Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University
Width 2.65 m (8 ft 8 in)
2.85 m (9 ft 4 in) (Rome)
Height 3.4 m (11 ft)
3.85 m (12.6 ft)
Maximum speed 80 km/h (50 mph) to 90 km/h (56 mph)
Electric system(s) 750 V third rail
1,500 V overhead line (Rome)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)

The AnsaldoBreda -Ansaldo STS Driverless Metro is a class of driverless electric multiple units and corresponding signaling system. Manufactured by AnsaldoBreda and Ansaldo STS in Italy, it is or will be used on the Copenhagen Metro, Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University, the Brescia Metro, the Thessaloniki Metro, Line 5 of the Milan Metro, Line C of the Rome Metro and the Yellow Line of the Taipei Rapid Transit System. The first system to use this class of driverless electric multiple units was the Copenhagen Metro which opened in 2002.

The rolling stock consists of two[1] to six articulated cars. All trains are 2.65 meters (8.7 ft) wide, except those used on the Rome Metro which are 2.85 meters (9.4 ft) wide. All operate on standard gauge. Each car has a power output of 210 or 256 kilowatts (282 or 343 hp), fed from a third rail at 750 volts (except in Rome where it is 1,500 V overhead line). The systems are fully automated, consisting of automatic train protection (ATP), automatic train operation (ATO) and automatic train supervision.

Rolling stock[edit]

Interior of a Copenhagen Metro unit

The rolling stock uses standardized car bodies, articulated together. The number of cars varies across the different systems where they are used. The trains used on the Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University system are two car units. For the other systems, the units vary between three and six cars, making the trains from 39 to 109 meters (128 to 358 ft) long. They are 2.65 meters (8.7 ft) wide, except the Rome Metro units, which are 2.85 meters (9.4 ft). The units vary from 3.4 to 3.85 meters (11 ft 2 in to 12 ft 8 in) tall. Each car has two doors on each side, which are 1.3 meters (4 ft 3 in) wide and 1.945 meters (6 ft 4.6 in) tall.[2] The vehicles are designed by Giugiaro Design.[3]

The three and four-car trains have six three-phase asynchronous motors per train, with each motor giving a power output of 105 and 128 kilowatts (141 and 172 hp), giving each train a power output of 630 or 764 kilowatts (845 or 1,025 hp). In each car, the two motors are fed by the car's own insulated-gate bipolar transistor. They transform the 750-volt (1,500 V in Rome) direct current collected from the third rail shoe to the three-phase alternating current used in the motors. The trains' top speeds are 80 or 90 km/h (50 or 56 mph), with an acceleration and deceleration capacity of 1.3 m/s2 (4.3 ft/s2). Trains are fully compatible with platform screen doors, which are found at all stations in Brescia, Rome and Milan, and at underground stations in Copenhagen.[2][4][5]

System Line Opening date Trains Cars Length Width Power Speed
m ft m ft kW hp km/h mph
Brescia 2013 18 3 39.0 128.0 2.65 8 ft 8 in 630 840 80 50
Copenhagen M1 and M2 2002 34 3 39.0 128.0 2.65 8 ft 8 in 630 840 90 56
Copenhagen M3 and M4 2019 (est.) 39 3 39.0 128.0 2.65 8 ft 8 in 630 840 90 56
Honolulu 2018 (est.) 20 4 39.10 128.3 3.05 10 ft 105 65
Milan Line 4 2021 (est.) 47 4 50.9 167 2.65 8 ft 8 in 630 840 80 50
Milan Line 5 2013 21 4 50.5 166 2.65 8 ft 8 in 630 840 80 50
Rome Line C 2014 30 6 109.4 359 2.85 9 ft 4 in 90 56
Taipei Circular Line 2018 (est.) 17 4 68.0 223.1 2.65 8 ft 8 in 80 50
Thessaloniki 2020 (est.) 18 4 51.0 167.3 2.65 8 ft 8 in 764 1,025 90 56


The systems are controlled by a fully automated computer system, located at the control and maintenance center. The automatic train control (ATC) consists of three subsystems: automatic train protection (ATP), automatic train operation (ATO) and automatic train supervision (ATS). The ATP is responsible for managing the trains' speed, ensuring that doors are closed before departure and that switches are correctly set. The system uses fixed block signaling, except around stations, where moving block signaling is used.[6][5] The system has been designed and built by Union Switch & Signal.[7]

The control room of the Copenhagen Metro

The ATO is the autopilot that drives the trains in line with a pre-defined schedule, ensures that the train stop at stations and operates the doors. The ATS monitors all components of the network, including the rails and all trains on the system, and displays a live schematic at the control center. The ATC is designed so that only the ATP is safety-critical, and will halt trains if the other systems have faults. Other aspects of the system, such a power supply, ventilation, security alarms, cameras and pumps, are controlled by a system called "control, regulating and surveillance".[6]

The most common repairs are the grinding of the wheels; more complicated repairs are made by replacing entire components that are sent to the manufacturer. By having components in reserve, trains can have shorter maintenance times. The center also has the system's work trains, including a diesel locomotive that can fetch broken trains.[6] At any time, there are four people working at the control center. Two monitor the ATC system, one monitors passenger information, while the last is responsible for secondary systems, such as power supply. In case of technical problems, there is always a team of technicians who can be sent to perform repairs. Although the trains are not equipped with drivers, there are stewards that help passengers, perform ticket controls and assist in emergency situations.[6]


Brescia Metro unit


Main article: Brescia Metro

The Brescia Metro is a system which opened in March 2013 in Brescia, Italy. The 18-kilometer (11 mi) system is being built in three stages and will have 23 stations. The system will feature a 90-second headway. ASM Brescia ordered 18 trains which are now being used on the Metro.[8][9]


Main article: Copenhagen Metro

The Copenhagen Metro, Denmark, consists of two lines, M1 and M2, that run 20.5 kilometers (12.7 mi) serving 22 stations. The system opened between 2002 and 2007, and connects the city center to the areas of Frederiksberg and Amager, and Copenhagen Airport. The next extension, the City Circle Line is under construction and is planned to open in 2018. Metroselskabet took delivery of 34 three-car units between 2002 and 2007, and operates with a headway of between two and twenty minutes, including an all-night service.[4][6] In April 2008, the Copenhagen Metro won the award at MetroRail 2008 for the world's best metro.[10]


Main article: Honolulu Rail Transit

The Honolulu Rail Transit project will be a 20 mi (32 km) elevated rail route which will connect the city of Honolulu on the island of Oahu in Hawaii with outlying suburbs. The project is planned to open in phases starting in 2018 with the entire 21 station route to be completed in 2019. AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro rolling stock will be used for the system.[11] Honolulu politicians and construction crews broke ground on the project on February 22, 2011 in Kapolei, Hawaii. As of October 2012, construction of the columns and foundations have been completed for the first 0.5 mi (0.80 km) mile of the route. Future extensions to the route have been planned, which include spurs to the route and 15 additional stations. Construction of the project is currently on hold as litigation resulting from Kaleikini v. Yoshioka court case bars continuation of the project until the City and County submits a complete archeological survey to the State Historic Preservation Division for the entire line.[12]


Main article: Lima Metro

It is currently under construction in Lima the Line 2 of Lima Metro and a branch of Line 4, which will connect the city of east to west in the first case and the portion of line 4 linking the Jorge Chavez International Airport with the line 2. the line will be built in two phases, the first of which is scheduled to open in 2017 and the second in 2020. the total of the 2 lines will cost US $ 5,346,000 [13]


Main article: Milan Metro Line 5

The Milan Metro's Line 5 first section between Bignami and the interconnection with M3 at Zara opened on 10 February 2013. The second stage opened on 1 March 2014, and runs from Zara to Porta Garibaldi station. The third and fourth sections are under construction and are both planned to open in 2015, and will run from Garibaldi to San Siro stadium and from Bignami to Monza. Further extensions are planned. The first stage of 5.6 kilometres (3.5 mi) was estimated to cost €500 million. [14][15]


An 11·5 km metro serving the Princess Nora Bint Abdulrahman University on the outskirts of Riyadh opened in 2012.[1]


Main article: Line C (Rome Metro)

Rome Metro's Line C, currently under construction, will be 25.5 kilometers (15.8 mi) long, of which 17.6 kilometers (10.9 mi) will be underground. The line will have 30 stations, of which 21 will be underground, and carry up to 24,000 passengers per hour in each direction. Metropolitana di Roma has ordered thirty six-car units, which are 20 centimeters (7.9 in) wider than the other systems' vehicles, and capable of carrying 1,200 passengers per train. Average speed on the system will be 35 km/h (22 mph), with the headway varying from three to twelve minutes. Construction of the system is estimated to cost €3 billion and will open in four stages; in addition to the section opened in 2014, other sections will open in 2015, 2016 and 2020.[16]


Main article: Yellow Line (TRTS)

The Yellow Line or Circular Line of the Taipei Rapid Transit System, Taiwan, will serve as a cross-link between existing lines. The 52-kilometer (32 mi) system will feature 46 stations. The 15.4 kilometers (9.6 mi) phase 1 will have 14 stations and is planned for completion in June 2018. The Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation has ordered 17 trains for this phase.[17][18]


Main article: Thessaloniki Metro

The new Thessaloniki Metro in Greece has been under construction since 2006, and is scheduled to open in 2018 after costing €800 million. The 9.5-kilometer (5.9 mi) line will be entirely underground and feature 13 stations. Attiko Metro will use 18 three-car units on the new line.[19][20][21] The system will afterwards begin constructions of two 5-kilometer (3.1 mi) five-station extensions, creating a two-line metro.[22]


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  2. ^ a b AnsaldoBreda. "Driverless metros" (PDF). Retrieved 4 November 2010. 
  3. ^ "Copenhagen Metro". Arcspace. Archived from the original on 30 July 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2009. 
  4. ^ a b Haas, Torkil (2002). "En mini-metro med maksimal virkning" (PDF). Jernbanen (in Danish) (2): 52–53. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-19. 
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  12. ^
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  16. ^ (Italian)
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  18. ^ 臺北捷運 [Taipei MRT], Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation, 2009 
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  20. ^ "Thessaloniki Metro". Find Articles. March 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2009. [dead link]
  21. ^ "Thessaloniki Metro Construction Resumes". Greek Reporter. 3 August 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  22. ^ "Extensions". Attiko Metro. Retrieved 14 November 2009.