Ansar al-Sharia (Libya)
|Ansar al-Sharia in Libya|
أنصار الشريعة بليبياParticipant in the Factional violence in Libya (2011–14) and the Second Libyan Civil War
Emblem and flag of Ansar al-Sharia
|Active||June 2012 – 27 May 2017|
|Leaders||Abu Khalid al Madani|
Mohamed al-Zahawi †
|Area of operations||Benghazi|
Other cities in Eastern Libya 
|Part of||Ansar al-Sharia|
Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries
Shura Council of Mujahideen in Derna
Ajdabiya Shura Council
|Originated as||February 17th Martyrs Brigade|
Abu Obayda bin al-Jarah Brigade
Operation Dignity coalition
|Battles and war(s)||Second Libyan Civil War|
Ansar al-Sharia in Libya (ASL, Arabic: أنصار الشريعة بليبيا, English: Supporters of Islamic Law) was a Salafist Islamist militia group that advocated the implementation of strict Sharia law across Libya. Ansar al-Sharia came into being in 2011, during the Libyan Civil War. Until January 2015, it was led by its "Amir", Muhammad al-Zahawi. As part of its strategy, the organization targeted specific Libyan and American civilians for death and took part in the 2012 Benghazi attack. The group was designated as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, Turkey, the UAE, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
On 27 May 2017, the group announced it was formally dissolving itself, amid heavy losses that wiped out most of its leadership and decimated its fighters.
Ansar al-Sharia was formed during the Libyan Civil War and rose to prominence after the killing of Muammar Gaddafi. Made up of former rebels from the Abu Obayda Bin Aljarah Brigade, Malik Brigade and February 17th Martyrs Brigade and several other groups, the Salafist militia initially made their name by posting videos of themselves fighting in the Battle of Sirte, the final battle in the war.
Their first major public appearance occurred on 7 June 2012, when they led a rally of as many as two hundred pickup trucks mounted with artillery along Benghazi’s Tahrir Square and demanded the imposition of Sharia law. According to the New York Times, "Western diplomats who watched said they were stunned by the scale and weaponry of the display."
The leader of Ansar al-Sharia, Sheikh Muhammad al-Zahawi, later gave an interview on a local TV station forbidding participation in Libya’s first post-civil war parliamentary elections on the grounds that they were un-Islamic. The militia went on to provide security to some public property in eastern Libya, including Benghazi's Al Jala Hospital. The group is reportedly the military arm of Al-Dawa wa Al-Islah, a charitable organization.
Noman Benotman, a former member of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group and analyst of Libyan Islamism claims that Ansar al-Sharia is less an organization than a term applied to an amorphous coalition of Islamist and Salafist groups active in eastern Libya. The logo of the Ansar al-Sharia is a pair of AK-47 assault rifles, a clenched fist with one finger pointed up, an open Koran, and a black flag.
Fawzi Bukatef, the leader in Benghazi of the rival Islamist militia February 17th Martyrs Brigade, claimed that members of the organisation had been responsible for the assassination of Abdul Fatah Younis, the commander of rebel forces during the Libyan Civil War.
Ansar al-Sharia carried out destruction of Sufi shrines in Benghazi, which they regarded as idolatrous. In November 2011, Libyan Salafis engaged in a series of attacks on Sufi shrines all over the country. Mohamed Yousef el-Magariaf, the president of the General National Congress (GNC) denounced the shrine attacks as "disgraceful acts" and said "those involved were criminals who would be pursued."
Aside from militant activities, Ansar al-Sharia has attempted to gain local support through Dawah (missionary activities), the provision of social services, ranging from security patrols to garbage collection, and the establishment of medical clinics and religious schools. In January 2015, the group introduced Islamic religious police and a sharia court in parts of Benghazi.
2012 U.S. diplomatic mission attack in Benghazi
On 11 September 2012, the United States Department of State Operations Center advised the White House Situation Room and other U.S. security units that Ansar al-Sharia was claiming responsibility for the attack on the U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi that had just occurred. Witnesses said they saw vehicles with the group's logo at the scene of the assault and that fighters there acknowledged at the time that they belonged to Ansar al-Sharia. Witnesses also said they saw Ahmed Abu Khattala, a commander of Ansar al-Sharia, leading the embassy attack, a claim Mr. Khattala denied. According to longwarjournal.org, the group issued a statement asserting that it "didn't participate as a sole entity" and that the attack "was a spontaneous popular uprising" to the film trailer Innocence of Muslims, widely condemned as anti-Islamic.
As of 6 August 2013, U.S. officials confirmed that Ahmed Abu Khattala, the Libyan leader of Ansar al-Sharia, has been charged with playing a significant role in the 2012 attack on the U.S. diplomatic compound in Benghazi. According to NBC, the charges were filed under seal in Washington, D.C. in late July. Khattalah was arrested by U.S. Delta Force special operations personnel in a raid in Libya on 15 June 2014. He was transported to the United States aboard the USS New York transport dock and is expected to face trial in a U.S. criminal court.
Temporary withdrawal and resurgence
On 21 September 2012, after massive anti-militia protests in Benghazi which largely blamed Ansar al-Sharia for the mission attack, hundreds of protesters stormed the militia headquarters, pulled down flags of the militia and torched a vehicle inside the base. The group was forced out of its bases in Benghazi the next day.
A few hours after the attack, Martyrs of February 17, together with Bou Salim Martyrs brigade, allegedly agreed to disband, however about 150-200 militiamen moved from Benghazi to Jebel Akhdar area.
As of December 2012, the group still existed, although it had adopted a low-key position. By March 2013, the group had returned to Benghazi and began patrolling hospitals and manning checkpoints, as well as providing humanitarian services to residents. By late 2013, the group had opened up a branch in Derna, under the slogan "A step toward building the Islamic state". The group also established a presence in the Libyan cities of Ajdabiya and Sirte.
Second Libyan Civil War
Following prolonged tensions between Islamists and non-Islamists in Libya, on 16 May 2014 military forces loyal to General Khalifa Belqasim Haftar launched a large scale air and ground offensive codenamed Operation Dignity on Islamist militia groups in Benghazi including Ansar al-Sharia.
After initial reverses, Ansar al-Sharia, and other Islamist and jihadist militias fighting together as the Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries, launched a counteroffensive against units loyal to Haftar in the following months, largely driving them out of the city by August of the same year. After capturing several army bases in this offensive, Ansar al-Sharia posted images on the internet of the weapons and equipment that had seized, including D-30 Howitzers, Multiple rocket launchers, Strela 2 Man-portable air-defense systems, large quantities of ammunition and vehicles.
In late 2014, the group's leader, Mohamed al-Zahawi, died of wounds he had received from the fighting. In the months that followed, many members of Ansar al-Sharia, including the majority of its organisation in Sirte, reportedly defected to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Libya. On 30 March 2015, the group's chief Sharia jurist, Abu Abdullah Al-Libi, pledged allegiance to ISIL, and defected with a number of fighters. Ansar al-Sharia quickly announced that Abu Tamim al Libi had been selected as his replacement. For several years thereafter the group retained its independence from ISIL, but continued losses through casualties in fighting the Libyan National Army under Khalifa Haftar and further defections to ISIL, brought them to dissolution in 2017, with many of the remaining fighters going to ISIL.
The 2015 kidnapping and beheading of 21 Egyptian Copts in Libya for being “people of the cross, followers of the hostile Egyptian [Coptic] church,” has been blamed on Ansar al-Sharia by Carol E. B. Choksy and Jamsheed K. Choksy of World Affairs.
Terrorist organization designation
- "Profile: Libya's Ansar al-Sharia". BBC News. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "Libya militia linked to U.S. attack returns to Benghazi". Reuters. 17 February 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Libyan Islamist group Ansar al-Sharia says it is dissolving". Reuters. 27 May 2017. Archived from the original on 28 May 2017.
- "Ansar al Sharia Libya fights on under new leader". The Long War Journal. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "Leader of Libyan Islamists Ansar al-Sharia dies of wounds". Reuters. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- "US names groups suspected of Benghazi attack". Al Jazeera English. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- Mohamed Eljarh (20 January 2014). "There's No Room for Democracy in Libya's Extremist Hub". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Michael, Maggie; Hendawi, Hamza (18 September 2012). "A Benghazi power, Libya militia eyed in attack". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 21 September 2012.
- "Ansar al-Shari'a: Transforming Libya into a Land of Jihad". Jamestown Foundation. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- McGregor, Andrew (8 August 2014). "Libya's Ansar al-Shari'a Declares the Islamic Emirate of Benghazi". Terrorism Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. 12 (16). Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- Office of the Spokesperson (10 January 2014). "Terrorist Designations of Three Ansar al-Shari'a Organizations and Leaders". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "The List established and maintained by the Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee with respect to individuals, groups, undertakings and other entities associated with Al-Qaida". United Nations Security Council Committee 1267. UN.org. 19 November 2014. Archived from the original on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-21.
- "Proscribed terrorist groups or organisations" (PDF). Home Office. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- "Who are Libya's Ansar al-Sharia?". France24. 14 September 2012. Archived from the original on 15 September 2012.
- Kilpatrick, David (29 December 2013). "Deadly Mix, Chapter 1, A Rising Militia Leader". New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Benghazi Islamist rally angers locals". Libya Herald. 9 June 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "The Wrath of Libya's Salafis". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Dominique Soguel (18 September 2012). "Attack on Americans jolts Libya to act on militias". Daily Star. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Pro-al Qaeda group seen behind deadly Benghazi attack". CNN. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "What is Ansar al Sharia, and was it behind the consulate attack in Benghazi?". CNN. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (15 September 2012). "Attack by Fringe Group Highlights the Problem of Libya's Militias". New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Meeting Mohammad Ali al-Zahawi of Libyan Ansar al-Sharia". BBC. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Ward, Sharron (12 September 2012). "The Battle of the Shrines". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Nadia Radhwan (13 November 2013). "Ansar al-Sharia intensifies recruitment". Magharebia. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- "The Rise and Decline of Ansar al-Sharia in Libya". Hudson Institute. 6 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- "White House told of militant claim two hours after Libya attack: emails". Reuters. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (17 October 2012). "Libya Singles Out Islamist as a Commander in Consulate Attack, Libyans Say". New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Ansar al Shariah issues statement on US Consulate assault in Libya". Long War Journal. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "US charges Libyan with role in deadly attack on Benghazi consulate". NBC News. 6 August 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "US seizes Benghazi raid 'ringleader' Ahmed Abu Khattala". BBC News. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "Elite Delta Force Commandos Capture Ahmed Abu Khattala in Midnight Benghazi Raid". Yahoo! News UK & Ireland. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "Benghazi Suspect Ahmed Abu Khattala Could be in U.S. by Week's End". NBC News. 23 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "Protesters storm main Islamist militia HQ in Libya's Benghazi". Reuters. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Libyan Islamist militia swept out of Benghazi bases". Reuters. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Clinton praises Libya for its move to rein in militias". CNN. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Chris Stephen (9 October 2012). "Libyan army blockades Islamist militia suspected of killing US ambassador". London: Guardian. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Ansar Al-Sharia denies any link with Benghazi assassinations". Libya Herald. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Ansar al-Sharia returns to Benghazi". Magharebia. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Aya Elbrqawi (28 February 2014). "Slow death of Derna". Magharebia. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- Sharif Abdel Kouddous (20 May 2014). "Leader of Libya's revolt, Khalifa Hifter, rules out negotiations and vows to fight". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- "Libya: Drawing the battle lines". The Economist. 7 June 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "Islamists seize key Benghazi army base as Tripoli fire rages". AFP. 29 July 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Islamist groups in Libya post pictures of seized army bases". The Daily Star. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Libya's anti-Islamist offensive suffers setback". IHS Jane's. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "The Islamic State's model". The Washington Post. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- "Islamic State: Inside the latest city to fall under its sway". The Daily Telegraph. 10 March 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- "Jihadists Report Shariah Jurist in Ansar al-Shariah in Libya Pledging to IS". SITE. 28 March 2015.
- "Ansar al Sharia Libya relaunches social media sites". Long War Journal. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- "Libya Benghazi: Group blamed for 2012 attack on US mission disbands". BBC News. 28 May 2017. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- Choksy, Carol E. B.; Choksy, Jamsheed K. (May–June 2015). "The Saudi Connection: Wahhabism and Global Jihad". World Affairs. Retrieved 16 November 2017.