Ansbach

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Ansbach
Ansbach Centre.jpg
Coat of arms of Ansbach
Coat of arms
Ansbach   is located in Germany
Ansbach
Ansbach
Coordinates: 49°18′0″N 10°35′0″E / 49.30000°N 10.58333°E / 49.30000; 10.58333Coordinates: 49°18′0″N 10°35′0″E / 49.30000°N 10.58333°E / 49.30000; 10.58333
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Mittelfranken
District Urban district
Government
 • Lord Mayor Carda Seidel (BAP/FWG/ödp)
Area
 • Total 99.92 km2 (38.58 sq mi)
Population (2013-12-31)[1]
 • Total 39,839
 • Density 400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 91522
Dialling codes 0981
Vehicle registration AN
Website www.ansbach.de

Ansbach (/ˈænzbæk/; German pronunciation: [ˈansbax]) is a city in the German state of Bavaria. It is the capital of the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Ansbach is situated 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Nuremberg and 90 miles (140 km) north of Munich, on the Fränkische Rezat (Rezat River), a tributary of the Main river. As of 2004, its population was 40,723.

Developed in the 8th century as a Benedictine monastery, it became the seat of the Hohenzollern family in 1331. In 1460, the Margraves of Branderberg–Anspach lived here. The city has a castle known as Margrafen–Schloss, built between 1704-1738. It was not badly damaged during the World Wars and hence retains its original historical baroque sheen. Ansbach is now home to a US military base and to the Ansbach University of Applied Sciences.

The city has connections via autobahn A6 and highways B13 and B14. Ansbach station is on the Nürnberg–Crailsheim and Treuchtlingen–Würzburg railways and is the terminus of line S4 of the Nuremberg S-Bahn.

Name[edit]

The name of the town was originally Onolzbach,[2] meaning "On'z Brook".[3] It was also formerly known as Anspach.[2]

History[edit]

Ansbach lies on the Rezat around 25 miles (40 km) SW of Nuremberg and 90 miles (140 km) north of Munich. A Benedictine monastery was established there around 748 by the Frankish noble St Gumbertus. The adjoining village of Onolzbach is first noticed as a proper town in 1221.[citation needed]

The counts of Oettingen ruled over Ansbach until the Hohenzollern burgraves of Nuremberg took over in 1331. The Hohenzollerns made Ansbach the seat of their dynasty until their acquisition of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1415. After the 1440 death of Frederick I, a cadet branch of the family established itself as the margraves of Ansbach. George the Pious introduced the Protestant Reformation to Ansbach in 1528, leading to the secularization of Gumbertus Abbey in 1563.

The Margrafen–Schloss was built between 1704-1738;[4] its gardens continued to be a notable attraction into the 19th century.[2] In 1791, the last margrave sold his realm to the Kingdom of Prussia.[2] In 1796, the Duke of Zweibrücken, Maximilian Joseph—the future Bavarian king Max I Joseph—was exiled to Ansbach after Zweibrücken had been taken by the French. In Ansbach, Maximilian von Montgelas wrote an elaborate concept for the future political organization of Bavaria, which is known as the Ansbacher Mémoire.[5] In 1806, Napoleon forced Prussia to cede Ansbach and its principality to Bavaria.[2] The act was confirmed by the 1815 Congress of Vienna;[2] Prussia was compensated with the Bavarian duchy of Berg.[citation needed] Ansbach became the capital of the circle of Middle Franconia following the unification of Germany; at the time, it had a population of 12,635.[2]

Jewish families were resident in Ansbach from at least the end of the 18th century. They set up a Jewish Cemetery in the Ruglaender Strasse, which was vandalised and razed under the Nazi tyranny. It was repaired in 1946, but it was damaged several times more. A plaque on the wall of the cemetery commemorates these events. The Jewish Congregation built its synagogue at No 3 Rosenbadstrasse, but it too was damaged by the SA, though it was not burnt down for fear of damaging the neighbouring buildings. It serves today as a "Symbolic House of God". A plaque in the entrance serves as a memorial to the synagogue and to Jewish residents who were murdered during the Holocaust.[6] In 1940, at least 500 patients were deported from the Heil- und Pflegeanstalt Ansbach [Ansbach Medical and Nursing Clinic] to the extermination facilities Sonnenstein and Hartheim which were disguised as psychiatric institutions, as part of the Action T4 euthanasia action. They were gassed there. At the clinic in Ansbach itself, around 50 intellectually disabled children were injected with the drug Luminal and killed that way. A plaque was erected in their memory in 1988 in the local hospital at No. 38 Feuchtwangerstrasse.[6]

During World War II, a subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was located here.[7] Also during the Second World War the Luftwaffe and Wehrmacht had bases here. The nearby airbase was the home station for the Stab & I/KG53 (Staff & 1st Group of Kampfgeschwader 53) operating 38 Heinkel He 111 bombers. On 1 September 1939 this unit was one of the many that participated in the attack on Poland that started the war. All of its bridges were destroyed during the course of the war. During the Western Allied invasion of Germany in April 1945, the airfield was seized by the United States Third Army, and used by the USAAF 354th Fighter Group which flew P-47 Thunderbolts from the aerodrome (designated ALG R-82) from late April until the German capitulation on 7 May 1945.[8][9][10] At the end of the war, 19-year old student Robert Limpert tried to get the town to surrender to the US Forces without a fight. He was betrayed by Hitler Youth and was hung from the portal of the City Hall by the city's military commander, Col. (Oberst) Ernst Meyer. Several memorials to his heroic deed have been erected over the years, despite opposition from some residents — in the Ludwigskirche, in the Gymnasium Carolinum and at No 6 Kronenstrasse.[6] After the Second World War, Ansbach belonged to the American Zone. The American Military authorities established a displaced persons (DP) camp in what used to be a sanatorium in what is today the Strüth quarter.[6]

Bachwoche Ansbach has been held in Ansbach since 1947. Since 1970, Ansbach has enlarged its municipal area by incorporating adjacent communities. Ansbach hosts several units of the U.S. armed forces, associated with German units under NATO. There are five separate U.S. installations: Shipton Kaserne, home to 412th Aviation Support Battalion, Katterbach Kaserne, formally the home of the 1st Infantry Division's 4th Combat Aviation Brigade, which has been replaced by the 12th Combat Aviation Brigade as of 2006, as part of the 1st Infantry Division's return to Fort Riley, Kansas; Bismarck Kaserne, which functions as a satellite post to Katterbach, hosting their Post Theater, barracks, Von Steuben Community Center, Military Police, and other support agencies, Barton Barracks, home to the USAG Ansbach and Bleidorn Barracks, which has a library and housing, and Urlas, which hosts the Post Exchange as well as a housing area opened in 2010. Ansbach was also home to the headquarters of the 1st Armored Division (United States) from 1972 to the early 1990s.[11]

Boroughs[edit]

Sights[edit]

Climate[edit]

Climate in this area has mild dfferences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen climate classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[12]

Climate data for Ansbach
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1
(33)
3
(37)
7
(45)
12
(53)
17
(62)
19
(67)
22
(71)
22
(71)
18
(65)
13
(55)
6
(42)
2
(36)
11.8
(53.1)
Average low °C (°F) −3
(27)
−2
(28)
1
(33)
3
(38)
8
(46)
11
(52)
13
(55)
13
(55)
9
(49)
6
(42)
1
(34)
−1
(30)
4.9
(40.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 38
(1.5)
38
(1.5)
33
(1.3)
30
(1.2)
58
(2.3)
61
(2.4)
66
(2.6)
94
(3.7)
46
(1.8)
50
(2)
30
(1.2)
56
(2.2)
600
(23.7)
Source: Weatherbase[13]

Economy[edit]

Around the time of the unification of Germany, the chief manufactures of Ansbach were woolen, cotton, and half-silk goods; earthenware; tobacco; cutlery; and playing cards. A considerable trade in grain, wool, and flax was also supported.[2] By the onset of the First World War, it also produced machinery, toys, and embroidery.[14]

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Ansbach is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). 31 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h EB (1878).
  3. ^ Carlyle, Thomas (2010). The Works of Thomas Carlyle. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 9781108022354. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  4. ^ Spaltro, Kathleen et al. (2005). Royals of England: A Guide for Readers, Travelers, and Genealogists. iUniverse. p. 262. ISBN 9780595373123. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  5. ^ ?
  6. ^ a b c d de:Ansbach
  7. ^ Christine O'Keefe. Concentration Camps.
  8. ^ 354 Operations Group Fact Sheet, USAFHRA
  9. ^ USAAF Airfields in the ETO
  10. ^ AAF Airfields in France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
  11. ^ ?
  12. ^ Climate Summary for Ansbach
  13. ^ "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013.  Retrieved on July 6, 2013.
  14. ^ EB (1911).
  15. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963. 
Bibliography

External links[edit]