Antelope Valley

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Antelope Valley
Antelope valley californie.jpg
A truck passes eastbound along Highway 58 through the Antelope Valley
Antelope Valley is located in California
Antelope Valley
Antelope Valley
Location in California
Area2,200 square miles (5,698 km2)
Geography
LocationCalifornia, United States
Population centersPalmdale and Lancaster
Borders onVictor Valley, Great Basin (east); San Gabriel Mountains (south); Tehachapis (northwest); Sierra Pelona Mountains (west)
Coordinates34°45′05″N 118°15′08″W / 34.751371°N 118.252297°W / 34.751371; -118.252297Coordinates: 34°45′05″N 118°15′08″W / 34.751371°N 118.252297°W / 34.751371; -118.252297
Traversed byState Route 14, State Route 58, State Route 138

The Antelope Valley is located in northern Los Angeles County, California, and the southeast portion of Kern County, California, and constitutes the western tip of the Mojave Desert.[1] It is situated between the Tehachapi, Sierra Pelona, and the San Gabriel Mountains.[2] The valley was named for the pronghorns that roamed there until they were all but eliminated in the 1880s, mostly by hunting, or resettled in other areas.[2][3] The principal cities in the Antelope Valley are Palmdale and Lancaster.

Geography[edit]

The Antelope Valley comprises the western tip of the Mojave Desert, opening up to the Victor Valley and the Great Basin to the east. Lying north of the San Gabriel Mountains, southeast of the Tehachapis, and east of the Sierra Pelona Mountains, this desert ecosystem spans approximately 2,200 square miles (5,698 km2). The valley is bounded by the Garlock and San Andreas fault systems. Precipitation in the surrounding mountain ranges contributes to groundwater recharge.

Flora and fauna[edit]

Joshua trees in snow, near Lancaster, California

The Antelope Valley is home to a wide range of plants and animals. This includes hundreds of plants such as the California Juniper, Joshua tree, California Scrub Oak, Creosote, and wildflowers, notably the California poppy. Winter brings much-needed rain which slowly penetrates the area's dry ground, bringing up native grasses and wildflowers. Poppy season depends completely on the precipitation, but a good bloom can be killed off by the unusual weather in the late winter and early spring months.

The Antelope Valley gets its name from its history of pronghorn grazing in large numbers. In 1882-85, the valley lost 30,000 head of antelope, almost half of the species for which it was named.[3] Unusually heavy snows in both the mountains and the valley floor drove the antelope toward their normal feeding grounds in the eastern part of the valley. Since they would not cross the railroad tracks, many of them starved to death. The remainder of these pronghorn were hunted for their fur by settlers. Once abundant, they either died off or migrated into the Central Valley. A drought in the early 1900s caused a scarcity in bunch grass, their main food source. Now the sighting of a pronghorn is rare, although there are still a small number in the western portion of the valley

Common game species in the Antelope Valley include mule deer and mountain quail. Other common species in the Antelope Valley include the golden-mantled ground squirrel, Beechey ground squirrel, red-tailed hawk, Cooper's hawk, Stellar's jay, leopard frog and rattlesnake.

Water issues[edit]

Human water use in the Antelope Valley depends mainly on pumping of groundwater from the valley's aquifers and on importing additional water from the California Aqueduct. Long-term groundwater pumping has lowered the water table, thereby increasing pumping lifts, reducing well efficiency, and causing land subsidence.[4]

While aqueducts supply additional water that meets increasing human demand for agricultural, industrial, and domestic uses, diversion of water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in northern California has caused and causes adverse environmental and social effects in the delta:

"Over decades, [the] competing uses for water supply and habitat have jeopardized the Delta's ability to meet either need. All stakeholders agree the estuary is in trouble and requires long-term solutions to ensure reliable, quality water supplies and a healthy ecosystem."[5]

The Antelope Valley's population growth and development place considerable stress on the local and regional water systems. According to David Leighton of the United States Geological Survey (USGS):

"A deliberate management effort will be required to meet future water demand in the Antelope Valley without incurring significant economic and environmental costs associated with overuse of the ground-water resource."[6]

Human history[edit]

A Kawaiisu family

The first peoples of the Antelope Valley include the Kawaiisu,[7][unreliable source?] Kitanemuk, Serrano, and Tataviam. Europeans first entered in the 1770s, during the colonization of North America. Father Francisco Garces, a Spanish Franciscan friar, is believed to have traveled the west end of the valley in 1776. The Spanish established El Camino Viejo through the western part of the valley between Los Angeles and the missions of the San Francisco Bay in the 1780s. By 1808, the Spanish had moved the native people out of the valley and into missions.[8]

Jedediah Smith came through in 1827, and John C. Fremont made a scientific observation of the valley in 1844. After Fremont's visit the 49ers crossed the valley via the Old Tejon Pass into the San Joaquin Valley on their way to the gold fields. Later, a better wagon road, the Stockton – Los Angeles Road route to Tejon Pass, followed in 1854. Stagecoach lines across the southern foothills came through the valley along this wagon road, and were the preferred method for travelers before the coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1876. The rail service linking the valley to the Central Valley and Los Angeles started its first large influx of white settlers, and farms and towns soon sprouted on the valley floor. The aircraft (now called aerospace) industry took hold in the valley at Plant 42 in 1952. Edwards AFB, then called Muroc Army Air Field, was established in 1933.

Demographics[edit]

In recent decades the valley has become a bedroom community to the Greater Los Angeles area.[9] Major housing tract development and population growth took off beginning in 1983, which has increased the population of Palmdale around 12 times its former size as of 2006. Neighboring Lancaster has increased its population since the early 1980s to around three times its former level. Major retail has followed the population influx, centered on Palmdale's Antelope Valley Mall. The Antelope Valley is home to over 475,000 people.[10] Non-Hispanic whites make up approximately 48% of the population of the Antelope Valley and form a majority or plurality in most of its cities and towns. Hispanics are the next largest group, followed by African Americans and Asian Americans.

Some long-term residents living far out in the desert have been cited by Los Angeles County's nuisance abatement teams for code violations, forcing residents to either make improvements or move. One of the properties is a church building which was used as a filming location for Kill Bill. The code enforcers have arrived on some of their visits in SWAT team formats.[11]

Military base[edit]

Discovery (STS-128) touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, 2009

Edwards Air Force Base lies east of Rosamond, 37 miles (60 km) northeast of Palmdale. Edwards AFB's dry lakebeds are the lowest geographic elevation in the valley. Significant amounts of U.S. military flight testing are performed there, and it has been the site of many important aeronautical accomplishments, including the first flight to break the sound barrier, accomplished by Chuck Yeager.[citation needed]

NASA space shuttles originally landed at Edwards because the lake beds offer a vast landing area. Although NASA later built a landing strip at Kennedy Space Center, Edwards was retained as the backup in case of bad weather at Cape Canaveral.[citation needed]

NASA Neil A. Armstrong Flight Research Center is a tenant organization at Edwards AFB. The center is best known for the X-15 experimental rocket ship program. It has been the home of NASA's high-performance aircraft research since it was founded for the X-1 program. The Space Shuttle Orbiter was serviced there when it landed at Edwards.[citation needed]

Industry[edit]

Aerospace[edit]

SpaceShipOne (Flight 15P) landing at Mojave Air & Space Port (June 21, 2004)

U. S. Air Force Plant 42 in northeast Palmdale is home to Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Northrop Grumman, and BAE Systems, among other aerospace-related companies. Notable projects assembled and/or designed there include the Space Shuttle orbiters, B-1 Lancer bomber, B-2 Spirit bomber, F-117 Nighthawk fighter, F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, and the Lockheed L-1011 Tristar, a passenger jet aircraft.

This region also houses the newly dedicated Mojave Air & Space Port. The spaceport is famous as the base of operations for Scaled Composites, the company that designed SpaceShipOne and won the X-Prize.

Much of the work done at these facilities is performed in coordination with Edwards Air Force Base and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (see above), from the creation and testing of proof-of-concept X-planes, to Space Shuttle operations, to the manufacturing and integration and testing of new military aviation equipment.

Agriculture[edit]

The valley's first main industry as a part of the United States was agriculture. Historically known in the region for its extensive alfalfa fields and fruit crops, farmers now are growing a wider variety of crops, such as carrots, onions, lettuce, and potatoes. As housing tracts continue to build in the middle of the valley, the farm operations are found farther to the west and east sides than in earlier decades.

Electricity generation[edit]

The Alta Wind Energy Center in northern Antelope Valley

The northern reaches of Antelope Valley is notable for being part of the Tehachapi Wind Resource Area, the largest wind resource area in California. The valley is also home to numerous solar farms, some of which are among the largest in the United States.

Manufacturing[edit]

  • U.S. Pole Company Inc.
  • Senior Systems Technology
  • Delta Scientific
  • Lance Camper Manufacturing Corporation
  • Harvest Farms Inc.
  • BYD

Mining[edit]

The world's largest open-pit borax mine is located near Boron.

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

High schools[edit]

There are also several private and home school high schools in the area, most notably:

School districts[edit]

Culture[edit]

The Antelope Valley Symphony Orchestra is a professional ensemble that performs four concerts each year at the Lancaster Performing Arts Center. It is an auxiliary of Antelope Valley College, and performs regularly with the Antelope Valley College Civic Orchestra.

In popular culture[edit]

Antelope Valley Indian Museum State Historic Park has been featured in films such as The Magnificent Seven Ride! (1972) and The Stone Killer (1973). Mackenna's Gold (1964) was also partly filmed in Antelope Valley.[16] The video to the R.E.M. song "Man on the Moon" was shot in Antelope Valley in October 1992.[17]

Parks[edit]

Hospitals[edit]

Major hospitals include:

The Antelope Valley was formerly served by a county hospital, High Desert Hospital, which was converted into an urgent care clinic in 2003 due to the county's budget problems. As a result, indigent patients with serious but non-life-threatening medical conditions must seek treatment at Olive View – UCLA Medical Center in Sylmar, which is over 50 miles (80 km) away.[citation needed]

Transportation[edit]

Major highways and roads[edit]

Include:

On the ridgeline of the San Gabriel Mountains, the Angeles Crest Highway (State Route 2) snakes 60 miles (100 km) through the Angeles National Forest to La Cañada Flintridge and the Greater Los Angeles metropolitan region.

Rail[edit]

  • Union Pacific serves the Antelope Valley with freight service on their route between Palmdale and Mojave, with continuing service to points south, southeast and north. BNSF Railway serves Mojave with freight service to/from the east, and to/from Richmond, California to the northwest.
  • Metrolink passenger rail service to the Los Angeles Basin and other parts of Southern California provides service to Antelope Valley commuters at its Lancaster, Palmdale, and Vincent Grade/Acton stations.
  • Amtrak passenger rail service has a commuter bus that stops at the Palmdale Transportation Center and the Lancaster Metrolink station, connecting Antelope Valley residents to the national rail network.
  • The California High-Speed Rail authority has designated Palmdale as a stop on the future rail line between San Francisco and San Diego.

Bus[edit]

Airports[edit]

  • Palmdale Regional Airport, co-sited with USAF Plant 42 is by far the largest and busiest airport in the valley and is owned by the City of Palmdale via Palmdale Airport Authority (it was previously owned by Los Angeles World Airports which owns and operates LAX up until 2013). Although mostly military flights occur at this airport, it also has an unused commercial terminal.
  • General William J. Fox Airfield in Lancaster is the valley's busiest general aviation airport. It is the fourth largest airport in the valley. Charter air service and helicopter rides are available. This airport also has the valley's only aviation school.
  • Inyokern Airport in Inyokern, near Ridgecrest, is a large general aviation airport with limited commercial airline service to Los Angeles International Airport, serving the northern Antelope Valley and Indian Wells Valley communities. Charter service is also available. It is the area's third largest airport.
  • Mojave Air & Space Port in Mojave is a large civil aviation center and the second largest airport in the valley. Voyager and SpaceShipOne were developed and flown from its location.
  • Mountain Valley Airport in Tehachapi is a gliderport, privately owned but open to the public, which offers glider training for civilian and military pilots
  • Tehachapi Municipal Airport in Tehachapi is a small general aviation airport.
  • Agua Dulce Airpark in Agua Dulce is a medium-sized general aviation airport.
  • Rosamond Skypark Airport in Rosamond is a small general aviation airport, privately owned and operated.
  • California City Municipal Airport in California City is a small general aviation airport.
  • Crystalaire Airport in Llano is a small airstrip principally dedicated to glider flights.

Notable people[edit]

Some people of note have spent time in the valley, including:

See also Aerospace Walk of Honor - downtown Lancaster sidewalk tribute to the U. S. Air Force flight test community.

Cities and communities[edit]

Cities over 100,000 population[edit]

  • Lancaster (population as of 2018, 159,053) - incorporated in 1977
  • Palmdale (population as of 2018, 156,667) - incorporated in 1962

Cities less than 100,000 population[edit]

Unincorporated towns and districts[edit]

Over 10,000 population

Under 10,000 population

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Antelope Valley". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  2. ^ a b Dale Pitt (2000). "Antelope Valley". Los Angeles A to Z: an encyclopedia of the city and county. University of California Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-520-20530-7.
  3. ^ a b William Bright; Erwin Gustav Gudde (30 November 1998). 1500 California place names: their origin and meaning. University of California Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-520-21271-8. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  4. ^ Ikehara, Marti E. and Phillips, Steven P. (1994) Determination of Land Subsidence Related to Ground-Water Level Declines Using Global Positioning System and Leveling Surveys in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles and Kern Counties, California, 1992 Archived 2014-04-21 at the Wayback Machine, Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4184, United States Geological Survey
  5. ^ "State Water Project - Delta". archive.org. 7 July 2007. Archived from the original on 7 July 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  6. ^ "Antelope Valley Ground-water study". archive.org. 23 September 2006. Archived from the original on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  7. ^ "Kawaiisu Tribe of Tejon, Southern California Native American Art and History". 5 May 2008. Archived from the original on 5 May 2008.
  8. ^ "Antelope Valley Frequently Asked Questions: 16. What Indians lived here?", County of Los Angeles Public Library: Lancaster Library, archived from the original on 2017-11-07, retrieved 2007-02-14
  9. ^ Peevers, Andrea Schulte Lonely Planet, California, 3rd Ed. ISBN 9781864503319, p.476
  10. ^ Karlamangla, Soumya (March 10, 2017). "The life-and-death stakes of an Affordable Care Act repeal in one of L.A. County's poorest, sickest regions". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  11. ^ Melnicoff, Mars (2011-09-16). "L A County's Private Property War". :A Weekly News. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
  12. ^ University of Antelope Valley (2011–2012).Master's degree Academic Catalog, p. 5. Lancaster, California: University of Antelope Valley "in-house publishing" Retrieved, Sunday, April 15, 2012 from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-22. Retrieved 2012-04-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ About Sandra. (2012). Retrieved, Sunday, April 15, 2012, from http://votesandrajohnson.com/about_sandra[permanent dead link]
  14. ^ Stallworth, Leo "University of Antelope Valley pays employers for jobs" (c)KABC-TV/DT. Friday, September 09, 2011. Retrieved, April 15, 2012.
  15. ^ Stallworth, Leo. "Antelope university pays employers for jobs". ABC7 Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  16. ^ Maddrey, Joseph (2016). The Quick, the Dead and the Revived: The Many Lives of the Western Film. McFarland. Page 173. ISBN 9781476625492.
  17. ^ R.E.M.'s official Twitter account
  18. ^ "Guide to the Ezra M. Hamilton Collection, 1833-1914". www.oac.cdlib.org. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2018.

External links[edit]